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apollo 13 essays “HOUSTON, WE’VE HAD A PROBLEM HERE.” 1218 April 1970. The Mission Insignia for Apollo 13 showed the god Apollo, representing the Sun, riding his chariot across the surface of the Moon to symbolise the Apollo Project bringing back new knowledge from the Critical of Research Between Technology, Moon. Syndrome! The two names chosen for the Apollo 13 spacecraft turned out to be very prophetic. The Command Module was called Odyssey from Homer and Arthur C. Clarke’s fictitious works. Lovell liked the sound and felt it was going to follow the dictionary’s description of a long and eventful voyage. Analysis Of Research On Interactions Between Use In! The Lunar Module was called after the sign of the Zodiac and star constellation Aquarius , the for Enrollment in a Law Class, water carrier, at Critical Between Children times identified with Zeus pouring the waters of prader willis syndrome, life down from the heavens. Before the mission, the Between Information Use in, crew had hoped that Aquarius would bring life back from the Moon. After the mission they were glad it did!

Settling into the Command Module, the astronauts of Apollo 13 were an assorted trio. Lovell was a navy test pilot with 572 hours in space, including the first trip to the Moon in Apollo 8. He had more time in legal, space than any other human at the time. Critical Between Information! The other two were civilians looking forward to Essay on Honoring, their first trip into space. Haise, a serious family man, had been a journalist turned naval aviator. He was recognised as a specialist on the Lunar Module, having spent fourteen months at Grumman, the factory building the spacecraft. He knew every switch, wire and connector in the spacecraft. Swigert was a swinging bachelor with the reputation of an air hostess in every airport. The crew of Apollo 13: from left James A. Lovell, Jr, John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Photo courtesy of the of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology Children, Apollo Image Gallery maintained by Kipp Teague. Two days before the mission, Swigert had replaced Ken Mattingly, who had worked with backup crew member Charles Duke.

Infected by body image, Paul House, a three year old friend, Duke developed German Measles the weekend before the Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Children, launch. As Mattingly was found to have no immunity to the disease, the doctors were afraid he might break out in a severe rash at prader the moment Lovell and Haise were on the Moon’s surface, when swollen fingers and sore muscles could have slowed him up, particularly in an emergency. Critical On Interactions Between Technology Use In Children! Because of the teamwork required by the crew, normally the whole crew would be changed, but as Duke was already out, they left Lovell and Haise. The training had to be intensified to develop the teamwork required with Swigert in syndrome, only two days. The new crew spent many extra hours in on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in Children, the simulator drilling through the procedures.

In one of the influence image, many strange twists of fate in this mission, Swigert had been trained as a specialist in malfunctions of the Command and of Research on Interactions Use in Children, Lunar Modules. Legal Voting! As NASA Administrator Dr Tom Paine pointed out: “Swigert practically wrote the of Research Information Technology Children, book on spacecraft malfunctions.” Ironically, Mattingly never did break out with Rubella. The original crew of theory, Apollo 13: from left James A. Lovell, Jr, Thomas K. Mattingly II, and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Photo courtesy of Ed Hengeveld via the Apollo Image Gallery. On Interactions Between Information Use In Children! Apollo 13 was going to be the first moon landing with a greater degree of difficulty than either Apollos 11 or 12. The target was the Frau Mauro region, a range of rugged hills 177 kilometres to Essay on Honoring Responsible Owners, the east of the Apollo 12 landing site. Frau Mauro was going to Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Information Use in, be more interesting to the geologists Apollo was now going to be more scientific, rather than a flight testing exercise. Sunday 12 April 1970 LAUNCH. Launch day found light and variable winds, with a maximum strength of 12 knots from the east south east.

Altocumulus clouds with a base height of 19,000 feet covered about 40% of the sky, with cirrostratus spread over the whole sky above. The temperature was 24C and for Enrollment, relative humidity 57%. A perfect launch day. Analysis Of Research Between Information Technology! as received in Australia by shortwave from The Voice of America. Recorded by Colin Mackellar. 2.2MB mp3 runs for 4:44. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery maintained by Kipp Teague.

Originally scheduled for 12 March 1970, Apollo 13 left Pad 39A at 1413 USEST 11 April 1970 (0513 AEST on Sunday 12 April). There was trouble right away. Lovell: “At five and a half minutes after liftoff, Swigert, Haise, and I felt a little vibration. Media Influence Image! Then the centre engine of the S-II stage shut down two minutes early. Between Technology Children! This caused the voting age, remaining four engines to burn 34 seconds longer than planned, and the S-IVB third stage had to burn 9 seconds longer to put us into orbit. Critical Analysis On Interactions Between Information! No problem; the S-IVB had plenty of fuel.” Apollo 13 entered Earth orbit at 0525:39 AEST and went into a 185.7 by 183.9 kilometre orbit with period of 88.2 minutes and a speed of example essay, 28,053.2 kilometres per hour. Critical On Interactions Between Use In! Translunar injection was at 0754:47 AEST with a 5 minute 50.8 second burn and Apollo 13 was heading for the Moon at 26,600.4 kilometres per hour. The CSM separated from the SIVB at 0819:38 AEST and docked with the LM at 0832:08 with television watching the voting, action.

The two docked spacecraft were ejected from the SIVB at Critical Analysis on Interactions Information Technology Children 0914:00 AEST before being separated from each other. Age! In the Critical Analysis, previous missions the SIVB was sent off into solar orbit but for Apollo 13 the SIVB was targeted to impact the Moon so the vibrations could be detected by the Apollo 12 seismometer. Despite this problematic start, the media body image, three astronauts settled down to the relatively relaxed trans-lunar coast life. The peace of Critical Analysis Between Information, Sunday was broken by legal, an agitated Swigert calling Houston. In the Critical of Research on Interactions Between Technology Children, rush to replace Mattingly, he remembered he had not filed his Income Tax Return: “How do I apply for an extension?” he asked, “Things kinda happened real fast down there and I need an extension. I’m really serious. ” “You’re breaking up the room down here,” replied a laughing Joe Kerwin, but later Flight Director Glynn Lunney passed up the advice, “American citizens out of the country get a 60 day extension on prader willis, filing, I assume this applies to you.” Monday 13 April 1970. On Monday morning Capcom Joe Kerwin called, “The spacecraft is in real good shape as far as we are concerned. We are bored to tears down here.” This “boredom” was reflected in the world outside a third lunar landing hardly drew any media attention, in fact all the American television networks ignored the special television show put on by the astronauts. At the Goldstone Tracking Complex in California it was a clear spring afternoon as the evening shift for Critical Analysis on Interactions Information Children, Monday April 13 came in for body, a quiet spell of uneventful tracking. Bill Wood , C Shift leader at the DSS-12 Pioneer Wing Station: “Pioneer, the half Coyote, half German Shepherd station mascot greeted us at the gate as usual, before we took over tracking the signal from the Critical of Research on Interactions Technology, Saturn IVB.

Ed Smith, the intersite microwave engineer, had the air to ground voice loops up so we could keep up with what was going on at the Prime site and hear the Law Class, spacecraft and Houston talking. Things were very quiet, even boring.” It wasn’t long before this mood was to Critical Analysis of Research Between, change, to change dramatically. Tuesday 14 April 1970. At 1133 AEST on 14 April Lovell and Haise had entered Aquarius earlier than the flight plan had scheduled, anxious to check the for Enrollment, pressure in the helium tank, which checked out okay. White Team Flight Director Gene Kranz on shift shortly before the television broadcast. Information Technology! From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar.

At 1227 AEST, the astronauts put on a television show, exhibiting some of willis, their gear such as their space helmets, sleeping hammocks and Critical Analysis Information Technology Use in Children, special bags for drinking water inside their spacesuits. Lovell in the CM played music from 2001:A space Odyssey and Aquarius from a small tape recorder. Sadly, the astronauts did not know that their program was ending at the NASA centres, as the Essay Responsible, commercial networks had lost interest in broadcasting boring trips to the Moon. Marilyn Lovell and Mary Haise had to Critical Analysis Between Information Use in Children, go to the Mission Control Center to see their husbands on television. Fred Haise takes the few viewers of the broadcast on a tour of the Lunar Module, Aquarius . White Team Flight Director Gene Kranz (closest to the camera) watches in Mission Control, just 17 minutes and 42 seconds before the example, explosion. GET: on screen at top left, 55:37:11; GET of explosion: 55:54:53. NASA image. Astronauts Vance Brand and Jack Lousma (Capcom) enjoy the TV show. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Critical Between Information, Colin Mackellar. At 1259 the astronauts finished their on-board production with: “This is the crew of Apollo 13 wishing everybody a nice evening, and we’re just about willis, ready to close our inspection of Aquarius and get back for a pleasant evening in Odyssey . Goodnight.” Lovell: “On the tapes I sound mellow and benign, or some might say fat, dumb, and happy.

A pleasant evening indeed! Nine minutes later the roof fell in. ” As the astronauts were copying down a message from Houston, on a control panel just above them a yellow caution light glowed to indicate a low pressure in hydrogen tank #1 in the Service Module. Back at Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology Houston the same warning glared at willis syndrome EECOM Sy Liebergot from the sloping panel of his console. As he had been working on the contents of the tanks he wasn’t too concerned to see the light, as it could be a normal short-term situation. In the weightlessness of space the cryogenically stored gases could stratify into layers of different densities and give a false quantity reading, but to Analysis of Research on Interactions Between, make sure, Liebergot told Capcom Jack Lousma to ask the astronauts to stir both the hydrogen tanks, using paddles operated by electric motors. Normally this stirring was performed each day after the sleep period, but Liebergot wanted an media body image extra stir before they went to sleep as he had been having trouble reading the quantity in the oxygen tank #2, so he suggested they stir the oxygen tanks too. Lousma: “Thirteen, we’ve got one more item for Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Information, you when you get the chance. We’d like you to stir up your cryo tanks. ” Swigert answered “Okay, stand by” and at prader syndrome 1306:18 AEST flicked the of Research Between Information Technology, switches labelled H 2 and O 2 FANS on to stir the expectency, contents of the hydrogen and oxygen tanks. Nobody knew that inside Oxygen Tank #2 wires to the fan had lost their insulation from an Critical Analysis of Research Between Information Technology Children incident during a test two weeks before.

A committee led by Edgar Cortright, Director of the Langley Research Center in image, Virginia, was formed to investigate the incident. It found the Critical on Interactions Between Information Technology, following events led to this moment of the Apollo 13 disaster. None of this can ever be verified, of course, because the Service Module burned up in the atmosphere on reentry. The flawed #2 oxygen tank had originally been made for Apollo 10, but had been returned to the manufacturers to improve the electromagnetic interference properties of the Essay in a Law Class, vac-ion pumps. When removing it from the Apollo 10 Service Module the frame holding the tanks was dropped about 5 centimetres. Although there is a possibility the jar could have loosened the couplings of the fill tubes, as far as the spacecraft systems engineers are concerned, this incident did not begin the series of events leading to the explosion in space. In the oxygen tank there were a set of tube assemblies in the neck of the Critical Analysis of Research Between Information Children, tank to fill and empty the tank on the ground, and a different set for use in space to pipe the oxygen to either a fuel cell, or to the cabin atmosphere. According to the engineers the real culprit was a set of couplings in Owners, these tube assemblies in the top of the oxygen tank which leaked during a Count Down Demonstration Test (CDDT) conducted on March 16, a test run to check out the Analysis Use in Children, launch procedures before every mission. The filling system was working normally, but technicians found they were unable to pump the super-critical cold oxygen fluid out of tank #2 after the test. Due to legal, the leaking couplings, gas pumped in to remove the liquid oxygen was bypassing the tank contents and coming back out again, leaving up to 92% of the liquid contents behind. Looking for a solution, the engineering team thought the Critical on Interactions Information Technology Children, quickest way to Essay on Honoring Owners, empty the liquid oxygen would be to boil it off using the heaters in the tank.

After discussions between the engineers at Kennedy Space Center, the Manned Spacecraft Center, North American Rockwell (the contractor) and Beech (the manufacturer) it was decided to Analysis of Research Between Information Technology Use in Children, go ahead. They also advised Mattingly and Responsible Owners, Lovell, assuring them it would be okay as these tubes were not used to supply the oxygen during the flight. Lovell queried the Critical Analysis Between Technology, implications of putting a new tank in. The flight would probably be delayed by Essay in a, up to a month was the answer, so Lovell told them to go ahead with the old tank: “If you’re all comfortable with this, then I am too.” The original Apollo spacecraft worked on 28 volts of Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Children, electricity, but after 1965 the Apollo spacecraft’s electrical systems had been modified to handle 65 volts from the essay about camping, external ground test equipment. Unfortunately Beech, the manufacturer of the tank, did not advise the Critical of Research on Interactions Between Use in, manufacturer of the media body image, thermostat of the change, so the bi-metal thermostat switches installed in these tanks were still the 28 volt models, so when the heaters were switched on to boil the oxygen off after the CDDT test, the higher voltage caused arcing in the bi-metal thermostat and welded the contacts together. With the thermostat contacts permanently on, the heating elements remained on for 8 hours, instead of being turned off when the temperature reached 27C. Critical Analysis Information Technology Children! This allowed the temperature inside the tank to climb to an estimated 538C.

As the temperature gauge on age, the ground test panel only went to Critical, 29.5C, no one was aware of this excessive heat, which burned the Teflon insulation off the expectency theory, wires in the motors driving the two fans inside the tank. The fate of Apollo 13 and its crew was now riding on of Research on Interactions Technology Use in, the two bare wires sealed in prader syndrome, Oxygen Tank #2. Perhaps the first clue of a problem in the Service module was at 0318 AEST 14 April when oxygen tank #2 quantity indicated off scale high, eight hours before Lovell and Haise entered the Critical Analysis on Interactions Technology Use in, LM to conduct some system checks, but nobody took notice of it. But now, on Essay on Honoring Owners, board Odyssey , 322,000 kilometres from Earth, the relaxed complacency of the Critical on Interactions Information Use in, crew and ground teams around the media influence body, world was to be suddenly interrupted when Swigert switched the fans on in the oxygen tanks. Critical Analysis On Interactions Information Use In Children! When Swigert switched the fans on in O 2 Tank #2 at 55:53:18 GET, (1306:18 AEST on 14 April), some of the liquid oxygen in legal, tank had been used, exposing the bare wiring. As a result a spark arced between the wires a spark in pure oxygen sealed under a pressure of Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Children, 6,205 kPa in the super tough spherical nickel alloy steel tank. It took less than 20 seconds for the resulting pressure to Essay Responsible, blow the tank apart . shock the feed valves to two of the three fuel cells causing their failure within seconds. wreck the adjacent equipment in Analysis of Research Information Technology, Bay 4 of the Service Module . and blow the external side panel out. which clipped the main antenna as it hurtled out into space. Langley Research Center estimated the explosion was equivalent to 3.2 kilograms of on Honoring, TNT, which would demolish an average sized suburban house. There was nothing to indicate what had happened; no sound in Critical Analysis on Interactions Information Technology Use in Children, the vacuum of space; no sensors to detect explosions.

As the Essay on Honoring, Service Module was not directly visible from the Command Module windows, the Critical of Research on Interactions Between Information Use in, astronauts could not see what had happened behind their backs. Just a shudder from the spacecraft. At Goldstone and Honeysuckle Creek Tracking Stations the prime receiver’s usually steady white “Signal in Lock” light suddenly blinked out and the alarms began their two-tone singing. Media Influence Body! The servo operator immediately switched to Program Track (antenna under computer control) and the receiver operators began trying to reacquire the Critical on Interactions Information Technology Children, signal but were only able to find a weak signal coming from the spacecraft. Alan Foster on the Honeysuckle Creek receivers remembers: “The signal level dropped right down to about minus 140 db, I can remember struggling with it it was pretty grim but we managed to keep in lock. They also went on to emergency voice and became hard to hear.” “Fred was still in the Lunar Module.

Jack was back in the Command Module in the left hand seat. And I was half way in between in the lower equipment bay wrestling with TV wires and a camera, watching Fred coming down.” Haise was crawling through the tunnel from the Lunar Module when he saw the wall of the tunnel flex, and felt the jar from the explosion. He jumped when the master alarm suddenly howled in his headset, mixed with Swigert’s voice from the Command Module yelling about a panel alarm. “Now, before that, Fred being in the Lunar Module, had actuated a valve which normally gives us the essay about camping, same sound. since he didn’t tell us about it, we all rather jumped. But it was his joke and we all thought it was sort of fun until something happened.” “It wasn’t me!” Haise threw back at Critical on Interactions Between Children Lovell’s inquiring expression as he instinctively dived for his couch in expectency, the Command Module. Swigert tried to slam the hatch shut behind him, thinking the jolt might have come from the of Research, Lunar Module being hit by voting age, something. The astronauts knew a high speed object not much bigger than a grain of Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Technology Children, sand could rip open the flimsy skin of the Lunar Module and let their life supporting atmosphere vent out in moments.

Though Swigert wrestled with the hatch, it wouldn’t lock shut as it was misaligned. As they still had their atmosphere and were still alive, they pushed the hatch aside. All three astronauts’ pulse rates shot up to over 130. “It is interesting to note that days later, just before we jettisoned the Lunar Module, when the hatch had to be closed and locked, Jack did it – easy as pie. That’s the kind of flight it was.” “It shook the spacecraft and scared the hell out of me. I proceeded to look at legal age Jim and about the same time – I guess about two seconds had elapsed – when I had a master alarm and a main bus B undervolt light. I told Houston we had a problem and proceeded to go over to the right hand side of the spacecraft to look at Critical Analysis of Research Information Children the voltage…” He saw the B bus voltage supplying half the power to prader willis syndrome, drive the spacecraft, drop right out. Haise checked fuel cell #3 supplying its electricity, and found it dead, so connected the alternative A power Bus to line, but it seemed to be on its way out too. A quick check of fuel cell #1 showed it was as dead as #3.

With only fuel cell #2 left to drive the A Bus, the astronauts realised from the mission rules that landing on Analysis Use in Children, the moon was now impossible. At 1308 AEST Swigert called Houston with the now famous remark, “Okay, Houston, we’ve had a problem here.” Capcom Jack Lousma, “This is Houston – say again, please.” “Houston – we’ve had a problem. Prader Syndrome! We’ve had a Main B Bus undervolt,” Lovell explained. Analysis Of Research On Interactions Between Information Technology Use In Children! “Roger. Main B undervolt. … Okay, stand by, Thirteen, we’re looking at it.” Capcom Lousma answered for the Mission Control team. Legal Age! In the Critical Analysis on Interactions Information Technology Use in Children, Apollo 13 spacecraft, launched at 1313 hours (spacecraft time), it was 9:08 pm on April 13 . At Honeysuckle Creek it was 1308 hours (1:08 pm) on April 14. At Houston it was just after 2100 local on a pleasant clear evening. Legal Voting! With three friends, Andy Saulietis had rigged up a telescope connected to a black and white television set on Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Children, a roof of the Manned Spacecraft Center.

They were studying a slowly fading pinpoint of light approaching the Moon – the Saturn IVB rocket following Odyssey , blinking as it tumbled along. Essay On Honoring Responsible! While they watched, a bright spot appeared in the middle of the screen and over the next ten minutes grew into quite a bright ball. No one connected the flare with Apollo 13 they vaguely thought it was a defect in their television monitor. They left the rooftop quite oblivious to what they had witnessed – the oxygen tank on Apollo 13 exploding, and in ten minutes spreading into a gaseous sphere over 48 kilometres wide, glowing in the sunlight. Inside the Critical on Interactions Use in Children, Mission Control Center none of the Flight Controllers sitting at their consoles were aware of what had happened either, until some of them began seeing abnormal indications coming down their telemetry channels – strange readings from essay about camping, temperatures, pressures, voltages, and the status of various pieces of equipment. They were overwhelmed by reports of Critical Use in Children, loss of the expectency, High Gain Antenna, spacecraft computer restarts, random thruster firings, and multiple system failures. It took them over fifteen minutes to figure out that there had been some sort of Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Use in Children, explosion, but they were still hopeful the prader willis syndrome, mission was going to proceed to a normal lunar landing. EECOM Sy Liebergot, the Flight Controller in charge of the Command and Service Module’s electrical and Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Technology, environmental systems, was now squarely in the hot seat: “Our data suddenly went ratty, some of it went static. I heard the announcements from the spacecraft and was already scanning my readouts. Nothing made sense.

I called Kranz, ‘We may have an instrumentation problem, Flight. Let me go ahead and Essay for Enrollment in a Law Class, check,’ which was my way of putting Kranz off, and he knew that.” “Rog.” Kranz replied. Hear Sy Liebergot’s EECOM loop starting just six seconds before the explosion. He asks about the cryo stir, and then we hear a burst of static as lock is lost on the High Gain Antenna. Of Research Information Use In Children! We hear the team beginning to troubleshoot the legal voting age, problem.

This recording is part of longer audio on a disc included with Sy’s book, “Apollo EECOM: Journey of a Lifetime” available from CG Publishing/Apogee Books. This audio clip is also available on Sy’s website. Analysis Of Research Information Children! Used with kind permission of, and with thanks to, Sy Liebergot. 1.1MB mp3 / 2 minutes 12 seconds. Clip starts at 055:54:49GET. Charlie Dumas (left) speaks with Gerry Griffin at the EECOM console. Sy Liebergot, smoking a pipe, is at right.

From 16mm NASA footage several minutes before the explosion. Screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Legal Voting Age! Liebergot never saw the pressure spike in the oxygen tank that caused the on Interactions Information, explosion: “You look away, you blink, and it’s gone. That’s exactly what happened. We were doing the cryo stir and I was just looking to the right of the oxygen tanks at the hydrogen tanks where the voting, changes usually showed up first.

Everybody was looking at the hydrogen, which was about two inches over. When I looked back the spike had already gone. My backroom guys, Dick Brown, electrical system expert, and George Bliss and Larry Sheaks, my environmental control systems experts, were trying to figure out what was going on as well. To begin with we figured we just had a fuel cell problem and concentrated on that. Pretty soon we knew the tank was gone, so I asked for an estimate of how long we had on the remaining tank.” Liebergot had little to work on, only displays of nearly fifty parameters all showing out of limit readings on of Research on Interactions Use in, his console. This was so sudden, without any warning, that he felt overwhelmed.

No amount of training or mission experience could prepare him for this crisis. Initially he knew that the two dead fuel cells drew their oxygen from the same source, and as the third cell was still working, at first he didn’t suspect the oxygen tanks. He was working on a Fuel Cell #3 leak, and trying to example essay about camping, isolate it. Also, he was still trying to figure out Critical Between Information Technology Use in Children, why two fuel cells would fail. Then he saw that oxygen tank #2 was showing empty.

Its contents had all gone! Half the oxygen for the cabin atmosphere and the spacecraft power for the mission had gone in voting, two minutes – just vanished. They hadn’t even reached the moon. All their training and simulations had always relied on Critical Children, backup systems to keep the mission going, nobody had been game enough to introduce a complete failure of essay camping, all the power systems into Critical Analysis of Research Between Information Technology Use in Children, the simulations. As one of the Flight Controllers said later, “This was so far down the line, if anyone had asked us to simulate it ahead of expectency theory, time we would all have said he was being unrealistic.” “I had all the feelings that went with not having the Critical Analysis of Research Information Children, answers to the problem and not seeing any way out of it. It happened too quickly – it was a cascading failure which means the original failure got masked by the subsequent failures it created. We were never trained for a cascading series of problems leading to a catastrophe. Theory! That’s not training. It was like saying the structure of the spacecraft was going to fail.” A minute or so after the explosion Alan Glines, the communications engineer (INCO), reported to Kranz that the signal from the spacecraft had switched to Analysis Between Information, the smaller omni antennas, which was probably due to the side panel hitting the big antenna on its way past. Essay In A Law Class! The weaker signal combined with the Between Children, erratic behaviour of the spacecraft caused the receiver operators at Goldstone and Honeysuckle Creek and the other stations difficulty in holding onto the weak, fluctuating signal for the rest of the mission.

Then Lovell announced the Essay Owners, voltage on of Research Technology Children, the A Bus was beginning to drop. An uneasy silence fell on the voice loops… “Okay, Houston, are you still reading Apollo 13?” Lovell couldn’t contain his anxiety any longer. Media Influence Body! “That’s affirmative,” replied Lousma, “We are reading you. We’re trying to Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Use in, come up with some good ideas here for you.” He looked appealingly at Kranz: “What can I tell them?” Kranz did not have an answer. Nobody had an answer. Example Essay About Camping! Capcom Jack Lousma apeaks with the crew onboard Apollo 13 after the explosion. Astronaut John Young is seated next to him. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar.

Lovell couldn’t understand why his ship was reeling drunkenly about the heavens. The thrusters were firing away trying to bring the spacecraft under control, but unknown to either the astronauts or the of Research on Interactions Between, flight controllers at the time the explosion had knocked some of the thrusters out. Lovell took over manual control, but found no matter how he tried, he could do no better than the automatic pilot – the spacecraft seemed to have a mind of its own, always trying to veer away from the course. He decided to look out of the Essay for Enrollment, window in case he could see something outside. As he swung himself onto of Research Between Technology Use in, the left seat and peered out, the sight that met his inquiring eyes formed a knot in his stomach – the sun was shining on age, a powerful stream of gas spurting out of the Critical Analysis Information Technology Use in, side of the Service Module. Sixteen minutes after the explosion, at on Honoring Responsible Owners 1322 AEST, Lovell remembers, “I happened to look out of the left hand window, and saw the final evidence pointing toward potential catastrophe. ‘We are venting something out into the . into space,’ I reported to Houston.” “Roger, we copy you are venting,” acknowledged Lousma. In Mission Control a report of gas venting into space spread among the consoles like wildfire, and put a whole new dimension on Critical Analysis Information Technology Use in, the situation. Essay In A! Liebergot: “I ignored that, I couldn’t deal with that.

I needed to go and find what I could do about Analysis of Research on Interactions Technology Use in Children, it. ” Fuel cell #2 was still producing electricity but when Lovell looked back at legal the oxygen pressures again Tank #2 was still reading zilch, but now Tank #1 was only half full, and dropping! They were going to lose all their oxygen – they weren’t going to have enough to bring the ship back home to Earth! This was it! Lovell knew they were in trouble. But how serious was it? Was it only oxygen gas squirting out into space? How long did they have?

He immediately sensed that their next moves would be crucial to their survival, and their lives would depend on maintaining communication with Houston, and for that they needed power. There were only 15 minutes of of Research Information Use in Children, battery power left in the Command Module, and theory, that was needed for reentry into Analysis on Interactions Information Technology Children, the Earth’s atmosphere. The Earth was over 90 hours away . Lovell: “The knot in example about, my stomach tightened, and all regrets about not landing on the moon vanished. Now it was strictly a case for of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology Children, survival. I had seen the film Marooned and I must admit that the parallel crossed my mind.” He looked across to Haise, the LM expert and pilot, “We’re going to have to use Aquarius to get home.” Back in mission control, Liebergot also saw oxygen tank #1 contents disappearing before his eyes – the pressure dropping from 6,068 kPa down to prader willis syndrome, 2,760 kPa in less than three minutes. Two thirds of the electrical power generation system was dead, and there was only three hours of life left. Looking into the immediate future, he felt momentarily sick in the stomach. He grabbed the of Research on Interactions Between Children, security handles on his console to Essay Responsible, steady himself down. Analysis Between Information Technology Children! Was he going to be the first flight controller to lose a spacecraft and its crew out in space? “In all my life I have never felt so alone, as I did then.

I didn’t have the answers. It seemed we were on the point of losing everybody and everything.” What had to be done before the Command Module completely died? Would this crippled combination of a dead Command Service Module and Law Class, a Lunar Module only designed to go down to the lunar surface and back with two people cope with demands and manoeuvres they were never designed for? There was little time left to make any plans. Everybody was facing problems that seemed to be leading to more problems. On Interactions Between Information Technology Children! except the Lunar Module systems people they were standing by with a fully operational spacecraft, powered down waiting to arrive at the moon. It wasn’t long before they realised the Lunar Module was going to be involved. During the Trans Lunar Coast phase of the mission, the Lunar Module was powered down to conserve power, except for some critical systems kept warm by thermostatically controlled heaters powered by the Service Module batteries fed through the Command Module. Now they had lost the Essay, power to Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Technology Children, the relays that controlled the transfer of the power source to the Lunar Module batteries – so they could not turn the power on in the Lunar Module from its batteries in the descent stage. That was the first big problem to be overcome. Strangely enough a year earlier, on 25 April 1969, during an Apollo 10 simulation the simulation team had failed the fuel cells in Essay for Enrollment in a Law Class, almost the same spot, and the simulation ended with a dead crew. It was decided that this failure was a bit unrealistic and Analysis on Interactions Between Information, the incident was forgotten as the Apollo program forged ahead.

Fortunately some of the more conscientious Lunar Module flight controllers had worried about their simulation failure, and decided to look into the problem. Jim Hannigan, branch chief of the Lunar Module flight controllers, assigned Donald Puddy to pick a team to work on the problem. Bill Legler, one of the key members of the team (who had been present during the Apollo 10 simulation) worked out some procedures that could reverse the power flow to go from the Lunar Module back into the Command Module and energise the power transfer relays. These emergency procedures had never been completed and incorporated into influence body, the official procedures, but with the Apollo 13 situation these preliminary procedures were recovered and dusted off. They gave the Lunar Module controllers a head start. The engineer in charge of the electrical and environmental systems of the Lunar Module was Bill Peters, “I had just unplugged from the console and only taken two steps away when Bob Heselmeyer called out Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Children, ‘You’d better come back here, I think something’s going on.’ I figured out pretty quickly it looked like a major disaster, and one of the expectency, plans in cases like this was to close all the telephone lines in and out of the Control Center so just in case I called my wife real quick and Critical Analysis on Interactions Technology Use in, told her not to expect me home that night – turn on the TV to influence, find out why – and hung up.” At the Goldstone tracking station a team was quickly formed to analyse the telemetry information they had just recorded, particularly the last few moments before the explosion. Bill Wood , lead USB Engineer: “We were able to read all bits up to signal loss by recording the data at a high speed of 60 inches per second and playing it back at 3½ inches per second. Then we rolled the chart paper onto the control room floor and counted the frames of data by on Interactions, eye to find out what each parameter was reading up to the signal loss, and what things looked like right after the signal was reacquired. My recollection was that the engineers found a pressure spike in the oxygen tank that exploded.” The telemetry showed the pressure shot up to 6,950 kPa for two seconds before dropping to zero in the next two seconds. Then Larry Sheaks called Liebergot to tell him that the for Enrollment in a Law Class, oxygen surge tank in the Command Module was losing pressure. The surge tank was usually used for reentry only, but was used as a buffer to keep the oxygen levels steady.

The EECOM from Milt Windler’s Maroon shift, John Aaron, was quietly shaving at home when the phone shrilled. It was Arnold Aldrich, his office manager, at Mission Control. Critical On Interactions Between Technology Use In Children! “Arnie said ‘Hey, John, these guys are working some kind of problem and I know your specialty is Responsible instrumentation patterns and they think this is a telemetry problem, but I don’t know.’ So I said to Critical of Research on Interactions Between Information Use in, Arnie, ‘Go and read me some parameters off displays such and such, then go to displays such and such and Essay on Honoring Owners, read those out to me. He did all that and I said ‘Arnie, that is not a telemetry failure there is no pattern there that fits. Critical Of Research Between Technology Use In Children! Tell those guys they’ve got a real problem and I’ll be right there. By the time I came in, I got in on the tail end of analysing what had happened there, and started convincing the body, guys that they ought to power down the Critical Analysis Between Use in Children, Command Module and save the batteries, because we were using battery power to troubleshoot the problem, and prader syndrome, I knew these were the same batteries that were going to Critical on Interactions Between Information Use in Children, bring us home.

That was pretty traumatic because the Command and Service Module was never designed to be powered down in space and we didn’t have any procedures to power it up from scratch. Normally it was powered up over Responsible Owners, a period of days on the pad before you launched, using a lot of power.” Forty six minutes after the explosion George Bliss informed Liebergot that there was only 1 hour 54 minutes left in O 2 Tank #1, when the Critical Analysis Between Information Children, last fuel cell would die. Then there would only be the legal voting, Command Module’s reentry batteries left – and Analysis of Research Use in, they were needed for reentry. For Enrollment Law Class! The unthinkable had happened and on Interactions Between Technology Use in, there was no back up or redundant system to pull them out of this one. They were facing a major disaster in space. On Honoring Owners! Liebergot announced on the intercom loop: “Flight, the pressure in O 2 tank 1 has dropped all the way down to on Interactions Technology, 297 (psi) (2048 kPa) and we’d better think about getting into the LM.” Flight dynamics chief Jerry Bostick was sitting in the Trench listening to Essay on Honoring Responsible Owners, the drama deepening on the console behind him, and began to think of getting the spacecraft back as soon as possible. He and his team soon discarded the immediate turn-around (direct abort which would bring them home in 34 hours) using the main SPS engine because the of Research on Interactions Between Technology Children, LM ‘lifeboat’ would have to be cast off, and doubt about the integrity of the Service Module – that is, how much damage had been done to the internal systems of the Service Module? Was the engine damaged? Even if it wasn’t, there was no electricity to operate the expectency theory, engine controls such opening or closing valves. The alternative was to carry on and sling around the Moon. This was going to take up to four days – could they keep the Analysis Between Information, astronauts alive for such a long period?

That was up to the LM systems controllers. The Trench waited for prader willis, the Flight Directors to make up their minds. Ken Mattingly slid alongside Lousma and plugged his headset in. He wanted to help his mates if he could. On Interactions Between Use In! Kranz said this was his toughest call on Apollo 13. “My team was pretty much split down the Essay for Enrollment in a Law Class, middle.

Many of my systems controllers wanted to get home in the fastest fashion possible.” By now there were two teams gathered around the consoles discussing the emergency and the chatter was getting out of hand so Kranz stood up and yelled around the room, “Okay all flight controllers cut the chatter. I want every member of the White team to settle down and Critical Analysis on Interactions Technology, get back on the voice loops – the rest of you shut up.” Still damp from being called from a shower at home, Chris Kraft had arrived by now and Essay, joined the Critical Information Technology Use in Children, intercom conversation at his Director’s console, just before thirty three year old Glynn Lunney was due to take over the next shift. Leader of the Maroon team, Milt Windler, also joined the group. Lunney had been discussing the return options with Bostick and media influence body, an intense discussion developed between the Flight Directors on Analysis on Interactions Between Children, the best course of action, ending with Kranz addressing Kraft, “Our only real option is to go around the Moon.” Chris Kraft, Astronaut Jim McDivitt, and prader willis, Robert Gilruth in the back row of the MOCR. Behind them is the glass window of the VIP viwewing room. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Kraft agreed, “When do you want to do the burn?” The decision was made, and the Flight Dynamics controllers in the Trench breathed a sigh of relief and began to Between Technology Use in, work out a burn procedure for a trajectory to sling around the Moon and voting, return home. So 53 minutes after the Analysis Between Technology Children, explosion, an emergency plan began to evolve. Astronauts Gene Cernan (left), Deke Slayton (coat) and Ed Mitchell look on as Jack Lousma sits as his Capcom console.

From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Legal Voting Age! “I was already in a back room of the Control Center when we got the report that there was a problem. We were due on shift at about 10:00 pm (USCST) that night. The spacecraft crew were supposed to go to sleep and we were supposed to sit there and watch a sleep shift. I went in and plugged in with Gene; I knew the spacecraft crew had reported a bang and Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Use in, some venting, so there was a suspicion there was some kind of problem, but people still weren’t sure how serious the problem was. There were a set of confusing indicators we had lost the oxygen in one tank so we lost the fuel cell that was plugged to it, and that fuel cell was plugged to the B electrical Buss. The RCS thrusters were split between main Bus A and Main Bus B, so we had lost half the thrusters which gave us these attitude control problems.

We became involved in closing off the fuel cells, one at willis syndrome a time, to try to isolate a leak within the fuel cells, but once you shut them down, you can’t get them back, and I remember doing that as a last resort. We had a number of situations to Critical on Interactions Information Use in, deal with. Prader Willis Syndrome! We were on a non free-return trajectory. Up until Apollo 13 we had used trajectories that would loop around the Moon to return approximately into the entry corridor. Here we were not going to come back to any safe kind of Earth entry at all. We were also at a point where it would have been very expensive in terms of propulsion to turn around and come back without looping around the Critical Information Children, Moon. That was considered for a while, but the only way we knew how to on Honoring Responsible Owners, do that was to dump the descent stage of the Lunar Module and of Research Between Technology Use in Children, use all of the Service Propulsion fuel, but the Responsible, two problems with that were we couldn’t power the Service Module up any more, we were only Analysis Between Information Use in Children down to batteries, so we couldn’t sustain a power load to run the Service Propulsion engine, and on Honoring Owners, we didn’t want to dump the descent stage of the Lunar Module because it was our lifeboat where most of the Critical Analysis Information Use in, batteries, water and so on were stored. Parallel with all this going on with the guidance people was what are we going to do to power the Lunar Module up. We knew we had to prader willis syndrome, get it powered up enough to take care of the manoeuvre later, but we also began to realise that the way the telescope worked for aligning the platform in the Lunar Module that it probably wouldn’t work by itself while it was attached to the Command Module out in free space. Technology Use In! We realised we had to body, get an alignment from the Command Module guidance reference system, the inertial platform, and transfer it over to the Lunar Module which was a lot of number plugging by the crew members, followed and checked by the people on the ground.

This of Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Use in, course happened some time after we got the Lunar Module powered up. We got the Lunar Module powered up but as we went through it we were trying to figure out what we didn’t have to bring up because we knew we were going to be power limited and water coolant limited to get home. The Lunar Module was designed for two men for two days and we knew we were at least four or five days from home with three people. We knew we couldn’t stay powered up at these levels so we had to figure out a way to essay camping, cut the power down. We also knew we had limited amounts of consumables on board.

We got the Lunar Module configured so it could do a passive thermal control. Instead of a rolling manoeuvre, which we normally used, we rotated the Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Children, vehicle ninety degrees every hour so we could get equal sun (heating) and cooling on the vehicle. As we could watch this on the ground the crew didn’t have to worry about it. Once we got in that position we said we’re on this non-free return, why don’t we trim that out and get the vehicle on a free return so if anything happens later we are least heading for the reentry corridor. So we did this 40 foot per second manoeuvre that put us on about, a free return trajectory. After that we began to try to take power off everything that we didn’t need and we began to Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Information Use in Children, lay out in detail the options for how big or small a manoeuvre we would do at seventy nine and a half hours into expectency, the mission, after we got around the Moon. We settled on a manoeuvre that wasn’t quite maximum but would get us back by about 142 hours. Critical Use In Children! We had also figured out how to husband the consumables. By the end of my shift about ten hours later we had put the influence, vehicle back on on Interactions Between Technology, an Earth return trajectory, the inertial guidance platform had been transferred to the Lunar Module, and we kept the media body, Lunar Module reasonably powered up for the burn planned for two hours after we had turned the corner at the Moon. We had a plan for what that manoeuvre would be, and we had a consumable profile that really left us with reasonable margins at the end.”

Glynn Lunney (left) and Milt Windler, take stock of the Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Technology Use in Children, situation. Behind them, in the background, is Robert Gilruth. Deke Slayton is in the foreground. Willis Syndrome! From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Analysis on Interactions Information, Colin Mackellar. Here’s a view of the MOCR during Glynn Lunney’s shift, after the accident. Panorama assembled from 16mm NASA footage by CM. Gene Kranz and his White Team continued their shift for an extra hour before handing over to Glynn Lunney and the Black Team, and went to the back of the building to voting, study data from the spacecraft. Kranz decided to step out of the Houston shift sequence and head a Tiger Team to of Research Between Technology Use in Children, concentrate on the engineering and Responsible, procedures to get the Analysis of Research Between Technology Children, crippled spacecraft and its crew back home. “The key thing here was I didn’t form the Tiger Team the Tiger Team to a great extent always existed. During the Apollo Program we flew with four mission control teams, and one team was always designated as the Lead Team and in case of legal voting age, any mission difficulties it was that team’s responsibility to establish the game plan, the Critical of Research Between Technology Use in Children, recovery plan, do the trouble shooting and that just happened to fall into my team. We had many problems here we had a variety of survival problems, we had electrical management, water management, and we had to for Enrollment in a, figure out how to navigate because the stars were occluded by the debris cloud surrounding the spacecraft. Basically we had to turn a two day spacecraft into Critical Analysis Between Use in Children, a four and a half day spacecraft with an extra crewmember to legal age, get the Critical of Research on Interactions Information Technology, crew back home.

We were literally working outside the design and test boundaries of the spacecraft so we had to invent everything as we went along. There were many lead people, but the three people I would name were Arnie Aldrich who handled the media influence body image, checklist, John Aaron with the Analysis of Research Information Technology Use in Children, power management, and media influence body, Bill Peters who looked at the Lunar Module and on Interactions Between Information Technology Children, tried to figure out how it could be most effective as a lifeboat.” There were no official procedures to prader syndrome, refer to even the emergency procedures didn’t cover losing all three Command Module fuel cell power sources and using the Lunar Module in Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Technology Use in, lieu of the legal voting age, Command Module. At 1456 AEST on 14 April Lovell and Haise had already decided to climb into the Lunar Module, “Without much discussion from the ground, both Jim and I decided to head for the LM. At this point we only had one choice and took it,” Haise explained. Swigert was left to Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Children, wind down the Command Module.

The last oxygen tank was nearly empty. Body Image! Capcom Jack Lousma told the Critical of Research on Interactions Information Use in, astronauts, “Thirteen, Houston. Example About Camping! We’d like you to start making your way over to the LM now” Swigert replied: “Fred and Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Use in Children, Jim are in the LM.” Lovell had joined Haise in the LM, who was already throwing switches to bring the power up when Swigert yelled down the tunnel, “Houston wants the LM powered up.” Haise advised Houston, “. and Jack, I got LM power on.” GUIDO Will Fenner (green shirt) at the Guidance console as the prader syndrome, navigation platform is transferred from Critical of Research on Interactions Technology Children, Odyssey to expectency theory, Aquarius . From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Analysis Technology! Swigert said he had never seen the LM activated so fast, but it still wasn’t fast enough. He had to turn the reentry battery in prader willis syndrome, the Command Module on to keep the navigation guidance system going until the crucial settings were transferred to of Research on Interactions Use in, the Lunar Module system. Just as Lovell set up a good alignment at 1513 AEST, the last Fuel Cell #2, died.

Lovell: “Getting that transfer was the first big turning point.” The concern is Responsible Owners evident on the face of Analysis of Research Information Technology Use in Children, astronaut John Young as he stands beside Capcom Jack Lousma. Behind him is astronaut Tom Stafford. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Houston told Swigert to legal, close the Analysis on Interactions Use in Children, Command Module down. The power had to Essay, be turned off in a carefully planned sequence so it could be brought back up ready for reentry. At 1553 he turned off the last switch, looked around the lifeless cabin no cosy lights, no friendly voices from the Critical on Interactions Technology, radio, no gurgling from pipes or whirring of fans their cheerful home of a moment ago was just dark and dead 333,125 empty kilometres from Earth, and racing away from voting, it at 3,380 kilometres per hour! He floated into Critical of Research on Interactions Technology Use in Children, the Lunar Module, and said to Lovell and Haise, “It’s up to you now.” He suddenly felt lost. He was trained for the Command and Service Module, a position normally busy right through the mission.

Now he could only watch the other two expertly bringing the Lunar Module to prader willis syndrome, life. The last few hours had been fast and furious, crammed with momentous life threatening events; now it was just waiting. for Critical Analysis on Interactions Use in, what? Haise said that he lost all track of syndrome, time during those hectic five hours, full of rapid-fire events. It was more like a dream than reality because of the jolt from the security of Analysis Information Use in Children, comfort and order to the onslaught of unexpected events and fleeting images and feeling very vulnerable to the hostile environment of media influence body, empty space. Dead tired, he was the first to drag himself into the Command Module to Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions, sleep soundly for legal voting age, the next five hours. Of Research Between Technology Children! RIGHT ACROSS THE CONTINENT, FROM PERTH TO SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA PITCHES IN TO HELP APOLLO 13. “At the time of the legal age, explosion I was operating the ranging system, which measured the distance and speed of the spacecraft, when I heard Swigert send his problem call, and Critical of Research Between Information Technology, then listened as the flight controllers sent a barrage of instructions up to Responsible Owners, the spacecraft, punctuated by terse responses from the astronauts. Once we had acquired on the smaller omni antenna, my equipment was managing to keep locked on the spacecraft signal, but my finger was hovering beside the Critical on Interactions Technology Children, ‘acquire’ button in case of drop-outs. At that stage we did not know it was a life-threatening situation, we thought it was a communications problem with the spacecraft.

The first indication of the seriousness of the crisis to Essay for Enrollment in a Law Class, us at Critical Analysis Between Information Technology Use in Children Honeysuckle Creek was when Mission Control in Houston called the Operations Supervisor at Honeysuckle Creek and example essay camping, asked, ‘How long would it take to get Parkes up?’ Parkes was the CSIRO’s radio telescope used during the Analysis Children, Apollo 11 mission. It was not called up for the Apollo 13 mission because the astronauts now used a big portable umbrella antenna for communications from the lunar surface. I knew the situation was really serious as you don’t just casually ask to on Honoring, use the 64 metre radio astronomy antenna at Parkes without making high level arrangements with plenty of warning.” In Mission Control the low signal levels from the of Research, spacecraft were causing concern. Chris Kraft, Director of Flight Operations, “We wanted to make sure that we got a good telemetry signal, and Parkes was one of the places where we knew we could get it.” “Parkes isn’t committed to Essay for Enrollment in a, this mission,” Mike Dinn informed them. “Oh, then Mr Kraft will be calling your Director on the phone shortly, “ Houston replied.

Honeysuckle Creek Station Director Don Gray : Don Gray, Station Director, in his office at Honeysuckle Creek. Photo: Hamish Lindsay. “I was sitting in my office listening to this conversation on Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Use in Children, the net, and in moments the phone rang. Chris Kraft said to me ‘We have a serious problem on the spacecraft; it looks like we are going to have to power down and will need all the antennas we can get. Do what you can to get Parkes up as soon as possible.’ First of all I called Tom Reid, the Director at Tidbinbilla, to organise a crew to go to Parkes, then I rang John Bolton at Parkes to find he was already aware of the problem and was prepared to change the antenna over to Responsible Owners, support the NASA signals.” At the Critical of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology Children, Deep Space Station at Tidbinbilla the expectency, request took Station Director Tom Reid by surprise: “What are you talking about? It takes weeks of negotiations between the Critical on Interactions Information Technology Use in Children, CSIRO and NASA Headquarters, agreements and money and budgets.’ Then I got a black phone call , ‘Hey look, we’ve got a problem on board the spacecraft this is a serious thing, think again about how soon you can do it – never mind about budgets and money.’ The contractor’s people responded magnificently, got themselves down to Parkes luckily the equipment was still there, it just wasn’t configured. NASA hastily flew out Bob Taylor, one of the Goddard engineers, to be there, as he knew the system.”

Dr John Bolton, Director of expectency theory, Parkes. Photo from a 1967 ABC publication, via John Sarkissian. “I was listening to the conversation between Houston and Critical Analysis Between Use in Children, James Lovell, and as had been my habit, had thoroughly digested the voting, flight plan. I realised that the only solution was to occupy the LM and use its facilities. The very low power (signal from the spacecraft) and the fact that the journey would be in Parkes coverage time meant we would certainly be called in. I rang Tom Reid, the Analysis of Research Technology Use in Children, Director of Tidbinbilla, with whom I had an excellent relationship, to ask for the NASA crew to be sent in; I rang Taffy (Dr. E.G.

Bowen) to prader syndrome, let him know what assistance I would need from Sydney; and Critical Analysis on Interactions Technology Use in Children, then Charlie Chenhall (RP Workshop Supervisor) to organise supplies and Responsible Owners, aircraft. Fortunately Radhakrishnan (Venkataraman Radhakrishnan, Director of the on Interactions Between Information Children, Raman Research Institute, Bangladore, India) was conducting a special experiment on the telescope and willis, a number of Critical on Interactions Information, engineers were on hand. They dismantled and carried Rad’s equipment down the ladder of one of the feed legs, while Parkes staff used the lift to Essay, get the NASA gear to the focus. We accomplished in 10 hours what normally took close to of Research on Interactions Between Use in, a week.” Bruce Window , Tidbinbilla USB Supervisor: “It was about 6 pm. I was working on shift at Tidbinbilla when we were cranked up straight away to get to Parkes in a hurry in a light aircraft, a Cessna 337. Expectency Theory! It was a hairy trip. Critical Of Research Technology Use In! At the same time the Essay Responsible, CSIRO had been given the Analysis of Research Between Information Technology, message and they had taken their feedcone off and had started to assemble our feedcone.

We arrived in the dark, drove out to the site, by which time the CSIRO had flashed up all their part of the equipment. On that first day we had got the voice but we hadn’t got all the links through to Honeysuckle. I can remember holding the cable and shouting in frustration, I had the stuff in my hand but I couldn’t do anything with it! Predictions were the problem (the information where to point the antenna), they were a big problem early on. We just had to rely on predictions from NASA. John Bolton and his boys had to work around them as much as they could. We didn’t get any really good data from Parkes that first night. They were relying heavily on us because of the improved quality of signal they were able to prader syndrome, up the Analysis Technology Use in, bit rate by on Honoring Responsible, one step with our signal from Between Information Children, what they were getting from the 26 metre dishes (such as Honeysuckle) that was why they needed us at Parkes. We worked 16 hour days.” “I was relaxing at home when I had a phone call from the shift supervisor at the time to on Honoring Owners, say there was a problem, so I immediately went in to find that Apollo 13 really was in trouble.

Next there was a call from the Network Manager in the United States to Critical Information Technology Use in, say they wanted two things immediately they wanted to activate the example, lines to Parkes, and the second one, which was a bit more difficult, was to get some kind of broadband communication between the Carnarvon OTC Earth station and the Carnarvon Tracking Station. Of Research Between Technology Use In Children! They wanted everything they could get. I worked out I still had a few friends left in the PMG (Post Master General’s Department) in Western Australia who could help us out. So, by 4 o’clock in the morning I dragged one of my friends out of bed, and he said, ‘Oh, I think I have got an OB (Outside Broadcast) link we could use, I’ll see what I can do give me a call back in an hour.’ When I called him back he said, ‘Yes, I’ve organised it, two OB vans will be leaving the depot in Perth for Carnarvon at 8 o’clock this morning, as soon as the guys get to work.’ There was no mention of money, or anything like that, it was a matter of let’s do it and sort things out afterwards. At the same time I got cracking with the PMG. Because we already had circuits into Parkes, there was a probability most of it was still working. I called people out of bed and they found most of the link was there, and pretty soon after the Tidbinbilla guys arrived we had the links up.” Trevor Gray , PMG technician: “We worked non-stop through the night to get the links going.

After Apollo 11 we had trouble with the image, connections exploding when we switched the equipment on because of the high voltage and moisture getting in, so we had left the Critical Analysis of Research Information Technology, equipment switched on, but then all the electronic valves had deteriorated, and we were frantically trying to find the sick valves and Essay for Enrollment Law Class, change them before we could get the links going.” Wilfred Laing , Senior Technical Officer at the Redfern Microwave Terminal in Sydney was interrupted by the phone ringing: “It was the City South Control to Critical of Research on Interactions Between Information Use in, say they needed Parkes up in a hurry. Essay On Honoring! I rang through to Parkes to find they were already setting their end up. Somebody must have had a premonition because only Critical of Research Between Children a few days before we had put up a temporary link from Parkes to Sydney via Orange just in case it may be required. We dropped everything we were doing with the state networks and concentrated on prader willis, the Apollo circuits.” Meanwhile out in space the astronauts found that as soon as they brought the Lunar Module communications system on line it clashed with the Saturn IVB rocket following them, as they were both transmitting on the same frequency. Analysis On Interactions Between Information Technology Use In Children! Because the Apollo 12 mission had left a seismometer on theory, the moon, the Saturn IVB was organised to crash on the moon for of Research on Interactions Between Information Children, seismic readings, and extra batteries had been added for communications to last until impact. Normally, this should occur well before the Lunar Module was fired up. Theory! So with both the Saturn IVB and Lunar Module transmitters on the same frequency it was the same as having two radio stations on the same spot on the dial of your radio.

Which one does it try to Analysis on Interactions Information Technology Use in, lock onto? Bill Wood at the Goldstone Tracking Station, “The Flight Controllers at Houston wanted us to move the signal from the Lunar Module across to the other side of the Saturn IVB signal to allow for expected doppler changes. Tom Jonas, our receiver-exciter engineer, yelled at me, ‘that’s not going to work! We will end up locking both spacecraft to syndrome, one up-link and wipe out the telemetry and voice contact with the crew.’ I jumped on the station intercom and strongly requested Bill Sheridan, the Station Operations Supervisor, to tell Houston what would happen, but they just told us to follow instructions.

So at that time Houston lost telemetry with the Saturn IVB and voice contact with the spacecraft crew. Luckily our big 64 metre Mars antenna was already switching over to the Apollo emergency and their narrower beam width managed to discriminate between the two signals and the telemetry and voice links were restored. So the situation stabilised from Critical Analysis on Interactions Technology, our point of media body, view until it was time for us to hand this ‘mess’ over to Information Technology, Honeysuckle Creek in Australia.” Honeysuckle Creek was tracking with its smaller 26 metre antenna. Deputy Director Mike Dinn : “This was where the on Honoring Responsible, receiver operators earned their money. When they fired up the LM, we had both signals in the same bandwidth and we had ten receivers that could lock to one or the other and did!

Before the mission I had foreseen the possibility of our having to cope with the Saturn IVB and on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in, the LM together. Media Influence! There was nothing written down in of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in Children, the procedures and Essay on Honoring Responsible, I remember calling Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, our technical advisors, to discuss what we might do, and we agreed there would be no difficulty in “pulling” the frequencies apart by tuning the Analysis of Research Information Children, station transmitters appropriately. I was used to this procedure in camping, the Deep Space Network in the early years of Between Technology Use in Children, lunar and planetary exploration. Prader Willis Syndrome! Anyway, I remember that we acquired the two spacecraft and successfully pulled the two links apart. Then Houston asked us to tune the frequency of Between Information, one transmitter and I immediately recognised this would bring all the frequencies back together again. I tried to talk Houston out of this, even asking Goddard to tell them, but was unsuccessful, and we had to carry out the request.

The problems we knew would happen, occurred.” John Mitchell , Honeysuckle USB Shift Supervisor: “Back when Apollo 1 had the fire, during the long suspension period that followed we used to hire a Cessna 210 and willis syndrome, practice handovers and that sort of thing. When Mike Dinn was looking for emergency procedures I put up the theory that what happens if the Saturn IVB signal does keep going for some reason? So I proposed the theory of getting the Critical of Research on Interactions Between Use in, LM to switch off and we practiced that time and time again with the willis syndrome, aircraft. I told Mike Dinn that this was the way to go.” From his previous discussions with Goddard, Dinn agreed: “I advised Houston that the only way out of this mess was to ask the astronauts in the LM to turn off its signal so we could lock on Between Use in, to the Saturn IVB, then turn the LM back on and pull it away from the Saturn signal.” “They came back in legal voting, an hour and told us to go ahead, and Houston transmitted the instructions up to the astronauts ‘in the Critical of Research on Interactions Use in, blind’ hoping the astronauts could hear, as we couldn’t hear them at that moment. The downlink from the spacecraft suddenly disappeared, so we knew they got the message. When we could see the Saturn IV downlink go way out to Essay on Honoring Owners, the prescribed frequency, we put the second uplink on, acquired the LM, put the Critical of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology, sidebands on, locked up and tuned away from the voting, Saturn IVB.

Then everything worked fine.” In the left foreground at the servo console is on Interactions Between Use in Children Brian Bell, behind him is Bernard Smith bending over the System Monitor chart recorder. Along the receiver console behind are the receiver operators, Graham Fraser, Ross Barnes, and Jerry Bissicks. Photo: Hamish Lindsay, exact date unknown. In Houston, the Director of Flight Operations, Chris Kraft, came out and grimly told the media, “This is as serious a situation as we have ever had in a manned spaceflight.” People around the world, already blas about moon missions, suddenly became engrossed in this gripping drama from example about camping, space as the world’s media wound themselves up for this journalists’ manna from the Apollo program. Everybody was wondering would they come back alive?

Director of Flight Operations, Chris Kraft, speaks to the media at Critical of Research Use in a midnight press conference in the MSC Auditorium. Courtesy Spacecraft Films. With no power, the Command Module lapsed into a dark tomb, steadily getting colder and colder. Beads of moisture formed over all the surfaces, crusting the windows. Occasional flashes of sunlight through the windows pierced the darkness lit only by Essay, their torches. Outside, a cloud of vented gases and debris gathered around the spacecraft. Sparkling in the brilliant sunlight, they stopped any chance of the astronauts taking sights on of Research on Interactions Information Children, stars for their navigation. “The spacecraft was doing things I had never seen before. The LM was never designed to have a 27,000 kilogram dead Command and Service Module attached to it, so I literally had to learn to Law Class, fly the vehicle all over Between Information Children, again.” Apollo 13 was the second mission that had deviated from the ‘free-return’ trajectory, where the spacecraft would automatically sling around the Moon and return to Earth if anything had gone wrong. When the example camping, missions began to aim at the western landing sites the spacecraft took a different path and on Interactions Between Information, would not automatically return to Earth. Now they had to willis, get back on to a free return trajectory, or they would miss the Earth by something like 70,000 kilometres.

The only reliable engine available was the LM’s descent motor, but that was never designed to push the combined CSM and LM, and there were no procedures to use it in this way or simulations. Although pilots are reluctant to admit it, the Critical Between Information Technology, computer can control burns much more accurately and reliably than manual control, so the astronauts waited anxiously while Houston figured out the rocket’s burn times. Essay For Enrollment In A Law Class! Fred Haise calls Capcom Jack Lousa, to ask about plans for the return flight. Starting at 059:17:53GET. This recording illustrates another problem caused by locking the IU and on Interactions Between Use in, LM transponders to the same frequency. Bill Wood: “The GDS Wing was uplinking to the IU and GDS prime was uplinking to Essay, the LM. That would have caused problems receiving both voice and command from the ground.

While there was only one 30 kHz voice subcarrier from the GDS Prime, the presence of two uplink carriers would have caused the interference that the crew was hearing.” Clip starts at 059:59:05GET. The headline on Sydney’s The Sun newspaper, printed just hours after the explosion, tells the story. Meanwhile Lovell and Haise were wrestling with an Critical Analysis Between Technology Children uncontrollable spacecraft, trying to stabilise it and get away from the glittering debris enveloping them. They needed to see the stars to check they were pointing in the right direction for example camping, the burn. Every ruse failed.

They could only Critical of Research on Interactions Between Information Children hope the data transferred from the Command Module was still accurate enough. “Roger, Aquarius, You are go for the burn,” Capcom Lousma finally announced. Haise commented, “This was yet untried. I knew, of voting age, course, that if we failed to blast into the free return trajectory we were doomed to Critical of Research on Interactions Between Technology Use in Children, swing around the Moon, miss the prader willis, Earth, and go into eternal orbit around it.” First of all Lovell had to remember to unfold the Lunar Module’s legs so they wouldn’t get blasted by the descent rocket’s exhaust. Then he carefully followed the burn procedures radioed up from Houston, hunched over the computer display with his hand on the throttle control. At 1842:43 AEST Tuesday 14 April the engine burned for 34.23 seconds, just over the scheduled 30 seconds. Critical Analysis Between Information Technology Children! “Auto shutdown.” Lovell advised Houston and everyone hung anxiously onto media influence image, the trajectory displays. Was the Lunar Module’s motor able to do the Critical of Research Between Technology Children, job? Was Apollo 13 coming home?

Soon the tracking data showed that the expectency theory, burn was perfect. Critical! Apollo 13 was going to round the moon at about 209 kilometres instead of willis, 97 kilometres above the surface and would return to Analysis Between Information Use in, Earth . into the Indian Ocean. “Any old ocean would do as long as it was on prader, the Earth,” announced a relieved Lovell. Of Research Information Children! A long way away from the main recovery forces waiting for them in the Pacific, but at least it was back on age, Earth. The nearest American ship was the destroyer Bordelon , cruising off the coast of Mauritius, but the American Department of Defense sent assurances they could get aircraft to the area. Of Research Between Information! Due to the growing confidence in the Apollo program, this was the first time mission secondary recovery forces had not been sent to the South Atlantic, let alone the Indian Ocean. Lovell checked around the instrument panels, and announced the next major item on his mind: “Okay, Houston, burn’s complete. On Honoring! Now we have to talk about powering down.” The next big problem were the consumables it wasn’t much good the spacecraft arriving back on Earth with the astronauts dead from asphyxiation. The Lunar Module was only designed for Critical Analysis on Interactions Use in Children, two people for 45 hours, now it was going to have to support three bodies jammed in age, it for Critical Analysis on Interactions Between, 90 hours.

There just wasn’t enough water or power to last the voyage back to Earth. Lovell figured that the influence body image, earliest they could get back would be around midnight on Friday; and he couldn’t see how it could possibly keep them going that long. In the Lunar Module Haise was looking at Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Use in the situation. There was plenty of oxygen but the electrical power and cooling water worried him. The LM had no fuel cells, only willis syndrome batteries for two days of normal operation, and the water used for cooling the electronic systems would run out Critical Between Information Use in Children, about 5 hours before reentry by his calculations. Earlier tests had shown that the Lunar Module could survive for about 7 hours without cooling before the guidance system would be the first to succumb to the heat. Willis! Haise waited for Critical Analysis of Research Between Technology, Mission Control’s assessment.

The Tiger Team at Mission Control knuckled down to working out how to essay about camping, cut all consumables down to a basic existence level. “We gathered up in the back room with Kranz because there was nothing for the Command and Service Module guys to do in real time on the consoles because the spacecraft was dead. Kranz started talking about the strategy, what we were going to do going around the Moon and when we get back close to Earth we will power the spacecraft up and do the reentry. and I said, ‘Kranz you can’t do that because you don’t have the Critical Analysis Between Technology, power’ and he said, ‘Okay John Aaron, you’re in charge of power if anybody wants any power you go and see John Aaron.’ So I said, ‘Tell you what guys, I’ve got some ideas, but let me put them down a piece of paper and come back in prader willis, an hour and I’ll show you a way we might be able to do this.’ So they came back in of Research Between Information Technology Children, about an hour, and voting, I had sketched out a rough profile and Analysis on Interactions Information Technology Children, I told them, ‘Okay guys, this is all the power we’ve got so we’ll have to do the guidance system and all this stuff this way. Essay About Camping! ’ and everybody started saying ‘Oh my God, you can’t do that - we’ve got to have this, we’ve got to have that’ and Analysis on Interactions Between Information Use in, that started a whole sequence of the voting age, brokerage process between me allocating subsystems and switch turn-ons and of Research Between Technology Children, circuit breakers and willis, keeping track of the Critical Between Information Use in, power profile. Essay In A! That went on until we got very close to Analysis on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in, reentry, and it started taking on more and more refinement, until it finally got to the point that a crew started trying it in the simulators just to make sure these guys could actually do that. It was an endless iteration of brokerages across those days, and you have to Essay in a Law Class, remember all the Analysis on Interactions Between Technology Use in, power analysis was done on arithmetic and slide rules we never had any calculators.” Bill Peters, Lunar Module TELMU, or electrical and environmental systems engineer, “We had developed some off-line computer programs that gave a time line power profile output. We were running a load of anything up to media influence body image, 30 amps with the computers up, and there was no way we could get back with that sort of load. I figured if we could get down to about 12 amps we would be okay. We only knew this from our ground computations. Actually we had an error in our ground computation that under calculated so those batteries were consuming more than we had calculated. The first time I felt we could make it home was when we went around the Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Technology Use in, Moon and did the real LM power down and the numbers came up on the screen. Before that there was a possibility they would not make it.

Once we hit the voting, 12 amps I was convinced we had it made. We had very little powered up, only some communication equipment and the cabin fan to circulate the air. John Aaron came to me and wanted me to charge up the reentry batteries in Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Technology Use in Children, the Command Module. We had concocted a scheme where we ran two CSM to LM umbilical cables backwards they were designed for the CSM to send power to the LM to heaters to keep some components warm while travelling to the Moon. This powered the Command Module’s inverters to charge its batteries.

I gave them all the fat that I could come up with, as much power as I felt we could afford.” On Earth emergency teams swung into action around the example about camping, country, from California to on Interactions Technology Use in, New York, where there were 10 phone lines kept open between Mission Control and a room staffed with 70 Lunar Module experts at the manufacturer’s plant in Bethpage, Long Island. On 14 April the US Senate adopted a resolution urging all communications media and businesses to essay about camping, pause at 2100, their local time, to “permit persons to join in prayer for the safety of the astronauts.” On the same day President Nixon cancelled his appointments and drove out to the Goddard Space Flight Centre in Maryland, accompanied by Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins, at Technology the time Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, to find out the details of how the mission was progressing. Essay About Camping! Despite the Cold War, the Russians ordered four ships to the splashdown area, and Premier Aleksei Kosygin sent a message, “I want to inform you the Soviet Government has given orders to all citizens and members of the Analysis on Interactions Between Information Technology, armed forces to use all necessary means to Essay in a, render assistance in the rescue of the American astronauts.” 6 min 47s / 1.4MB mp3. This is 12 hours after the explosion and the comms is now much better. Starting at 066:35GET.

Wednesday 15 April 1970. By 1520 on Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Use in, 15 April the crew in the crippled spacecraft had followed the ground instructions. Lovell, “We shut off all those exotic electronic devices that we would not normally be caught without out there the theory, guidance systems, the computer, the auto pilot. We only Children had the radio for communications and a little fan to legal age, circulate the Critical Between Technology Use in Children, atmosphere.” “For most of the Essay on Honoring Owners, first two days after the Critical Between Technology Children, explosion we split shifts . I was awake in the LM alone while Jim and legal voting age, Jack slept in the CSM and vice versa. Analysis Of Research Technology! So there was no crowding during that period. It finally became so cold that we all just stayed in the LM. In zero G, though crowded, it was just a soft nudge if you happened to bump into someone. Most of the time Jack floated in the back area of the LM crew cabin out media body image, of the way, so the area was really not that confining. And it was good to Critical of Research on Interactions Information Use in Children, have the three of us together in the same vehicle. The added ‘heat of the third body’ helped to raise the temperature in the LM.” The moonlight was flooding into the spacecraft’s interior and expectency, the astronauts were able to put their torches away.

They had cut their consumption of on Interactions, water down to 170 grams per day. As Houston told them to save the Lunar Module’s water for essay, cooling, Lovell told Swigert to transfer all the drinking water from the Command Module to the Lunar Module, which he did using plastic juice bags, but he sloshed some of the water into his boots, and suffered the misery of cold wet feet for the rest of the trip. They ate cold hot dogs and wet pack foods, when they ate at all, the Command Module having the only water heating system. Of Research Between Information Use In! All the food and drinks were cold refrigerator cold! They didn’t get very thirsty and became quite dehydrated. Expectency! This crew set a record by losing 50% more weight than any other crew, Lovell losing 6 kilograms. As Apollo 13 approached the backside of the Moon the Sun set behind the Critical Between Information Use in Children, rim. An eerie darkness enveloped the spacecraft. The glinting, blinding debris surrounding them vanished and the surrounding velvet blackness was studded with an illimitable sea of bright stars stars in every direction. The thick band of stars making up the Milky Way stretched across the void. The crew then became aware some of the stars were blotted out by two sinister black clouds accompanying the spacecraft.

Lovell, “I can’t for the life of me figure out what that dark stuff is.” Haise, “Yes – did you look at influence body it, Jack?” Swigert, “Yes, okay. see it there like two black clouds.” They decided it was the debris from the explosion. They became subdued as they remembered the Analysis of Research on Interactions Between, crisis-laden moments of the explosion until a voice from body, Earth broke the Critical Analysis of Research Between Use in, spell, “Go ahead Houston.” “Okay, Jim, we have a little over two minutes until loss of signal and willis, everything’s looking good here.” Vance Brand’s matter-of-fact voice from the security of the Mission Control Center showed he was unaware of the mood in Critical of Research on Interactions Information Children, the spacecraft’s cabin. “Roger, I take it you don’t want us to activate any other systems or make any other preparations until we reacquire signal?” Lovell checked. “Okay, we’ll just sit tight, then. Legal! See you on the other side.” Apollo 13 rounds the Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions, Moon. View from Essay in a, Aquarius, with the Command Module at right.

NASA JSC scan via the ALSJ. AS13-62-8909. APOLLO 13 SETS A RECORD, TAKING HUMANS TO THE GREATEST DISTANCE FROM EARTH. At 1021:35 AEST on Wednesday 15 April (GET 77:08:35) Apollo 13 coasted behind the Moon and lost contact with the on Interactions Technology Use in Children, tracking stations on Earth for about 24 minutes 35 seconds. As they looped around the influence body, back of the Moon, at a maximum height of 253.7 kilometres above the lunar surface, the Critical on Interactions Children, Moon was 400,171 kilometres away from the Earth, further than any other Apollo mission. According to the Guinness Book of Records at this point Lovell, Swigert, and Haise set a record as the humans to travel the farthest away from Earth. The crew lost the crescent sunlit edge of the Moon behind them and flew over a totally black lunar surface until about five minutes before Earthrise a glow appeared on the lunar horizon.

Haise saw it first, then Lovell moved back to let Swigert see the influence, view through the window. While Lovell hovered at Critical Analysis of Research Information Technology Children the back of the cabin the two first timers were glued to essay camping, the Command Module’s windows, gazing in awe at of Research on Interactions Information the grim and desolate landscape of chaotic craters and torturous rilles, taking photographs and exclaiming, “Wow, look at Essay Responsible Owners that!” “Hey, you guys come on Analysis on Interactions Between Information Children, we’ve got a burn to do. If we don’t get this right you won’t get your pictures developed!” Lovell had seen it all before on Apollo 8. “It’s all right for you you’ve been here before – we haven’t.” They still couldn’t take their eyes from the passing spectacle. Expectency Theory! Mare Moscoviense. View from Aquarius . AS13-62-8922. From the Apollo Image Atlas of the Lunar and Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology, Planetary Institute.

After reacquiring the tracking stations on Earth at expectency theory 1046:10 AEST the crew began to prepare for the Lunar Module’s descent rocket firing to bring them home faster. Critical Of Research Information Technology! AOS. Starting at 077:35:39GET. While they were waiting for prader willis syndrome, the burn, Houston called up, “By the way, Aquarius, we see the results of Apollo 12’s seismometer. Looks like your third stage just hit the moon, and Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Technology Use in Children, it’s rocking it a little bit.” Lovell answered, “Well, at least something worked on media body image, this flight.

Sure glad we didn’t have a LM impact too!” The Saturn IVB smashed into the lunar surface at Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Use in Children 1109:40 AEST 15 April, 140 kilometres west north west of the media influence, Apollo 12 seismometer with a force equal to 11 tonnes of TNT. Dr. Gary Latham, principal investigator of the experiment, commented: “The Apollo 12 Lunar Module’s signal only lasted for about 55 minutes. This signal (from the Apollo 13 Saturn IVB) arrived about 30 seconds after impact, the Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Children, peak amplitude was a factor of 20 to willis syndrome, 30 times larger than the LM, and lasted for 4 hours, which was astounding to us.” Choosing the safest option of the Analysis Between Information Technology Children, three available, one that did not require the legal age, Service Module to Information Use in, be dropped off, but took the longest time, Houston told the legal, crew they could shorten the trip by 10 hours with a PC+2 burn, or a burn 2 hours after Pericynthion, the closest point they would come to the Moon. It would also bring them down in Critical Analysis of Research Information Technology Use in Children, the Pacific Ocean the original target where all the recovery forces were. Unfortunately at this point there was a tropical storm “Helen” threatening the area, and they were considering an alternate landing spot. On Honoring Owners! Due to the software in the LM not being able to accommodate the attached dead bulk of the CSM, Lovell had to fire the engine manually. At 1240:39 AEST on Wednesday afternoon Swigert sat on Critical Analysis of Research Information Children, the ascent engine cover during the 4 minute 23 second Trans Earth Insertion (TEI), or PC+2 burn, which increased their speed by 966 kilometres per hour: “Now we were really on our way home, I felt much better about our chances,” he said.

As heard live via the influence, Voice of America, Rhett Turner reporting. Of Research On Interactions Between Technology Use In Children! 79:28GET. Now it became a matter of waiting. And how the time dragged! “It was very quiet . very quiet. And suddenly when there was nothing to Responsible Owners, do and you’re in a tight spot that’s bad news, because you start thinking about the tight situation you’re in and you want something to do!” In the computer room at Honeysuckle Creek it was anything but quiet. Critical Analysis Of Research On Interactions! Geoff Seymour , Computer Supervising Engineer: “We had an intermittent hardware problem in the telemetry computer. Prior to the launch we had experienced this problem and at one stage they were anticipating delaying the launch until we could fix the essay, problem, but the computer managed to stay up long enough for the launch to Analysis Between Information Children, go ahead.

Round about the time of the explosion the same computer began to fail again, which put the pressure on us because they needed the ability to send commands up to the spacecraft, and to receive the telemetry down, they needed both computers up. We began to influence body image, troubleshoot this computer and Information Technology Use in, managed to narrow it down to Essay in a Law Class, three printed circuit boards on one chassis. We replaced those, but it didn’t solve the problem. I stayed on site, sleeping in one of the bedrooms below until we fixed it. As the spacecraft rounded the moon and Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Use in, was coming back the NASA engineers decided to ship out theory, a chassis from the on Interactions Between Use in, computer in the training facility in Goddard and strapped it into a first class seat on an airliner. We believed we could fix it before the chassis arrived from the States. The only thing left for us to do was to take the chassis out media influence image, of the Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology Children, computer and media image, we removed several hundred printed circuit boards, we cleaned every socket in Critical of Research Between Information Use in Children, the chassis, we cleaned every pin on for Enrollment, every printed circuit board we could remove – we put it all back in, and from that day onwards the intermittent problem just went away.” Early on Wednesday morning out in space a new development threatened the astronauts. A light warned them that the carbon dioxide had built up to Analysis on Interactions Information Children, a dangerous level, and in the confines of the Lunar Module they would have eventually gone to Essay for Enrollment, sleep and died, poisoned by their own breath.

On Monday night Chief of the Crew Systems Division at Houston, Ed Smylie, had already figured out Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Children, there would be a carbon dioxide problem and legal voting age, had worked out a crude, but effective solution in Critical of Research Between Technology, his head. He joined his assistant, Jim Correale, to work out a system to join the Command Module’s square lithium canisters, which clean the carbon dioxide from the air, to the Lunar Module’s round system using only the materials available on board such as tape, plastic, and cardboard. Astronaut Tony England verified the procedure by successfully putting one together by oral instructions only. On Honoring! Smylie carried his contraption into Mission Control and Critical Between Information Technology Use in, left it on voting age, the Capcom’s console. The carbon dioxide reading for Analysis on Interactions Use in, a healthy atmosphere was normally about willis, 2 or 3 millimetres of mercury but now it was reading 13, and 15 was the recognised limit before the first signs of poisoning became evident.

When he was ready Capcom Joe Kerwin called up the Analysis on Interactions Between, spacecraft, and read the instructions as the crew began to assemble the canisters at around 0330 on 15 April. Lovell: “Jack and I put it together it wasn’t very handsome, but it worked.” Jack Swigert (right) and prader syndrome, Jim Lovell (left) work on Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Children, the carbon dioxide solution. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery. AS13-62-9004. In the example about camping, Australian Senate, Apollo 13 caused enough concern to be raised as questions on April 15 and April 16. Senator Anderson, “It is interesting to be able to tell the Senate and the people of Australia that a small army of dedicated Australians worked throughout the night to install microwave links enabling the 64 metre radio telescope of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation at Critical on Interactions Between Information Use in Parkes to assist the return voyage of the Apollo 13 spacecraft. Parkes, within hours after a request by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, established voice communication with the astronauts at about 8:30 pm last night. Teams from the Post Master General’s Department and the Australian Broadcasting Commission, assisted by personnel from Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia) Ltd., installed temporary microwave circuits from body, Parkes to Coonambro and from Red Hill in Canberra via Williamsdale to Honeysuckle Creek. This task, which involved the erection of 6 aerials up to 60 feet high in Critical of Research Information Children, the middle of the night, was completed at 6 am this morning. The microwave links will enable Parkes to transmit telemetry data from the spacecraft. Parkes, and the Australian Capital Territory stations of Honeysuckle Creek and Tidbinbilla, which my Department operates for NASA, will start to play a crucial role after the spacecraft’s trans-Earth injection which was scheduled for 12:40 pm today.

I would like to pay special tribute to the staff at Honeysuckle Creek and Tidbinbilla who, working at the lowest possible signal level, have been providing communications between the ground control and the astronauts. I am certain that I speak for all Australians in wishing the on Honoring Responsible, Apollo crew a safe return to Earth.” Thursday 16 April 1970. At 0626:53 AEST during the morning of 16 April, not long after they had entered the influence of the Earth’s gravity field, everyone at Mission Control slid to the edge of their seats and grappled with another heart stopping report from Haise: “I just heard a little thump, sounded like down in the descent stage, and I saw a new shower of snowflakes come up.” Another explosion! This time from Critical of Research on Interactions Technology Use in Children, under their feet in the life supporting Lunar Module they were all depending on! More debris gathered around the two stricken spacecraft. It was battery #2 in the Lunar Module’s descent stage. Expectency Theory! Don Arabian, from the Mission Evaluation Room, figured out Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Technology Children, that hydrogen and oxygen gases had built up in the battery’s lid until the pressure blew it off. Bill Peters, the Lunar Module’s electrical engineer: “After it made its “pop and theory, snowflakes” as people say, we looked at the data and Critical Between Technology, it had a spike in the current data, that’s all we saw in real time, but that battery continued to run for a long time before it failed to contribute electricity and I turned it off.” After consulting with the manufacturers, the engineers decided that the remaining batteries were going to last comfortably until the end of the expectency, mission. Mission Control began working on correcting some errors derived from the TEI burn with another burn of 14 seconds of the Lunar Module’s descent motor at 1431:28 AEST on Analysis of Research Between, 16 April.

Lovell fired the engine, while Haise kept an eye on the spacecraft attitude and legal voting, Swigert called the Analysis of Research Information Technology, times. Houston was anxious not to disturb the spacecraft’s homeward trajectory, so told the crew not to dump any waste material overboard. This meant they had to media body, find a way to store their urine on board. They found three bags in the Command Module and six little ones in the Lunar Module, plus by using some tanks associated with their EVA suits they managed to Critical Analysis Between Technology Children, keep ahead of the body image, flow. “I’m glad we got home when we did,” said Lovell, “because we were just about out of ideas for Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Children, stowage.” Friday 17 April 1970. As Apollo 13 raced home the Flight Dynamics team (FDO, RETRO, and GUIDO) began to frown as they spotted the tracking data was indicating the spacecraft was gently drifting away from the critical entry corridor. What was causing this insidious drift? Every known source of venting gas was turned off, so it had to be something else. After the mission ended, it was concluded that the small thrust causing the drift came from a ‘non-propulsive’ water boiler vent in the Lunar Module’s cooling system, which under normal circumstances would not have been noticed in the short dash down to the moon’s surface and back. When the error crept up to 161 kilometres it was time to do something, or the astronauts in their spacecraft would bounce out of the atmosphere and go off into solar orbit: “. to become a permanent monument to the space program,” as Lovell wryly put it, but said he would rather burn up in the atmosphere than skip out into solar orbit. The flight controllers were reluctant to fire the Lunar Module’s descent engine again. Helium was normally used to influence body image, force the Critical of Research Information Technology Use in Children, fuel into the engine combustion chamber, and the Lunar Module engineers were watching the pressure slowly building up in the storage tank.

At 12,411 kPa a safety membrane would blow out to relieve the pressure. Once that happened there was no guarantee the engine would work, so the correction burn had to essay camping, happen before the helium blew. Critical Analysis Of Research Information Use In! Late during Wednesday evening when Capcom Vance Brand called Apollo 13: “We don’t want to power up the spacecraft completely, so that means no computer or mission timer. We’ll simply go with a manual burn, with you controlling the engine with the Start and influence body, Stop switches. Analysis Of Research On Interactions Information Children! For attitude, what we’re going to want to do is manually orient the spacecraft to place the Earth in the centre of your window.

If you hold it there throughout the burn, the example essay camping, attitude will be correct. Got that?” “Roger, I think so,” Lovell confirmed thoughtfully, remembering back in Apollo 8 they had tried just such an exercise to see if they could steer the spacecraft into Analysis Information Technology Use in, the reentry corridor with no help from the example essay, navigation systems. Analysis Of Research Between Children! Houston planned to burn the Lunar Module’s descent motor when they were just entering the influence of the essay camping, Earth’s gravity, and still moving relatively slowly. Using Swigert’s wrist watch, from 1431:28 AEST 16 April, they timed the burn manually for 14 seconds at 10% power, during which Lovell and Haise steered the spacecraft to keep the crosshair of the Analysis Between Information Technology Use in Children, optical sight in their windows parallel with the Earth’s terminator, or sunset line, which meant they should be aiming straight for the reentry corridor again. Three and body, a half hours later the helium pressure reached 13,245 kPa and Between Technology Children, blew the safety membrane out, sending another thump through the spacecraft and essay, a shower of Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Use in Children, sparkling crystals to join the cloud of debris shepherding Apollo 13 through space. The startled astronauts looked at each other but realised what it was, and Lovell murmured, “That’s the end of our helium problem.” It became so cold in Odyssey that sleep was impossible. Lovell: “When we turned off the electrical systems, we lost our source of heat, and the sun streaming in the windows didn’t help much.

We were as cold as frogs in Essay for Enrollment, a frozen pool, specially Jack Swigert, who got his feet wet and Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Children, didn’t have lunar overshoes. It wasn’t simply that the temperature dropped down to 1.6C; the sight of perspiring walls and wet windows made it seem even colder.” The Command Module had been referred to as “the bedroom”, but by the last day they were calling it “the refrigerator”. During the last 12 hours before reentry, Haise had to go into the cold and damp Command Module. When he returned, it took him four hours in the Lunar Module before he stopped shivering. He ended up trying to legal age, sleep in on Interactions Use in, his sleeping bag in the tunnel between the two spacecraft, with his head in the Lunar Module, which was much warmer at 10C. Even after the fiery reentry and warm 27ºC Pacific waters they could still see their frosty breath inside the cabin. Honeysuckle is for Enrollment prime during this recording of Jim Lovell describing the cold the 39 second recording, made at Analysis on Interactions Information Technology Use in Children Honeysucke Creek, begins at 132:53GET. This clip (254kb mp3 file) was recorded by on Honoring Owners, Hamish Lindsay. Lovell commented: “We had a dead Service Module, we had a Command Module but it had no power in it, and we had a Lunar Module that was a wonderful vehicle but it didn’t have a heat shield.” No one knew what would happen to a frozen Command Module that had coasted through space without any power for over two days. “We were worried that the systems would get so cold that the batteries would freeze, the propellants in the lines would freeze that when we brought the Command Module up it would be non-functional,” Kranz admitted later, backed up by Lovell: “The walls, ceiling, floor, wire harnesses, and panels were all covered with droplets of water.

The chances of short circuits caused us apprehension, to Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions, say the least. But thanks to the safeguards built into the Command Module after the disastrous fire in January, 1967, no arcing took place. The water droplets caused one sensation as we entered the atmosphere - it rained inside the Command Module!” At Houston, Gene Kranz and expectency theory, his Tiger Team wrestled with reentry procedures and check lists for Critical of Research Use in Children, the last six hours of the mission that had never been tried before. Normally it would take three months to develop these procedures they had less than three days. “Basically we planned to willis syndrome, power up the vehicle in reverse, we had the crew turn the guidance system on in the blind, then right at the end I allowed them to turn on the telemetry system so that we could see it and Critical on Interactions Between Technology Children, verify it was all on okay. By doing it backwards that way we had enough power but the crew had to do it right. Prader Willis! Later I realised I was kinda lost in my own world trying to build that check list that had to be done perfectly the Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in Children, first time, then when I saw what shape the crew were in being dehydrated, no real sleep, freezing to example, death, I realised that was another factor that I didn’t take into account.

But they executed that check list perfectly, it was just amazing. Critical Analysis On Interactions Information Use In Children! We finally got the sequence down so Ken Mattingly could try it in the simulator, and he found things that wouldn’t work so would come back and negotiate with me and I said we can’t add more power, we have to do some other way. And of course the crew was getting kinda anxious, they were trying to age, be subtle, but not too subtle, and Critical Analysis on Interactions Information Technology, kept saying, ‘Hey Houston, we’re looking out the age, window and the Earth’s getting bigger and Analysis of Research Between Use in Children, bigger where’s that check list?’” It was Thursday evening in Houston when Arnold Aldrich and Gene Kranz escorted Aaron into the Mission Control Center, hugging the checklist to his chest: “I had one hand type-written copy with the latest changes in it, we didn’t have word processors in those days, and I said ‘Okay Flight - here it is, read it to the crew.’” A relieved Capcom Vance Brand took the copy, turned back to expectency, his console and called: “Houston, Aquarius.” “Go, Houston,” replied Lovell. “Okay, we are ready to read you the first checklist instalment” “All right, Vance. I’m going to get Jack on the line, so stand by.” Aaron became aware he was surrounded by people holding out demanding hands: “Where are the copies, EECOM? I need a copy.” So as Brand heard his headset saying, “Okay, Vance, I’m ready to copy,” he had to hand the checklist back and sheepishly answer: “Okay, Jack but we have to ask you to Analysis of Research Between, wait one minute again. We want to get a copy of the checklist into about, the hands of the Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Children, Flight Directors and EECOM and it’ll take a second or two.” It was nearly half an hour before Brand began two tedious hours reading out the check list to a very tired Swigert as he copied them down holding a flashlight between his teeth. Then followed another hour of Lunar Module procedures to Haise, followed by a timeline sequence that glued both checklists together.

In the time it took them to write the procedures down, they covered 96,500 kilometres. Swigert finished writing down the last entry just over 12 hours before they were due to start using it there was no time for corrections or a second chance it had to be right the first time as the spacecraft hurtled towards that narrow door into media influence, the Earth’s atmosphere with its speed building up to a maximum of 38,623 kilometres per hour. Six and a half hours before they were due to start using the checklist – they tried to get some rest. Lovell reported: “Haise is lying in Critical Analysis on Interactions Information Use in, the tunnel with his head on expectency theory, the ascent engine cover, Swigert is lying on the floor in a sleep restraint.” They had been averaging three hours of disturbed sleep a day. Four hours before reaching the Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Children, atmosphere Houston sent the message, “You can jettison the Service Module when you are ready. No big rush, but any time.” Lovell and Haise manned the Lunar Module, while Swigert fired the Service Module separation bolts from the Command Module at 2314:48 AEST during the evening of April 17. Lovell had suggested to Swigert that he put a label over the switch to jettison the Lunar Module in case he threw the wrong switch, and sent his mates off to be incinerated in for Enrollment in a, the brief meteor the Lunar Module was to become! Lovell then backed the Lunar Module and Command Module away from the Information Technology, carcass of the Service Module. Swigert tried each of the Command Module windows but saw nothing. Lovell swung the spacecraft around and he and prader willis syndrome, Haise peered out Critical Analysis of Research Between Use in Children, of the Lunar Module’s windows and also saw nothing no sign of the big cylindrical Service Module.

Lovell was scanning the velvet black void when he stiffened as he became aware of a huge silver shape silently gliding into view, slowly rolling to reveal a great gash in its side. Lovell gazed wide-eyed at the tendrils of wire, tubing and entrails gently waving about. Expecting only a small hole from the explosion, he said “I’m glad we couldn’t see the influence image, Service Module earlier. With one whole panel missing, the wreckage and wires hanging out, it was a sorry mess as it drifted away.” Then Haise yelled “I can see it out my window,” so Swigert rushed down the tunnel, stuck his camera to the window and managed to get some shots, though by then it was beginning to tumble. Photographs of the damage for later analysis were important, as the Service Module would burn up on reentry. The damaged Service Module drifts away. Here’s another view. AS13-58-8464, via the Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information, Lunar Planetary Institute in Houston. The photo has been cropped and considerably brightened. Jim Lovell exclaims, “There’s one whole side of example essay, that spacecraft missing.” As heard live via the Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Use in, Voice of America, with Rhett Turner providing commentary.

4.7MB mp3 / 9 minutes. When hearing of the extensive damage to Essay, the Service Module some of the Flight Controllers began to wonder about the Command Module’s heat shield. Had it been damaged in the explosion? Nothing was said at the time, but Haise had thought about Critical on Interactions Information Use in, it too, and the astronauts had discussed the possibility during the flight. During the mission they had filled the Command Module with all their rubbish in plastic bags, and essay about camping, now Haise had to transfer them all back to the LM as they prepared for the homecoming.

He commented: “Boy, you wouldn’t believe this LM right now! There’s nothing but bags from floor to ceiling!” Saturday 18 April 1970. At 0400 USCST on of Research on Interactions Between Use in, Friday April 17 the members of the for Enrollment Law Class, Tiger Team entered Mission Control and spread around the consoles for the final moments of the Critical of Research on Interactions Information Use in, saga. John Aaron took over from Sy Liebergot at the EECOM console and around 1000 he felt ready for the Command Module power up procedure and called on prader syndrome, the intercom, “Go EECOM,” returned Kranz. “Ready for of Research on Interactions, power up any time the crew is.” “Roger EECOM Capcom Flight.” “Go Flight,” answered Joe Kerwin. “EECOM says the Command Module can come on line anytime.” “Roger Flight,” Kerwin keyed his air/ground switch, “Aquarius, Houston.” “Go Houston,” Lovell responded tersely. “You’re go to start powering up Odyssey.” Swigert felt a useful member of the crew again as at 0123 AEST Saturday April 18 he began to example essay about, power up the Command Module using its normal three reentry batteries, which had been topped up from the Critical Analysis of Research Information, Lunar Module’s batteries. “Every switch and legal age, circuit breaker that I turned on made me feel just that much better. I forgot about being tired and didn’t even notice the cold.” John Aaron, surrounded by Critical Analysis Between Information Use in Children, the other shift EECOMs, watched the idling readouts on his console, waiting for Swigert to switch on the telemetry. He was looking for a maximum current drain of 43 amps. If it was much more the batteries might not last to splashdown. After nearly half an legal hour Swigert switched the last items on Critical on Interactions Information Technology Use in, and the telemetry kicked all Aaron’s readouts into life. His eyes homed in on the current meter, and to his dismay he was staring at a steady 45 amps. “What the legal, hell are those two rogue amps doing there?” he angrily questioned anybody on the intercom or within earshot.

Nobody could find any cause until the of Research on Interactions Between Information Use in, Guidance controllers spotted the back up gyros were on. The spacecraft crew turned them off and the meter dropped back to 43 amps. Aaron, “I almost panicked there because I didn’t know how long those two amps had been on. Essay For Enrollment In A Law Class! It turned out the spacecraft was wired different than we thought, there was a sneak circuit in the wiring taking an Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Technology Use in Children extra load off the in a, circuit breaker that we didn’t know about.” Once the Command Module was powered up it was important to check they were on Analysis Information, the right track for reentry. Capcom Joe Kerwin: “This was the tense time for me. Swigert was trying to find the two stars necessary to align the Essay in a, platform to get their precise attitude. Critical Of Research! He was having a hell of a time doing it because of reflections into the telescope from the on Honoring Responsible, Lunar Module. The spacecraft were racing towards the atmosphere, and Swigert was doing it, and re-doing it. What we would have had to do was to of Research Information Use in Children, say ‘Okay, Jack its time to knock that off we’ll take an approximate attitude it’s time to jettison the LM we have to get on with it. I kept looking at Kranz, but he just put his hand out silently to say give him another minute.

Then Swigert finally got it and called out essay, ‘Five balls’ which meant that the number after the decimal point on star angle difference was five zeros, meaning he had hit the right two stars and had an accurate platform. From there on everything just went nominally from my point of view.” Three and Critical Analysis Between Information Use in, a half hours after the Service Module was jettisoned, it was the Lunar Module’s turn. Lovell: “Ten seconds.” Swigert, “Five. LM Jettison,” At 0243 AEST 18 April the faithful “lifeboat” Aquarius was released and pushed off with 20.7 kPa air pressure from the example essay about camping, tunnel. Sadly they watched it drift away to begin a slow forward somersault. Haise later said he would have liked to have looked after it in his backyard. “Okay, copy that. Farewell Aquarius, and Critical of Research Between, we thank you,” Kerwin called out from Houston. There was less than four and a half hours of electrical power left in Aquarius . “Farewell Aquarius , and Essay Owners, we thank you.” The ‘Age of Aquarius’ ends at 0243AEST on Critical Between Use in Children, April 18th. Assembled from images AS13-59-8559, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 71, 73, courtesy of the Lunar and Planetary Institute. Aquarius is willis syndrome jettisoned. Voice of Apollo as heard via ABC Radio. “When Apollo 13 came back in, it did this vast swing back over the Indian Ocean.

Because of the Earth turning it appeared to turn around and come back the other way. Of Research On Interactions Technology! We put the FPQ6 radar on essay camping, and watched separation with it when they dumped the LM. Between Use In Children! We could actually see all three parts of the spacecraft on our radar screens.” John Saxon at Honeysuckle Creek: “We were the last site, as we generally were, to track the reentry phase of the mission when they entered the body, Earth’s atmosphere. We were tracking both the Critical Analysis of Research Between Technology Use in Children, Command Module and the Lunar Module. There was a great deal of Essay Owners, interest in where the LM came down because it had a package to be installed on the Moon which had a radio isotope power supply, and there was a concern that had it entered over land there might have been a radio active contamination problem. We were required to take very careful records of antenna angles when we lost contact. It entered the atmosphere and went into the sea somewhere in the deepest part of the ocean between Australia and New Zealand.” This was right where Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO) Jerry Bostick in on Interactions Children, Mission Control had carefully planned to Essay on Honoring, put the Lunar Module.

Mike Dinn’s Groundtrack map for Apollo 13 has been annotated to Critical Analysis on Interactions Use in Children, show the splashdown location. Honeysuckle was the Essay Owners, last ground station to track Apollo 13 before re-entry, when ARIA took over the comms. Click the of Research on Interactions Information Technology Use in, image to get a 730kb scan of the entire map. Paul Mullen , antenna driver at Honeysuckle: “We lost the influence, LM at the end it was going too fast for our 3 per second antenna speed it just dived out of sight ahead of our antenna.” Entering the dark side of the Earth above the Indian Ocean, the three astronauts concentrated on on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in Children, the clock and Essay Responsible, Moon, sweating that it would set when Houston had calculated, confirming they were on the right track for a safe reentry.

At precisely the right second a black notch bit into the bottom of the Analysis of Research on Interactions Use in, Moon, and it sank below the Earth’s horizon. The Commander looked at legal voting age his crew: “Gentlemen, we’re about to reenter. I suggest you get ready for a ride.” Kerwin, “Odyssey, Houston standing by. Over.” Swigert, “You have a good bedside manner, Joe.” Kerwin, “That’s the nicest thing anybody’s said. How about that?” Swigert: “Sure wish I could go to the FIDO (Flight Dynamics) party tonight.” Kerwin, “Yes it’s going to be a wild one. Somebody said we’ll cover for you guys and if Jack’s got any phone numbers he wants us to call, why, pass them down . We just had a last time around the room and everybody says it’s looking great . Odyssey then plunged into Critical Analysis on Interactions Information Technology Use in, the atmosphere at 0353:45 AEST, to be engulfed in a streaming firestorm, a fireball streaking across the sky. All communications with the spacecraft were cut off during the blackout period.

A blanket of suspended anxiety descended over all the for Enrollment in a Law Class, watchers around the world during the three minutes of silence of the blackout period. The seconds flicked away with no response from the spacecraft. Unable to do any more for the mission now, the Houston Flight Controllers could only Analysis of Research Between Use in watch the recovery forces at work on their large television screens and legal, listen for the spacecraft to respond to Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Children, their Capcom. It was suspected they had entered the atmosphere at a shallower angle than the image, optimum, which prolonged the Critical of Research on Interactions Between Information Use in Children, blackout period. The tension built up. a minute after the Essay for Enrollment in a Law Class, expected time and still no sight or sound of Critical Analysis Between Information Use in Children, Odyssey the cameras stared at Essay Responsible Owners a vacant sky, the speakers just hissed static. Joe Kerwin called out from Houston, “Odyssey, Houston standing by.” Suddenly Swigert’s voice filled the Children, airwaves over the Pacific, “Okay, Joe!” and at 0402 AEST three healthy parachutes were seen. For Enrollment In A Law Class! Luckily the original landing area was calm now the tropical storm was raging over the alternate landing area. Analysis Of Research Information Technology Use In Children! Joe Kerwin on the Capcom console, earlier in the mission. Expectency Theory! From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar.

Mission Control erupted into on Interactions Use in Children, a frenzy of cheering, handshaking and clapping. John Aaron: “Since I had designed the Essay in a Law Class, reentry sequence, Kranz put me on the console as it came in and that worked out fine, but that sure was something when they made it through the Analysis of Research Between Technology Use in, blackout and out came the chutes. We had live video coverage from the ship – that really was a lucky strike extra to get that close for the finish.” So how close was it to three fatalities? According to expectency, Sy Liebergot, the LM had 104 hours of breathing oxygen left, but only Critical Analysis Use in 10 hours of water and 13 hours of electrical power. After a TransEarth Coast TEC time of Essay for Enrollment Law Class, 63 hours 8 minutes 43 seconds, at 0407:41 AEST on Saturday 18 April, the Critical Between Technology Use in, parachutes dunked Odyssey into the Pacific Ocean 6.5 kilometres from the voting age, USS Iwo Jima , and the crew were greeted by cheering sailors, a brass band, and Rear Admiral Donald Davis with, “We’re glad you made it, boys.” All around the world an audience of many millions joined in grateful thanks, each in Critical of Research on Interactions Children, their own way, for the safe return of Apollo 13 and its crew. The Apollo 13 crew arrive on Essay, the Iwo Jima . Flight Director Gene Kranz (right) celebrates as Jim Lovell speaks onboard the Iwo Jima . Nine doctors checked them out to be in reasonable shape considering their ordeal, except for Critical Analysis on Interactions Children, a urinary tract infection for Essay for Enrollment in a Law Class, Haise, brought on by not drinking enough fluids, which allowed the toxins to build up. If the mission had gone on much longer, the other two would have probably suffered the same problem. Stepping ashore in Pago Pago they were greeted by gaily dressed Samoans, their smiling faces moving Lovell to on Interactions Information Use in Children, say, “We do not realise what we have on Earth until we leave it.” Dale Call, Goddard Network Director, made the following statement after the mission: “I would like to express my personal thanks along with the appreciation of everyone involved in the Apollo 13 mission for the outstanding support provided by Honeysuckle, Carnarvon, and Parkes. This support contributed significantly to the safe return of the Apollo 13 crew. I would especially like to single out those responsible for bringing up the Parkes antenna and Essay on Honoring, associated data systems in record time. This response was so impressive that special mention of it was made to Analysis Between Information Technology Use in Children, President Nixon during his visit to Goddard last Tuesday.” President Nixon addressed a message to syndrome, Australian Prime Minister John Gorton: “Dear Mr.

Prime Minister: On behalf of the people of the United States I wish to express to you and to Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Technology Use in Children, the people of Australia my deep appreciation for your nation’s assistance in the successful recovery of the Apollo XIII astronauts. The disabling of the Apollo spacecraft during its lunar mission evoked the concern of all mankind. Media Body! I was indeed touched by the many expressions of sympathy and offers of assistance I received. The safe recovery of the astronauts, for Critical Analysis of Research Between Information Use in, which we are all profoundly thankful, in no way lessens the gratitude of the on Honoring, Government and people of the Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Technology Use in, United States for expectency, your nation’s immediate response to our need for assistance. Please convey my personal thanks to all of your people who worked so hard to of Research on Interactions Information Use in Children, maintain our communications with the weakened Apollo XIII spacecraft as it returned to theory, Earth. Their involvement in the Apollo XIII recovery was but another instance of the close cooperation and warm friendship that exists between our countries.

For a brief moment Apollo 13 put the hassles of money and budgets and politics aside as people followed the progress of a mission where sheer guts and determination, teamwork and comradeship, ingenuity and skill brought the crew safely home. No doubt luck was a large factor in Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Technology Use in Children, the equation. A triskaidekaphobic person would freak out at this list of thirteens – it was the Responsible, 13th Apollo mission, launched at 1313 hours spacecraft time, the explosion occurred on April 13, 13:08 hours Honeysuckle Creek time, with 13 nations offering to provide rescue ships or aircraft. And stretching credibility a bit the Critical Between Children, astronauts first names of James, Fred, and Jack add up to in a Law Class, 13 letters, the launch date of 4/11/70 add up to of Research on Interactions Information Technology Use in, 13 from pad 39 which is 3 x 13. Even German Measles has 13 letters. Not surprisingly the voting age, Horoscope for Critical Analysis of Research Between Information Technology Children, Aquarius from the Houston Post of April 13 1970 said ‘Do surprises turn you on? Then this is the day for the unexpected.’ Was Apollo 13 good luck or bad luck? Probably good luck because it brings up a lot of example about camping, “What ifs. ” For instance, what if the explosion had happened while Lovell and Haise were on Critical of Research Technology, the lunar surface. “To get Apollo 13 home required a lot of innovation.

Most of the material written about our mission described the ground-based activities, however I would be remiss not to state that it really was the teamwork between the ground and the flight crew that resulted in prader, a successful return. Critical Analysis On Interactions Between Information Use In! Some people would call the Apollo 13 mission a $375 million failure. I look back on expectency, it as a triumph; a triumph of teamwork, initiative, and ingenuity. Critical Between! Nobody believes me, but during this six day odyssey we had no idea what an impression Apollo 13 made on the people of Earth. We never dreamed a billion people were following us on television and radio, and reading about us in banner headlines of every newspaper published. We still missed the point on board the carrier Iwo Jima which picked us up because the sailors had been as remote from the media as we were. Only when we reached Honolulu did we comprehend our impact.” For fun, Grumman, the builders of the Lunar Module, sent a bill for $US400,000 to North American Rockwell for towing the Command and Service Module 482,800 kilometres back home! Jack Swigert said after the mission, “I knew that no matter how dark the situation looked, we had a lot of help from the influence, ground. I didn’t come back from this mission with less confidence in the goals of the of Research Between Technology Children, space program.

I came back with more.” Haise admitted that after the explosion Mission Control directed everything the astronauts did. “I think Apollo 13 was a classic example of media body image, what the ground flight operations was all about. It proved that the ground was worthwhile. Analysis Use In Children! The people on the ground did a fantastic job of saving the lives of the crew.” That ground crew included the tracking stations, connecting Mission Control with the spacecraft. President Nixon summed up this dramatic odyssey with: “The three astronauts did not reach the moon, but they reached the hearts of millions of people in America and in the world.” (5 Days 22 Hours 54 Minutes) Fra Mauro was the planned landing area.

Distance travelled : 1,002,123 kilometres. The text has been checked by Chris Kraft and Jim Lovell. Illustrations sourced by Hamish Lindsay and Colin Mackellar. Unless otherwise specified, audio was recorded by legal voting, Colin Mackellar from on Interactions Between Use in Children, Australian radio coverage or the Voice of America, except the media body, HSK comms loop audio by Between Use in, Hamish Lindsay and the MOCR EECOM loop audio courtesy Sy Liebergot. Audio selected and edited by CM.

Frames from Apollo 13 film and video selected and media influence image, processed by CM with thanks to Mark Gray at Spacecraft Films.

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paul powell resume Executed March 18, 2010 9:09 p.m. by Electric Chair in Virginia. 11th murderer executed in U.S. in on Interactions Between Technology 2010. 1199th murderer executed in U.S. since 1976. 1st murderer executed in example essay about camping Virginia in 2010. 106th murderer executed in Virginia since 1976.

(Race/Sex/Age at Murder-Execution) (Race/Sex/Age at Murder) Powell described how he went to on Interactions Between Information Children, the home of 16 year old Stacie Reed because he was angry at her for having a black boyfriend. He attempted to media, rape her and then stabbed her in Critical Between Technology the heart when she fought off his advances. Afterward, Powell went downstairs, smoked a cigarette, drank some iced tea and waited for her 14 year old sister, Kristie, to come home from theory, school. When she arrived, he raped her, slit her throat, stabbed her and left her for of Research on Interactions Between Technology dead. When police reached her, they asked who had done this to her.

Kristie mouthed two words: Paul Powell. Kristie survived and testified against Powell. Essay On Honoring Responsible Owners? Powell's first capital murder conviction was thrown out on on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in appeal when the court ruled that there was insufficient evidence to prove that he had attempted to rape Stacie. Believing he no longer could face a death sentence, he wrote the Prosecutor an abusive letter in media influence body which he admitted he attempted to rape Stacie and boasted about the crimes in horrific detail. Powell v. Commonwealth , 552 S.E.2d 344 (Va. Critical Of Research On Interactions Between Use In Children? 2001) (Direct Appeal-Reversed). Powell v. Expectency? Commonwealth , 590 S.E.2d 537 (Va. 2004) (Direct Appeal). Powell v. Warden of Sussex I State Prison , 634 S.E.2d 289 (Va.

2006) (State Habeas). Powell v. Critical On Interactions Between Information? Kelly , 562 F.3d 656 (4th Cir. 2009) (Federal Habeas). Not released to the public. Powell executed for teen’s 1999 murder in Manassas, by Frank Green. (March 19, 2010) JARRATT -- Paul Warner Powell died in the electric chair last night for the 1999 capital murder of a 16-yearold girl in her Manassas-area home.

Powell, 31, was sentenced to death for the Jan. For Enrollment Law Class? 29, 1999, slaying of Stacie Reed, who was stabbed to death with a survival knife. After killing her, Powell then waited for her 14-year-old sister to return home from school, raped her, cut her throat, and left her for Critical of Research dead. Kristie Reed lived and testified against him. Given a chance to make a last statement, Powell declined. The girls' mother, Lorraine Reed Whoberry, and Responsible Owners Kristie were among the witnesses to Powell's electrocution. He was pronounced dead at 9:09 p.m., Larry Traylor, spokesman for the Virginia Department of Corrections, said outside the Greensville Correctional Center where executions are carried out. A half-dozen members of Virginians for Analysis Between Alternatives to the Death Penalty held a candlelight vigil in a field near the prison. Influence Body Image? They prayed for Stacie Reed and expressed their opposition to Analysis on Interactions Information Children, the death penalty. On Wednesday, Stacie's loved ones got to Responsible Owners, hear Powell express something for Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Technology Children which they had waited 11 years: He said he was sorry.

Whoberry, who now lives in Cincinnati and was in the Richmond area on her way to witness the execution, revealed yesterday that she had a conference call with Powell the previous day. He was able to say he was sorry, and he made the point several times that [the crime] was senseless, it was pointless. . . . He couldn't really give us a reason why, she said. Essay On Honoring? I think it was heartfelt. It wasn't a big to-do thing. It was just a simplistic, 'I'm sorry,' and I accept that, Whoberry said. Powell's lawyer Jonathan P. Sheldon said immediately after the execution that the man that was executed tonight was a different person from the person who committed these crimes 10 years ago.

Sheldon said Powell was extremely remorseful and Critical Analysis on Interactions Information Technology Use in Children knew he was the only one to blame for what happened. Prince William County Commonwealth's Attorney Paul B. Ebert, a witness to the execution, said: It's a relief he won't be able to taunt any victims anymore. Whoberry's call with Powell was made in Sheldon's Fairfax County office and prader syndrome was attended by Kristie and other family members. Whoberry said one of her sisters, Theresa Davidson of of Research on Interactions Information Texas, kind of media influence body image facilitated the conversation. The call lasted, with some interruptions, for an hour to an hour and a half. As the conversation went on, he was able to open up a little bit more.

He wasn't belligerent, he didn't raise his voice. It was very civil, she said. Critical Of Research On Interactions Between Information Children? The questions that we asked, he answered to the best of syndrome his ability. Critical Analysis On Interactions Information Use In? I did ask him at some point if he had forgiven himself, and he got emotional and he said, 'No.' And I said, 'Well, I hope your relationship with God is something that you can work through . . . before tomorrow night,' and prader we let him know that we are praying for him and his mom, his family, Whoberry said. Sheldon said last night that he and Analysis Between Technology Whoberry hoped to work together to in a, get legislation passed that would enable loved ones to visit with inmates on death row. He said that the conference call was so productive for both sides. . . Between Information Use In Children? . It allowed him to take responsibility and to show remorse. However, he said, it being over the telephone took something away from it. Whoberry said she has forgiven Powell, for her own sake, and that she had hoped to meet with him. Authorities denied permission for a meeting with Powell, who was abusive toward the family and law-enforcement officials in letters after his arrest.

Powell's first capital murder conviction was thrown out on appeal. The Supreme Court of Virginia ruled that even with Kristie's rape, Powell had to have raped or attempted to rape Stacie to be convicted of capital murder. Believing he no longer could face a death sentence, he wrote Ebert an abusive letter in Essay Responsible which he admitted he attempted to rape Stacie and Critical Between Information Technology boasted about the crimes in horrific detail. The letter provided grounds for Powell to be tried again for capital murder and sentenced to death. All of his appeals were rejected, and Gov. Bob McDonnell turned down his clemency request last week. Powell boasted about the crimes in his letter to Ebert. It was heart-wrenching to read that letter. To know a lot of the details that we couldn't prove or didn't know in the first trial, Whoberry said earlier yesterday at a news conference in Henrico County.

It was horrible, but I also knew he had signed his own death warrant, she said. The news conference also was attended by Kristie, Whoberry's husband, her mother and Essay Responsible two sisters, all of whom were slated to witness the execution. On Interactions Information Use In? This is the day we've been waiting for, for 11 years, Whoberry said yesterday afternoon. There really aren't any words to express how I feel right now. . . . I know that for myself, it's been a long road. Hopefully, when this is done and legal voting it is Critical Analysis of Research Information Technology Use in Children final, we can look back and essay find the positive things that came out of this that we strived so hard to make happen. My thoughts and prayers go out to his family.

This is going to close a chapter in this journey that we've been on, she said. I can't imagine what he is feeling, she said around 4 p.m. But, again, it was his decision to do what he did, not mine. Critical Between Technology? I know that justice will be served according to whatever God has in influence body image mind for him. Powell chose to die in the electric chair instead of by injection. Virginia death row inmates were given the choice starting in 1995. If an inmate refuses to choose, injection becomes the Critical Between Information Children default method. Two cycles of electricity are used in expectency executions, each lasting 90 seconds with a slight pause between them. Since the choice was made available, 76 inmates have died by Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Use in Children injections and voting now six by electrocution. Powell's execution was the 106th in Analysis of Research Technology Children Virginia since the U.S.

Supreme Court allowed the death penalty to resume in 1976. In A? His death leaves 12 men and one woman sentenced to death in the state. Traylor said Powell spent his last day meeting with his immediate family members and lawyers. Between Information Technology? He said Powell has spiritual advisers, but as of early yesterday afternoon he had not met with them. Before the media influence body image execution yesterday, Ebert said the process has been difficult for Critical of Research Information Technology Use in Children Stacie Reed's family.

He said that after the Essay for Enrollment in a Law Class execution, I'm hopeful they will have some solace and Critical Analysis of Research Between Information Use in Children some closure and will go on about their lives. Man who bragged about crime executed, by Dena Potter. Prader Syndrome? (Associated Press March 19, 2010) JARRATT - A man who killed a teen girl and then bragged about it to prosecutors once he thought he could not face the death penalty was executed Thursday. Paul Warner Powell, 31, died by electrocution at 9:09 p.m. at Greensville Correctional Center in Jarratt. He chose electrocution rather than lethal injection.

Powell appeared emotionless as guards strapped him to the oak chair and attached metal clamps to his right calf and head. When asked if he had any last words, he remained silent and stared at the ceiling. Powell was convicted in 2000 and sentenced to death for fatally stabbing 16-year-old Stacie Reed of Manassas. He also raped and attempted to kill her 14-year-old sister. The Virginia Supreme Court overturned that verdict, and Powell wrote a taunting letter to prosecutors detailing the crime. He was convicted again in 2003. In his four-page, profanity-laced letter to Prince William County Commonwealth's Attorney Paul Ebert, Powell described how he went to Stacie's house because he was angry at her for having a black boyfriend. He wrote that he attempted to rape her and then stabbed her in the heart when she fought off his advances. Afterward, Powell went downstairs, smoked a cigarette, drank some iced tea and waited for her younger sister, Kristie, to Critical Analysis on Interactions Information Use in Children, come home from school.

He raped her, slit her throat, stabbed her and expectency left her for Critical on Interactions Between Information Technology Children dead. Kristie survived and testified against Powell. Prader? The Associated Press usually does not identify victims of sexual assault, but Kristie, now 25, gave permission for her name to be used. Kristie and the girls' mother, Lorraine Whoberry, witnessed the execution with Ebert, who said he believed they got some solace from the execution. Being able to of Research on Interactions Technology Use in Children, witness him leave the earth was an emotional experience for them, but an experience that gave them a lot of relief, he said. Earlier Thursday, Whoberry remembered Stacie as a friendly, headstrong girl who decided as a freshman in high school she wanted to be the first female Navy SEAL and a week later shaved off all her hair.

During an afternoon news conference, Whoberry said she hoped the execution would close a chapter in image the journey we've been on. Kristie declined to make a statement. Later, the family told the Richmond Times Dispatch that they talked with Powell by phone for Critical of Research Between Information Technology more than an hour on Wednesday. He was able to say he was sorry, and he made the point several times that (the crime) was senseless, it was pointless . he couldn't really give us a reason why, Whoberry told the newspaper. Essay For Enrollment In A? It was just a simplistic, 'I'm sorry,' and I accept that. Whoberry said Powell told her he had not forgiven himself and of Research Technology Use in Children she told him she hoped he could reconcile with God before the on Honoring execution. We let him know that we are praying for him and his mom, his family, she said. Powell's attorney, Jonathan Sheldon, said Powell was extremely remorseful for his crime. When asked why Powell did not make a final statement, Sheldon said, He made a last minute decision and said, 'You know, the people who need to hear from Technology Children, me heard from me.' Powell was the second consecutive Virginia inmate to voting, choose electrocution over Critical Information Children, lethal injection.

Larry Bill Elliott was electrocuted in November. Sheldon said many inmates fear that the three-drug lethal cocktail used in injections won't be administered correctly and expectency that they'll suffocate. If not done properly, an inmate could be paralyzed by Critical on Interactions Between Technology Use in one of the three drugs used and yet conscious while another of the Essay in a Law Class drugs kills, Sheldon said. Of the Critical Analysis of Research Information Technology 35 death penalty states, seven Southern states still offer electrocution. Powell was the 106th Virginia inmate executed since the U.S.

Supreme Court reinstated capital punishment in 1976. Only Texas, with 451, has executed more inmates. Virginia executes man in 1999 murder of woman, rape of prader her sister, by Critical Analysis Between Josh White. (March 19, 2010) Kristie Reed was on the basement floor, her throat and wrists slashed. Syndrome? Her older sister, Stacie, was upstairs, dead from a stab wound to the heart. When police reached Kristie, who was then 14 years old, an Critical of Research on Interactions Use in officer leaned in and asked who had done this to her. Kristie mouthed two words: Paul Powell. On Thursday night, more than 11 years later, Paul Warner Powell, 31, was executed in Virginia's electric chair. Essay Law Class? He was declared dead at Critical of Research Information Use in 9:09 p.m. The Jan.

29, 1999, murder of one sister and essay about the rape and near-slaying of the other in Manassas were among the most notorious crimes in Critical of Research Between Technology Use in Children the region's recent history. Besides the savage attacks, the case was known for Powell's boastful jailhouse letter to Prince William County's chief prosecutor, which provided the crucial evidence that resulted in Thursday's execution. But it was Kristie Reed's eyewitness account that led to media body, Powell's arrest and Critical of Research on Interactions Between Information admission just hours after the influence body image slaying. She is Analysis Technology Use in Children left with decade-old memories of her sister and a neck laced with what she calls battle scars. Formerly against Essay Responsible the death penalty, Kristie eagerly awaited Powell's execution. I need to know that he's gone, that we don't have to deal with this anymore, said Kristie Reed, now 25 and an advocate for rape victims. I was totally against the death penalty before this happened, and I didn't know why people would want to do it. But those people haven't been through what we've been through.

Now I'm totally for it. He definitely deserves to Analysis of Research Between Technology, die. He needs to die for what he did to Essay for Enrollment Law Class, Stacie. In the end, Powell was silent. The man who was defiant throughout the legal proceedings decided to say nothing after guards strapped him into the oak electric chair in the Greensville Correctional Center. He stared ahead when asked whether he wanted to say anything. Stacie's and Kristie's mother, Lorraine Reed Whoberry, said that the family spoke with Powell by phone Wednesday and that he expressed remorse in his own way. Powell acknowledged that the crime was a senseless and pointless thing and said he was sorry, she said.

The family witnessed Powell's execution, and Whoberry said she was glad she did because now she knows he is gone. Justice was served, and this chapter has closed, she said. It has been a long decade for Kristie Reed and Whoberry, who have suffered through nearly unbelievable twists and Analysis on Interactions Technology turns. Powell had taunted them with vulgar letters from jail that included threats to kill them. And the legal case was emotional and Essay Responsible difficult. After Kristie Reed took the stand to testify against Powell in 2000 -- she never looked him in the eye -- prosecutors secured the first conviction and death sentence. At the hearing in which the Analysis on Interactions Between Technology Use in Children judge imposed the jury's sentence, the forewoman testified on Powell's behalf, saying that she loved him and had made the wrong decision. In 2001, the Virginia Supreme Court threw out Powell's death sentence, ruling that the murder of one girl and the rape of another could not be considered the same crime -- a factor necessary for the death penalty.

After the ruling, Powell wrote an insulting letter to prosecutors. But in it, he admitted that he had tried to Responsible Owners, rape Stacie Reed, too. That admission tied Stacie's attempted rape to her slaying and led prosecutors to on Interactions Information Technology, re-indict him. He was convicted and sentenced to death a second time after another full trial in 2003. Through it all, Powell egged on about camping Prince William County Commonwealth's Attorney Paul B. Ebert, who has now sent 10 people to Virginia's death chamber, nearly 10 percent of Critical on Interactions Between Technology Use in all people executed in the state since capital punishment was reinstated in 1982. Usually unflappable, this case has brought Ebert to tears at times and has made him so close to the Reeds that they consider him part of their family. Post reporter recounts Paul Powell's execution, by syndrome Josh White. (March 19, 2010; 8:00 AM) I was on the scene in Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Use in Children Manassas on Jan. 29, 1999, shortly after 16-year-old Stacie Reed was murdered and her younger sister was raped and nearly killed in their home. It was the first major crime I covered for The Post.

The crime itself was shocking: Two young girls brutally attacked in their own home by a man not. much younger than I was. It began an 11-year journey that included nearly unbelievable twists at prader syndrome almost every stage of the case against Paul Warner Powell, who was executed in Virginia on Thursday night. The trial is the only time I’ve ever seen a member of the jury testify on behalf of the defendant. It is the only case I’ve covered during which the of Research Between Use in defendant sent vulgar and intimidating letters to the family of his victims.

And it is the only case I’ve ever heard of that involved a defendant beating his death sentence -- only to turn around and admit additional elements of the Owners crime to a prosecutor, which then led to Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Technology, another death sentence. Prader Willis Syndrome? It was also one of those rare cases in which there was no question who the assailant was -- Kristie. Reed survived the attack and identified Powell -- and that he did, in fact, commit the crime. There was overwhelming physical evidence, and he fully confessed shortly after he was caught. The case came to Between Information Technology Children, a conclusion with Powell’s execution in Virginia’s death chamber at the Greensville Correctional Center in Jarratt. He was 31 years old. I have previously described an electrocution in Virginia’s electric chair, as I witnessed Larry Bill Elliott’s execution in November. This one was quite similar. Powell was moved from death row at nearby Sussex I prison in southern Virginia a few days before the execution and media body put in one of three cells that directly adjoin the death chamber in Greensville’s “L Unit.” There, leading up to his death, he was able to meet with with his mother and brother and his lawyers.

On Wednesday, Powell spoke to Kristie Reed and her mother, Lorraine Reed Whoberry, in a meeting that Powell’s lawyer, Jon Sheldon, arranged. Critical Analysis Technology Use In Children? The family went to prader syndrome, Sheldon’s office in Fairfax and was able to speak with Powell by phone. Whoberry said Powell was remorseful “in his own way,” stumbling through an apology during which he said the crime was “senseless and Critical Between Technology Children pointless.” But the man who had sent Whoberry a naked photograph of a woman and compared her to her dead daughter, and prader syndrome who sent obscenity-laced letters to Analysis of Research on Interactions Technology Children, prosecutors, was this week taking responsibility and saying he was sorry. Sheldon said the phone call was “very, very powerful” and showed Powell’s understanding that what he did was horrifying and shameful. But the phone call produced no answer to on Honoring Owners, why the attack happened. “There is no why,” Sheldon said. “He was rejected by everyone in of Research on Interactions Technology Children his life, he had no real friends and no family support. There isn’t a satisfying answer and it’s extremely frustrating.

Stacie rejected Paul, and for very good reason. He just couldn’t take another rejection.” Powell spent Thursday preparing to die. His head was shaved, as was his right leg, where sponge-lined contacts are placed to complete an electrical circuit. Prader? Sheldon said Powell barely ate, and his last meal request was not released to Analysis on Interactions Between Technology Use in Children, the public.

Media witnesses entered the death chamber at 8:40 p.m. We were led into a small room inside the chamber. The room is lined with reinforced glass and has 20 hard plastic chairs in four tiered rows that face the electric chair. At 8:53 p.m., Powell, handcuffed, entered the room with four guards through a door to the right of the room. He wore the same light blue shirt and dark blue pants that all condemned inmates in Virginia wear. The right pants leg was cut off above the Responsible knee. He wore flip-flops. Powell looked gaunt and Analysis of Research on Interactions Children pale.

He had a stern look and syndrome held his chin high. He was placed in the chair and a total of six guards affixed eight straps around his ankles, wrists, upper arms, waist and chest. A clamp was attached to Critical Information Technology Use in Children, his right leg below the willis knee, and a metal skullcap was placed on his head with a chin strap. Powell swallowed hard and his eyes darted around the room. At 8:58 p.m., an official switched on a microphone in the room and Powell was asked if he had anything to say. Critical Analysis? He just stared straight ahead and said nothing. Expectency Theory? A minute later, a face mask was put in place, covering him from forehead to chin with just his nose exposed. A guard wiped his face and Critical Analysis Technology leg with a white towel. After a key was turned in the far right rear of the room, activating the system, a man concealed in an adjoining room hit the “execute” button on a machine that was described as being about the prader size of a top-loading clothes washer. It was precisely 9 p.m.

There was a thump as Powell’s body jerked back into Critical Analysis on Interactions Children, the chair. His hands clenched into tight fists and veins swelled as his arms turned red. Smoke rose from his leg. Essay About Camping? Officials said 1800 volts at 7.5 amps -- about 13,500 watts, or enough to power 135 100-watt lightbulbs -- flowed through his body for 30 seconds. That was followed by 240 volts at 1 amp for Critical Analysis Between Use in Children 60 seconds.

The cycle repeated. Expectency? With the second major jolt, smoke and Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Technology Children sparks emitted from about, Powell’s right leg. His knee appeared to swell and turn purple. His knuckles went white. At 9:03, the electricity stopped. Everyone waited in silence for five minutes. At 9:08, a guard walked up to Powell and opened his shirt. A doctor emerged from a door on the left side of the room and placed a stethoscope on Powell’s chest in search of a heartbeat. Of Research Between Information Use In? There was none. He was pronounced dead at 9:09 p.m., and prader a curtain was drawn. Whoberry and Reed watched the Critical of Research Between Information Children execution from behind one-way glass.

They were joined by Commonwealth’s Attorney Paul B. Ebert, who has sent 10 criminals to death in Virginia, nearly 10 percent of all the people executed since Virginia restarted executions in 1982. Ebert witnessed his first execution in voting November, when sniper John Allen Muhammad was executed by lethal injection. Three more people Ebert has prosecuted are on Virginia’s death row, and another committed suicide before he was executed. Ebert said that to him, lethal injection was an anticlimax, as it appeared Muhammad simply went to sleep. Electrocution, Ebert said, appeared to have more finality to it. Critical Of Research On Interactions Between Information? “It was a little more vivid,” Ebert said afterward. “It felt more meaningful and impressive. Legal? But it was still a much more gentle death than Stacie’s.” Richard Leonard, who as a Prince William County police detective interrogated Powell and elicited his confession in 1999, also witnessed the on Interactions Between Information Use in execution and said that it put to rest an 11-year saga and one of the worst cases he’s seen in a career that spans more than three decades. “It involved kids. It was horrible,” Leonard said. “It was such a senseless, terrible thing that happened to a nice family. It changed all of their lives. … All of these cases are bad, but everyone has one case that haunts them for media body a long period of time. This is Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Information Use in Children that case.” Paul Powell dies in electric chair, by Amanda Stewart. (March 18, 2010)

JARRATT, Va.—Paul Warner Powell, who killed a 16-year-old Yorkshire girl and bragged about it in a letter to prosecutors, was put to death in Virginia’s electric chair Thursday. On Honoring? Powell, 31, was pronounced dead at 9:09 p.m. at the Greensville Correctional Center in Jarratt. He did not make statement. Powell spent his last hours meeting with his immediate family and attorneys, Virginia Department of Corrections spokesman Larry Traylor said. Traylor said Powell made a last meal request, but asked that it not be made public. Powell was sentenced to die for Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Technology Children killing and attempting to legal age, rape 16-year-old Stacie Reed. On Jan. 29, 1999, Powell entered the Reeds’ Yorkshire home and confronted Stacie, who was home alone after school, stabbed her and stomped on Critical Between Information Children her throat until she died. Powell said he was angry that Stacie had a black boyfriend. Powell then waited in prader the house, drinking iced tea and smoking a cigarette, until 14-year-old Kristie came home from Critical Analysis of Research Between Information Use in, school.

He tied her up, raped her and stabbed her and left her to die in the basement. Kristie survived and testified against Powell. Now 25, Kristie witnessed Powell’s execution, alongside her mother, Lorraine Reed Whoberry. On Wednesday, a day before Powell was set to die, Whoberry said she and her family were ready for the execution to happen and to “close a chapter” in their lives. Media? “We’re all kind of anxious, not knowing what to expect,“ Whoberry said. “I’m trying not to go with any expectations. I’m just hoping I can get through this and be strong for Kristie.“ Whoberry, who started the S.T.A.C.I.E. Foundation to tell her family’s story in seminars to law enforcement agencies around the country, said she has forgiven Powell, but felt the execution was necessary for justice to be served. Whoberry told the Analysis of Research Information Use in Richmond Times Dispatch that they talked with Powell by phone for more than an hour on Wednesday. “He was able to say he was sorry, and he made the point several times that (the crime) was senseless, it was pointless . he couldn’t really give us a reason why,“ Stacie’s mother, Lorraine Whoberry, told the media influence newspaper. “It was just a simplistic, ‘I’m sorry,‘ and I accept that.“ Whoberry said Powell told her he had not forgiven himself and she told him she hoped he could reconcile with God before the execution. “We let him know that we are praying for him and his mom, his family,“ she said. Whoberry and her family, who now live in Ohio, also traveled to the area last July to attend Powell’s execution.

That time, the United States Supreme Court issued a stay until they could decide whether to hear Powell’s case. Critical Technology? In January, the high court decided it would not intervene. Last week, Virginia Gov. Bob McDonnell also said he would not stay the execution. It was the prader syndrome first capital case to Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Technology Use in, come before the new governor. Powell was first convicted of capital murder in 2000, but the on Honoring Responsible Owners Virginia Supreme Court overturned that conviction. Then, thinking he could no longer face the death penalty, Powell wrote a taunting letter to Prince William Commonwealth’s Attorney Paul Ebert, giving him new evidence by Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Information Technology describing how he attempted to rape Stacie. Ebert again indicted Powell for capital murder and in in a 2003, Powell was convicted and sentenced to die. Ebert—who has put more men on death row than any other prosecutor in the state—also witnessed Powell’s execution. After the execution, Powell’s attorney, John Sheldon said Powell was “remorseful” in the hours and Critical Analysis Between Information Technology Use in days leading up to his death. “The man that we executed tonight was a different person than the person who committed those crimes ten years ago,“ Sheldon said. “He was very remorseful and very aware that he brought this on himself.“

Ebert witnessed Powell’s execution Thursday, alongside Kristie Reed and her mother. Essay For Enrollment Law Class? “I can’t speak for of Research on Interactions Technology Use in the family, but my sense is this will give them solace and closure,“ Ebert said.“They can go on on Honoring Responsible Owners with their lives.“ Powell was the 106th Virginia inmate executed since capital punishment was reinstated in Critical on Interactions Between Technology Use in Children the United States in 1976. Now there are 13 inmates on voting age death row including two, Justin Wolfe and Joshua Andrews, both 28, who were convicted in Critical Between Technology Use in Prince William County. In January 1999, Robert Culver and his fiance, Lorraine Reed, lived together in a small brick home on McLean Street in image Manassas, Virginia, with Reed's two daughters, Stacey Lynn Reed and Kristie Erin Reed. On January 29, 1999, Paul Warner Powell, then 20, went to visit the Reeds' home. Powell was carrying two knives and a 9 mm handgun. Critical Analysis Between Technology Children? Stacey, then 16 years old, left home to go to work, and Powell remained there alone with Kristie, who was 14. That afternoon, Kristie called her mother by expectency telephone and of Research on Interactions Information Children informed her that Powell refused to leave the home. Prader? Kristie's mother told Kristie to order Powell to Analysis Technology Use in, leave. Kristie was concerned because Powell kept walking back and forth down the hallway looking in the rooms.

On the on Honoring Owners afternoon of January 29, 1999, Kristie arrived home from Analysis Between Information Technology Use in Children, school and was startled to find Powell in her house. She asked Powell where Stacey was. He replied, she was in her room. Responsible? Kristie walked to Stacey's room, but Stacey was not there. Then, Kristie turned to enter her own room and saw Stacey's body lying on the floor.

Powell, who had followed Kristie to Critical Analysis of Research Use in, the bedroom ordered Kristie to go downstairs to willis syndrome, the basement. Kristie knew that Powell customarily armed himself with a knife. She had previously observed Powell with a butterfly knife and another long knife that was in Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Children a brown pouch type thing. Powell forced Kristie to voting age, accompany him to the basement, where he ordered her to remove her clothes. She took her clothes off because she didn't want to die. Powell told Kristie to lay on Critical Analysis Between Information Technology the floor, and then he raped her. After Powell raped Kristie, he dressed himself, and he used shoelaces taken from Kristie's shoes to tie her feet together. He also used shoelaces to tie her arms behind her back.

Someone knocked on example essay camping the door to the house, and Powell went upstairs, leaving Kristie naked and Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between bound on the basement floor. While Powell was upstairs, Kristie was able to free her hands, and she tried to scoot across the floor and prader willis hide beneath the basement steps. Powell returned to Use in, the basement, removed Kristie's eyeglasses, and strangled her until she was unconscious. Powell stabbed Kristie in the stomach, and the knife stopped within a centimeter of her aorta. He slashed her in her neck numerous times, and the repair of the knife wounds required 61 sutures. She had multiple stab wounds to legal, her neck and abdomen. She also had wounds on her wrists. Robert Culver arrived at Critical of Research Use in the home at 4:15 p.m. on January 29, 1999. He could not locate Kristie or Stacey. He went to the girls' bedrooms and saw that Stacey's room was in disarray.

He entered Kristie's room, turned on the lights, and found Stacey's body on in a the floor. He observed blood on her body and saw that she was not breathing. When Culver went to Analysis on Interactions Children, the basement in search of a telephone, he discovered Kristie lying naked and bound on voting age the floor, bleeding from her neck and stomach. He saw that she had been stabbed in the stomach and her throat was slit pretty severely, many times. Culver found a telephone, dialed 911, and Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology spoke to emergency response personnel. In a recent interview, Robert Culver said the worst part for him are the regrets of Essay for Enrollment in a Law Class that day.

He says he had a cold and that his boss told him he could leave early on that day. He almost took him up on the offer, but didn't want the Technology Children girls to think he came home early because he didn't trust them to be alone. In A? Little things like that, he said. I should have been home. Although Kristie was experiencing life-threatening injuries, she was able to tell police officers and Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Technology Use in Children paramedics that Paul Powell was her assailant. Stacey's death was caused by a stab wound to her chest. The wound pattern indicated that the blade of the influence body image knife pierced her heart and Critical Analysis Between Information Technology Use in was twisted upon withdrawal.

The blade of Powell's knife was consistent with the stab wounds. There were numerous bruises on expectency Stacey's head, neck, chest, abdomen, back, arms, and legs. She suffered stab wounds in her back and arm. She also had abrasions on her left hand and wrist that were characterized as defensive wounds. Stacey's body contained bruises on her lower neck that were consistent with someone stepping or stomping on her face and neck. Police officers arrested Powell on January 30, 1999 at the home of Critical Analysis on Interactions Children a friend.

The police officers also located a blue sports bag that belonged to Powell. A nine-millimeter semiautomatic pistol with a full magazine containing 10 Winchester nine- millimeter cartridges was in the bag. The bag also contained a survival knife with a five and example about one-half inch blade inside a black sheath and a butterfly knife with a five inch blade. The survival knife sheath contained a dark reddish-brown stain. The DNA profile obtained from the stain on the sheath was consistent with the DNA profile of Critical Between Use in Children Stacey Reed and different from the age DNA profile of Kristie Reed and Paul Powell. The probability of selecting an unrelated individual with a matching DNA profile is Critical on Interactions Between Technology approximately one in essay 1.1 billion in the Caucasian population. After his arrest, Powell consented to several interviews with police officers. During one interview, he stated that he had been at the Reeds' home on January 29, 1999 and that Stacey was dead because she was stupid. Powell told the police officers that he and Stacey had an argument because she had a black boyfriend, and Powell didn't agree with interracial dating. Powell claimed that during the Analysis Information Technology Use in argument, Stacey attacked him and Law Class scratched his face, and then he pushed her to the floor.

He claimed that Stacey attacked him again, and on Interactions Between Technology that she got stuck on his knife. Powell also initially denied raping Kristie. In a second statement to police officers, Powell admitted that he raped Kristie. The detective who interviewed Powell testified that Powell stated that he had to kill Kristie because she was the only witness and media influence image he would have to go to jail. Powell was sentenced to death in August, 2000. In 2001, the Between Information Technology Use in Virginia Supreme Court overturned his death sentence, saying that prosecutors had failed to prove that Powell had raped Stacey which was part of the reason for defining the case as a capital murder. A murder that is committed in conjunction with another felony is one of the requirements for a death sentence and for Enrollment the appeals court felt that the rape of Stacey's sister Kristie was a separate act. Under the erroneous assumption that this meant he could no longer face the death penalty, Powell wrote two letters to the Commonwealth's Attorney of Prince William County, Paul Ebert.

Below is the of Research on Interactions Between Technology Use in Children content of a letter that Powell wrote, dated October 21, 2001. Mr. Ebert, Since I have already been indicted on first degree murder and expectency the Va. Supreme Court said that I can't be charged with capital murder again, I figured I would tell you the rest of what happened on Jan. 29, 1999, to show you how stupid all of Critical on Interactions Between Technology Children y'all mother f*ckers are. Prader Willis Syndrome? Y'all should have known that there is Analysis on Interactions Information Technology more to the story than what I told by what I said. You had it in writing that I planned to kill the Essay Responsible whole family. Since I planned to kill the whole family, why would I have fought with Stacie before killing her? She had no idea I was planning to kill everybody and talked and carried on like usual, so I could've stabbed her up at any time because she was unsuspecting. I had other plans for her before she died.

You know I came back to Critical Analysis of Research Between Technology Children, the house after Bobby's lunch break was over and he had went back to work. Responsible Owners? When I got back, she was on the phone so I went inside and Analysis Between Information Technology Children I laid down on for Enrollment in a Law Class the couch. When the cab came to Critical of Research on Interactions Between, bring me my pager, I ran out of the expectency theory house and she jumped and got off the phone and came off the porch to see why I ran out of the house like I did. When the cab left we went in the house. I laid on the couch again and Critical of Research Between Information Technology Use in she went to her room and got her clothes and went downstairs to do her laundry. When she went downstairs, I got up and example essay camping shut and locked the back door and went downstairs. We talked while she put her clothes in the wash. We continued talking when she had everything in the wash and I reached over and touched her ti+ and asked if she wanted to f*ck. She said no, because she had a boyfriend. I started arguing with her because she had never turned anybody down because of having a boyfriend. We started walking upstairs, arguing the whole time.

When we got upstairs we went to of Research on Interactions Technology Children, her room and she turned the example radio off. After she turned the radio off I pushed her onto her bed and grabbed her wrists and Analysis Between Information Technology pinned her hands down by her head and sat on top of her. I told her that all I wanted to do was f*ck her and then I would leave and that we could do it the easy way or the hard way. She said she would f*ck me so I got up. After I got up, she got up and started fighting with me and clawed me face.

We wrestled around a little and then I slammed her to the floor. When she hit the influence floor I sat on top of her and pinned her hands down again. She said she would f*ck me and I told her that if she tried fighting with me again, I would kill her. When I got up she stood up and kept asking me why I was doing this and Critical of Research Children all I kept saying is take your clothes off. Finally she undid her pants and voting pulled them down to her ankles. Critical Of Research On Interactions Between Use In Children? She was getting ready to for Enrollment in a, take them the rest of the way off and Analysis of Research Technology the phone rang. Influence? When she heard the phone she pulled her pants back up and said she had to answer the phone. I pushed her back and said no. She said that she wouldn't say anything about me being there and I told her no and to take her clothes off. She tried to Analysis Use in, get out of the room again and I pushed her back and pulled out my knife.

I guess she thought I was just trying to scare her and Owners that I wouldn't really stab her because she tried to of Research on Interactions Technology Use in, leave again. When she got to me and tried to image, squeeze between me and the door jam I stabbed her. On Interactions Information Children? When I stabbed her, she fell back against the door jam and just looked at me with a shocked look on her face. Responsible? When I pulled the Critical Analysis Between knife out she stumbled a couple steps and fell in her sister's room. I walked over and looked at her. In A Law Class? I saw that she was still breathing so I stepped over her body and into the bedroom. Then I put my foot on her throat and stepped up so she couldn't breathe. Then I stepped down and started stomping on her throat. Then I stepped back onto her throat and on Interactions moved up and for Enrollment down putting more pressure to make it harder to breathe.

When I didn't see her breathing anymore, I left the Critical of Research Technology Use in room and got some iced tea and sat on the couch and smoked a cigarette. You know the rest of what happened after that point. I would like to thank you for saving my life. I know you're probably wondering how you saved my life, so I'll tell you. You saved my life by f*cking up. Influence Body Image? There were 2 main f*ck-ups you made that saved me. The first was the Analysis on Interactions Information Children way you worded my capital murder indictment.

The second was the comment you made in your closing argument when you said we won't know because he won't tell us. One more time, thank you! Now y'all know everything that happened in that house at 8023 McLean St. on Jan. 29, 1999. Media Body? I guess I forgot to mention these events when I was being questioned. Ha Ha! Sike! I knew what y'all would be able to prove in court, so I told you what you already knew. Stacey was dead and no one else was in of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology the house so I knew ya'll would never know everything she went through unless she came back to life. Legal Voting Age? Since the Supreme Court said I can't be charged with capital murder again, I can tell you what I just told you because I no longer have to worry about the death penalty.

And y'all are supposed to be so goddamn smart. I can't believe that y'all thought I told you everything. Well, it's too late now. Nothing you can do about Critical Information Use in it now so f*ck you you fat, c*cksucking, c*m guzzling, gutter slu+. I guess I'll see your bi+ch a$$ on Dec. Willis Syndrome? 18 at Analysis Use in Children trial because I'm not pleading to legal voting age, shi+.

Tell the family to Critical Analysis Information Use in Children, be ready to testify and relive it all again because if I have to suffer for the next 50 or 60 years or however long then they can suffer the image torment of reliving what happened for on Interactions Between Technology Use in Children a couple of days. I'm gone. F*ck you and image anyone like you or that associates with people like you. I almost forgot, f*ck your god, too. Jesus knows how to suck a d*ck real good.

Did you teach him? Well, die a slow, painful, miserable death. See ya punk. Do you just hate yourself for being so stupid and for f*ckin' up and saving me? Sincerely, Paul Powell. In a statement to a police officer on November 2, 2001, Powell gave the following description of Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Technology Use in Children Stacey's murder: She walked over to and uh I pushed her back. And then she walked over to me again I think and Essay for Enrollment in a Law Class then I pulled my knife out and you know, and she looked at me you know. Of Research Between Information Technology Children? I guess she thought I wouldn't stab her or whatever. So she tried to leave and go to voting age, answer the phone. Critical On Interactions Technology Children? That's that. . . Essay About? . . Critical Of Research On Interactions Between Information? After she got stabbed, she just looked at me for a minute you know and willis then you know, she . . .she was surprised and them um, I pulled the knife out, you know she stumbled a few steps, fell down in Christy's doorway.

I just walked over and looked at her. And I stepped over top of her and stepped on her throat and then stood on her throat and then stomped on her throat . Of Research Between Technology? . . then I stood on her throat until I didn't see her breathing no more. . . . .What I'm saying I was stepping on her. I'm saying I put all my weight on her. I'm saying that I put my foot there you know and camping then I lifted myself up to where I was standing on top of her. Started stomping on Analysis of Research Between Technology Children her throat.

And then man, I just stood on her throat again until I didn't see her breathe no more. Willis Syndrome? Before he raped Kristie, Powell knew that he intended to kill her. In response to a police officer's question: Before you raped Kristie, you knew you were going to Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Children, kill her; didn't you?, Powell responded: I really didn't have a choice; did I? While incarcerated in essay about jail awaiting his capital murder trial, Powell sent a letter to Lorraine Reed, the mother of Stacey and Kristie. Powell enclosed a photograph of a partially nude woman. Powell wrote: Lorraine, I was wondering if you might be able to help me think of something. I found this picture in a magazine and it kinda looks like someone I know or used to know, but I can't think of the persons name.

I think you know the person too, so I was wondering if you could tell me the name of the person this picture resembles so I can quit racking my brain trying to think of it? I would appreciate it. If you don't know the person I'm talking about, ask Kristie or Kelly Welch because I know they know who I'm thinking of. If you talk to the person I'm talking about, please give her my address and tell her to write me. Analysis Of Research Technology Children? The partially nude woman shown in the photograph resembled Lorraine Reed's daughter, Stacey. Powell wrote a letter to a friend while he was incarcerated. He stated: About when you asked me why I wouldn't do to you what I did to Stacie, I couldn't ever hurt you because you mean to much to me. See Stacie didn't mean anything to me.

She was a ni**er lover and expectency some of her wannabe skin head friends were supposed to kill me. Critical Of Research Between Use In? That's part of the reason why she died. Almost everything that happened in that house was planned. The only thing that wasn't planned was trying to f*ck Kristie. What was supposed to happen was, Stacie was supposed to Essay Responsible, die, and did, Kristie was supposed to die and then I was going to wait for their mom and stepdad to get home and I was going to kill them and then I was going to take their moms truck and then I was gonna go to Critical Analysis Between Information Technology Children, North Carolina and knock this dude off that stole all of my clothes and everything else I owned.

I had been thinking about doing it for along time but I could never bring myself to do it. I don't know what happened to make me finally do it. I feel bad for on Honoring Owners doing it. Stacie was a good kid. Powell wrote, in another letter: Hey babe, what's happening? Not too much here.

I writing you to see if you could get one of your guy friends to do me a favor. You know that Kristie is telling the cops things and that she is going to Critical Analysis Information Technology, testify against Essay on Honoring Responsible Owners me in court. Critical Of Research Between Information Technology Use In Children? I was wondering if you could get somebody to go to a pay phone and expectency theory call Kristie and tell her she better tell the cops that she lied to them and tell her she better not testify against me or she's gonna die. Powell sent the following letter to the Commonwealth's Attorney of Prince William County: Fat Ebert, What's up you fat head f*cker? I'm just writing to tell you, since you want to kill me so Goddamn bad for killing your ni**er loving whore, set up a court date closer than Oct. 25 so I can go ahead and get this bullshi+ over with and plead guilty so you can kill me and get it over with, unless you want to Critical on Interactions Information Technology Use in Children, let me out so I can kill the rest of the ni**er lovers and all the ni**ers, Jews, Sp*cs and everybody else in this f*cked up country that's not white. That includes you because you are a ni**er loving Jewish f*cking fa**ot. I will see you in hell bi+ch. your buddy, Paul Powell - P.S.

Watch your back! The jury viewed writings and drawings taken from Powell's jail cell that demonstrated his hatred of people who were not Caucasian. Legal? Additionally, the jury heard evidence that Powell told police officers that he was a racist and described his violent racial views. He stated, everybody that ain't white shouldn't – he needs to die. Powell had told a police officer that he wanted to Analysis of Research Between, purchase a gun to kill somebody. Kill a lot of expectency somebodies . . . Analysis Between Information Technology? just for something to do. Essay For Enrollment? The jury was aware of Powell's criminal record, including three convictions for contributing to the delinquency of a minor, two larceny convictions, and three felony convictions for abduction, rape, and on Interactions Between Information Use in Children attempted capital murder of Kristie.

In supporting the jury's finding that Powell's conduct was outrageously or wantonly vile, horrible or inhuman in that it involved . Example About? . . Of Research Between Children? depravity of mind and. . . aggravated battery to the victim beyond the minimum necessary to accomplish the act of murder, the criminal appeals court in prader willis syndrome Virginia commented, The day before Powell committed these gruesome crimes, he went to the victims' home and surveyed the interior of the house. He returned the next day and tried to Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Children, rape Stacey, who struggled with him. Essay On Honoring Responsible? He stabbed her in the heart, twisted the knife, and reinserted the knife in her heart. He stomped upon of Research Information Technology Children her throat and he placed the for Enrollment in a Law Class entire weight of his body on her throat until she died. Next, he drank a glass of iced tea, smoked a cigarette, and waited for Stacey's younger 14-year-old sister to Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Use in Children, return home.

When Kristie arrived, Powell directed her to her sister's body, forced her downstairs into the basement, and expectency theory raped her on on Interactions Information Technology Use in the floor. He then tied her hands and age feet while she was naked, choked her until she was unconscious, stabbed her in the stomach, and slashed her neck numerous times in an attempt to kill her. After the vicious attacks, Powell had snuck out the back door, leaving Kristie for dead. He drove with a friend to Washington and bought some drugs, then returned to the friend's girlfriend's house where he drank beer and ordered a pizza. Critical Between Information Technology? They were still waiting for it to be delivered when police knocked on the door. Powell did not know his younger victim had survived and identified her attacker. Paul Warner Powell. Date of Birth: April 13, 1978. Entered the Row: September 15, 2000. District: Prince William County. Conviction: Capital murder.

Virginia DOC Inmate Number: 285713. On May 5, 2000, a jury in the Circuit Court of Prince William County convicted Paul Warner Powell of capital murder, attempted capital murder, abduction, rape, and grand larceny. Powell was 20-years old when he committed the crimes. On January 29, 1999, Powell entered the home of Stacie Reed, a 16-year old acquaintance. Essay In A? Powell was angry because she was dating a black youth and confronted her. After a scuffle, Powell stabbed Reed three times with a survival knife, twice in the heart. Powell remained at Critical Information Use in Children the residence until Reed’s 14-year old sister arrived home. On Honoring Owners? Powell then raped her, slit her throat, stabbed her in the abdomen and left her for dead. Reed’s sister survived and later testified against Powell.

The jury recommended the death penalty and three life sentences for the convictions. Powell refused to allow his defense to present mitigation evidence during the trial’s penalty phase. Prince William Circuit Judge Herman Whisenant upheld the jury’s recommendation and sentenced Powell to die. Whisenant rejected a defense motion to overrule the jury because the sentence had not been unanimous. The jury forewoman, Jennifer Melanie Day, testified that had she known life in prison was an option, she would have never voted for Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information a death sentence. In 2001, the Virginia Supreme Court reversed Powell’s death sentence, saying that prosecutors had failed to prove that Powell had raped Reed, part of the reason for essay defining the murder as a capital case. In October of 2001, Powell wrote letters to Prince William County Commonwealth Attorney Paul Ebert and the victim’s family detailing his crimes. The letters served as new evidence, even if the underlying crime was the same. Powell was retried in 2003 that Powell be sentenced to Analysis on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in, death.

The sentence was upheld by the Virginia Supreme Court in media image January 2004. Powell has been on death row since September 15, 2000. Powell v. Commonwealth , 552 S.E.2d 344 (Va. 2001) (Direct Appeal-Reversed). Defendant was convicted in the Circuit Court, Prince William County, Herman A. Whisenant Jr., J., of capital murder and related offenses and was sentenced to death. He appealed. The Supreme Court, Lawrence L. Critical Analysis Of Research Use In? Koontz, Jr., J., held that: (1) it was reversible error to theory, allow pretrial amendment of indictment to charge two new gradation crimes that were not considered by the grand jury; (2) error was harmless, at guilt phase, in prosecutor's commenting on defendant's failure to Between Technology Children, testify; (3) evidence was insufficient to support conviction; and (4) sentencing verdict form should have allowed the jury the option to impose a sentence of life imprisonment and a fine of up to $100,000.

Affirmed in Essay in a part, reversed in part, and remanded. G. Sufficiency of the Evidence. Powell assigns error to the trial court's failure to strike the Critical Analysis Between Information Technology Use in Children evidence as to the abduction of Kristie on the ground that the Essay Responsible Owners evidence was insufficient to support a jury finding that the restraint used exceeded that necessary to accomplish the crime of rape. We disagree. A defendant may be convicted of Information Technology abduction in addition to “another crime involving restraint of the victim, both growing out of a continuing course of Responsible conduct, . only when the detention committed in the act of abduction is Critical of Research Technology separate and apart from, and not merely incidental to, the restraint employed in the commission of the other crime.” Brown v. Commonwealth, 230 Va. 310, 314, 337 S.E.2d 711, 713-14 (1985). Here, there is sufficient evidence to support the finding of the jury that Powell used greater restraint than was necessary to commit rape.FN11 First, Powell ordered Kristie to go to a more secluded part of the home prior to legal age, the rape. See, e.g., Wilson v. Commonwealth, 249 Va. 95, 103, 452 S.E.2d 669, 675, cert. denied, 516 U.S. 841, 116 S.Ct. 127, 133 L.Ed.2d 76 (1995).

Although Powell did not display a weapon to Critical of Research on Interactions Use in Children, her at that time, it is clear under the circumstances that Kristie was in reasonable fear for her life having just discovered her sister's lifeless body and camping being aware that Powell was usually armed. Moreover, after the rape was complete, Powell bound Kristie and Critical Information Technology left her for some time before returning to influence body image, attempt to kill her. This restraint clearly exceeded that necessary to accomplish the rape. Critical Of Research On Interactions Between Technology Use In? See Hoke v. Commonwealth, 237 Va. Syndrome? 303, 311, 377 S.E.2d 595, 600, cert. denied, 491 U.S. 910, 109 S.Ct. 3201, 105 L.Ed.2d 709 (1989). Accordingly, we hold that the trial court did not err in failing to strike the evidence as to the charge of abduction. Within the same assignment of error, Powell also asserts that the evidence was insufficient to Analysis on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in, support his conviction for the capital murder of Stacey “during the commission of or subsequent to” the on Honoring Responsible Owners rape of Kristie.

There is simply no evidence upon which the jury could have found that Powell committed the Critical of Research Between Information Technology Children rape of Kristie before or during the Essay for Enrollment in a murder of Stacey. Of Research Technology Children? Indeed, it is media image undisputed that the rape occurred after the murder was completed. Accordingly, the evidence was insufficient to of Research Between Information Children, support Powell's conviction for capital murder as charged in the amended indictment. FN12. Example Essay About? For the reasons previously stated in this opinion, Powell's conviction for that crime will be reversed, and he will not be subject to retrial for that offense. Critical Of Research? Accordingly, we need not address the example essay camping error assigned to the trial court's failure to poll the jury with respect to whether the rape occurred before, during, or after the murder.

Having already determined that Powell's conviction for capital murder will be reversed, we now further determine that there is no basis upon which Powell can be retried for capital murder on Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Technology Use in remand. For Enrollment In A? The poll of the Critical of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology Children jury establishes that Powell was acquitted of the body image charge of capital murder in the commission of robbery or attempted robbery. It is equally clear that there is simply no evidence upon Critical Analysis Between Information Technology which the example essay about camping jury could have relied to find that Powell committed or attempted to commit any sexual assault against Stacey before or during her murder, or that the rape of Kristie did not occur after the murder of her sister. Accordingly, under the circumstances of this case, the evidence at best would have supported a conviction for first degree murder. For these reasons, we will reverse Powell's conviction for Critical Analysis Use in Children capital murder, affirm his convictions for abduction, rape, attempted capital murder, and grand larceny, and remand the case for a new trial on a charge of no greater than first degree murder for example camping the killing of Stacey Reed, if the Commonwealth be so advised. Powell v. Commonwealth , 590 S.E.2d 537 (Va. 2004) (Direct Appeal). Background: Defendant was convicted in the Circuit Court, Prince William County, Herman A. On Interactions Between Information? Whisenant Jr., J., of capital murder and related offenses and was sentenced to death. He appealed. The Supreme Court, 261 Va.

512, 552 S.E.2d 344, affirmed in part, reversed in part, and remanded. On remand, defendant was convicted in the Circuit Court, Prince William County, Herman A. Whisenant Jr., J., of capital murder in the commission or attempted commission of sexual assault. Defendant appealed. On consolidation of the on Honoring Owners automatic review of defendant's death sentence with his appeal, Holdings: the Analysis Between Information Technology Children Supreme Court, Lawrence L. Koontz, Jr., J., held that: (1) fact that Commonwealth's attorney had read defendant's correspondence, stating “how stupid all y'all are,” was insufficient to disqualify attorney from prosecuting defendant's second murder trial; (2) neither law of the influence body image case doctrine nor double jeopardy barred retrying defendant for capital murder; (3) probative value of evidence that defendant raped and attempted to murder victim's sister was not outweighed by its prejudicial effect; (4) evidence sufficiently corroborated defendant's letter confessing to having attempted to rape the murder victim; and Use in Children (5) defendant's death sentence was not excessive nor disproportionate to Essay Owners, similar cases. Affirmed. OPINION BY Justice LAWRENCE L. KOONTZ, JR.

In this appeal, we review the capital murder conviction and sentence of death imposed upon Paul Warner Powell for the murder of Stacey Lynn Reed in the commission of, or subsequent to, attempted rape. Code § 18.2-31(5). A. Powell's First Trial and Appeal. Powell was originally convicted of the capital murder of Critical of Research Between Information Technology Stacey Lynn Reed in 2000 and sentenced to death. See Powell v. Commonwealth, 261 Va. Voting Age? 512, 530, 552 S.E.2d 344, 354 (2001). In the same trial, Powell was convicted of the abduction, rape, and attempted capital murder of Stacey's younger sister, Kristie Erin Reed, and was sentenced to three terms of life imprisonment and Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Information Technology fines totaling $200,000 for those crimes. FN1 The abduction, rape, and expectency attempted capital murder convictions, as well as a conviction for grand larceny, were affirmed in the prior appeal and are not at issue in this appeal. Powell had also been tried for robbery and attempted robbery, Code § 18.2-58, and three counts of Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in Children use of a firearm, Code § 18.2-53.1.

He was acquitted of those crimes. Upon review of the capital murder conviction and the death sentence imposed upon voting age Powell, this Court reversed the conviction on various grounds including a finding that the indictment charging Powell with capital murder in Analysis of Research Between Information Technology the commission of robbery and/or attempted robbery had been improperly amended to include a charge of capital murder “during the commission of Essay for Enrollment Law Class or subsequent to rape and/or attempted rape and/or sodomy and/or attempted sodomy.” FN2 Id. at 532, 552 S.E.2d at 355-56. Upon review of the record, we further held that the wording of the indictment limited the Critical Analysis Commonwealth to proving that the “gradation crime was a rape occurring before or during the killing,” id. at 538-39, 552 S.E.2d at 359, and there was “no evidence upon Essay Owners which the jury could have found that Powell committed the rape of Kristie before or during the murder of Stacey.” Id. at 541, 535 S.E.2d at 361. FN2. Following the presentation of the Commonwealth's case-in-chief in Powell's first trial, the Commonwealth had conceded that there was no evidence of forcible sodomy or attempted forcible sodomy against Kristie.

Powell, 261 Va. at 525, 552 S.E.2d at Analysis of Research on Interactions Information 351. Example About? Thus, that aspect of the amended indictment for capital murder from Powell's first trial is not relevant to any issue raised in this appeal. We summarized the consequence of these holdings in the conclusion of the opinion, stating: there is simply no evidence upon which the Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Children jury could have relied to find that Powell committed or attempted to commit any sexual assault against Stacey before or during her murder, or that the on Honoring Responsible Owners rape of Kristie did not occur after the murder of her sister. Accordingly, under the Critical Analysis Use in Children circumstances of this case, the evidence at best would have supported a conviction for Essay first degree murder. For these reasons, we will reverse Powell's conviction for Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Technology Use in capital murder . and remand the case for a new trial on a charge of no greater than first degree murder for the killing of Stacey Reed, if the Commonwealth be so advised. Expectency? Id. at 545-46, 552 S.E.2d at 363.

The mandate from this Court to the trial court tracked the language of the opinion, and Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Technology directed that “the case is remanded . for a new trial on a charge of no greater than first degree murder for prader willis the killing of Critical Between Information Technology Use in Stacey Reed, if the Commonwealth be so advised.” B. Events and Proceedings Following Remand. On October 21, 2001, Powell wrote an Essay on Honoring Responsible obscenity-laced letter to the Commonwealth's Attorney who had prosecuted Powell in his first trial. FN3 Powell stated in the letter that, because he believed he could not be retried for capital murder, “I figured I would tell you the rest of what happened on Jan. 29, 1999, to show you how stupid all y'all . are.” Admitting that he “planned to kill the whole family” on that day, Powell further stated that “I had other plans for [Stacey] before she died.” Powell described how he had attempted to initiate consensual sexual intercourse with Stacey, which he had previously admitted.

Powell then revealed that when Stacey resisted his advances, he pushed her onto her bed and, while sitting on top of her, told Stacey “that we could do it the easy way or the hard way.” FN3. Powell had previously written to the Commonwealth's Attorney on July 4, 2001, proposing a plea agreement for a first degree murder charge for the killing of Stacey Reed. Powell then described how Stacey had “started fighting with me and clawed me [sic] face.” Powell stated that he “slammed her to Analysis Between Children, the floor . sat on top of her and in a Law Class pinned her hands down again.” Powell claimed that Stacey relented “and I told her if she tried fighting with me again I would kill her.” Continuing, Powell stated that, at his direction, Stacey began to disrobe, but stopped when the telephone rang. Stacey put her clothes back on so that she could answer the Critical Analysis on Interactions Information Technology Use in telephone. Powell refused to allow Stacey to answer the telephone and ordered her to resume disrobing. When she refused, Powell “pushed her back and pulled out [his] knife.” When Stacey attempted to leave the bedroom, Powell stabbed her. Stacey fell back and Powell removed the knife.

Stacey then stumbled to another bedroom and collapsed. Powell “saw that she was still breathing” and “started stomping on her throat” until he “didn't see her breathing anymore.” The New Indictment Armed with this new evidence, the Commonwealth elected to nolle prosequi the voting age indictment in the remanded case, under which it was limited to of Research Between Information, trying Powell for first degree murder under our mandate, and sought a new indictment against Powell for legal voting age capital murder. On December 3, 2001, the grand jury returned an indictment charging Powell with the capital murder of “Stacey Lynn Reed during the commission of or subsequent to the attempted rape of Critical Analysis of Research Information Technology Use in Stacey Lynn Reed.” C. Powell's Second Trial.

Motions to Dismiss the influence body Indictment. On April 24, 2002, Powell filed a motion to dismiss the December 3, 2001 indictment. Powell asserted that “[w]hen the Supreme Court of Virginia issues an opinion concerning a case, this opinion becomes the law of the Analysis on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in Children case” and, thus, the directive of the opinion and mandate from this Court in his first appeal limited his retrial to a charge no greater than first degree murder, regardless whether that trial was conducted under the original indictment or a new indictment. Expectency? The Commonwealth filed a response to Critical Analysis of Research Between Technology, this motion, asserting that the media influence body judgment of this Court in Powell's first appeal was not applicable to of Research on Interactions Technology Children, the December 3, 2001 indictment because Powell had “never [previously] been charged with the capital murder of Stacey Reed in the commission or attempted commission [of] sexual assault against [Stacey Reed] because, at the time of [Powell's first] trial, no such evidence existed.” Accordingly, the Commonwealth contended that the December 3, 2001 indictment was “a new charge, one that has never been litigated in trial nor considered by the Virginia Supreme Court.” Following a hearing on this and other pre-trial matters, the trial court overruled Powell's motion to dismiss the indictment in an order dated May 6, 2002. On May 17, 2002, Powell filed a second motion to dismiss the December 3, 2001 indictment. The briefs filed in theory the trial court in Critical of Research Between Use in Children support of and in opposition to this motion parallel the prader willis syndrome arguments made on appeal with respect to this issue and, accordingly, we will only Critical of Research Children summarize the Essay in a essential points of those arguments here. The import of Powell's argument was that his prior trial and the reversal of his conviction by this Court acted as an “implied” or “judicial” acquittal of the attempted rape of Analysis of Research Between Information Technology Use in Children Stacey, thus barring his retrial for her capital murder premised on that gradation offense. The Commonwealth responded that the issue whether Stacey had been the victim of example about camping a sexual assault was not before the Analysis Information jury in prader his first trial because the Analysis of Research Information Use in Children bill of particulars provided at Powell's request indicated that only Kristie was the victim of the sexual assault gradation offenses charged in the amended indictment. Similarly, the Commonwealth contended that our comments concerning the insufficiency of the evidence to prove a sexual assault or attempted sexual assault against Stacey were not directed toward any finding of the jury, but to the contrary were indicative of the fact that the jury did not consider whether Stacey had been the victim of such an willis syndrome assault or attempt.

On June 5, 2002, the trial court held a hearing on Powell's second motion to dismiss the indictment. After hearing argument, the trial court stated that by identifying Kristie as the Critical on Interactions victim of the rape or attempted rape in the bill of particulars, the Commonwealth had clearly identified her as the victim of those gradation crimes in the amended indictment for expectency theory capital murder. The trial court also agreed with the Commonwealth that this Court's reference to the lack of evidence to prove any sexual assault or attempted sexual assault against Stacey was merely a comment on the record, and not an assertion that this was a theory of the Critical of Research Between Technology Use in Children case presented by the Commonwealth in on Honoring Owners Powell's first trial. On July 3, 2002, the trial court entered an order overruling Powell's second motion to dismiss the indictment. Other Pre-trial Motions. On April 25, 2002, Powell filed a motion to have Virginia's statutory scheme for charging a capital crime and imposing a death sentence declared unconstitutional on various grounds. On appeal, Powell reasserts only Analysis of Research Use in some of these arguments and does so only in summary fashion.

Accordingly, we will not summarize those arguments in detail here, but will address them within the discussion of the relevant assignment of Essay on Honoring Responsible Owners error, infra. On April 26, 2002, Powell filed a motion seeking to have the Commonwealth's Attorney's office disqualified from prosecuting his case. Powell contended that the Commonwealth's Attorney had a conflict of interest because he was a key “chain of Critical on Interactions Information custody witness” with respect to his receipt of Powell's October 21, 2001 letter “confession” to the attempted rape of Stacey. Powell further contended that the offensive nature of that letter and his other conduct toward the Commonwealth's Attorney had created such a level of animosity that the Commonwealth's Attorney would not be able to objectively pursue justice, but would instead seek to satisfy a personal vendetta against Powell. Expectency? Powell further contended that this taint of Critical of Research on Interactions Between Information Use in bias extended to every attorney in the Commonwealth's Attorney's office, and further asserted that these attorneys would be potential witnesses called to give testimony concerning the Commonwealth's Attorney's personal animus against Powell.FN4. FN4. Powell further contended that one of the Assistant Commonwealth's Attorneys while in private practice had represented Powell in an unrelated criminal matter and, thus, had a conflict of interest. Powell does not reassert this issue on appeal. On May 1, 2002, the willis Commonwealth filed responses to Powell's motions to have Virginia's statutory scheme for charging a capital crime and imposing a death sentence declared unconstitutional and to Analysis Information Technology Use in, disqualify the Commonwealth's Attorney's office. With respect to the former, the Commonwealth asserted that all the issues raised therein had previously been considered and prader willis rejected by Analysis of Research Between Technology this Court, and there was no cause for the trial court to expectency theory, revisit them. As to the latter, the Commonwealth asserted that there was no evidence of bias on the part of the Critical of Research Between Use in Children Commonwealth's Attorney or other members of his office and Essay for Enrollment in a denied that there was any such bias, that the Critical on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in Children manner of establishing the chain of custody of Powell's letter was not the defense's concern, and that the questions of an appearance of impropriety should be raised through a disciplinary complaint proceeding.

On May 6, 2002, in body image the same hearing in which the Analysis Use in Children trial court heard argument of Powell's first motion to dismiss the indictment, the trial court also heard argument on Powell's motions to essay about camping, have Virginia's statutory scheme for charging a capital crime and imposing a death sentence declared unconstitutional and to Analysis Children, disqualify the Commonwealth's Attorney's office from prosecuting the case. Expectency Theory? Following that hearing, the trial court entered an order overruling these motions without comment. On December 11, 2002, Powell filed a motion to exclude any evidence concerning his abduction, rape, and attempted murder of Critical on Interactions Information Technology Children Kristie Reed from his trial. Powell contended that because he was charged only with the Essay Law Class capital murder of Stacey Reed predicated on an attempted rape of her, evidence of on Interactions Information Technology his subsequent attack on Kristie was irrelevant or that any probative value it might have would be overborne by its unduly prejudicial effect on the jury. The Commonwealth did not file a response to this motion, but during oral argument in a hearing held December 23, 2002, the Commonwealth asserted that evidence concerning the attack on Kristie was part of a continuing criminal enterprise and was relevant to show Powell's motive and intent in attempting the rape of Stacey. Also on December 11, 2002, Powell, alleging that the United States Supreme Court's decision in Ring v. Voting? Arizona, 536 U.S. 584, 122 S.Ct. 2428, 153 L.Ed.2d 556 (2002) had called into question prior judgments of this Court concerning the issue, filed a motion seeking to Critical of Research Between Information Technology Children, have Code § 19.2-264.4(B) declared unconstitutional because it permits a jury to on Honoring, consider evidence relating to the future dangerousness and vileness aggravating factors without full protection of due process to the defendant to confront witnesses. Critical Of Research On Interactions Information? Powell also asserted that the statutory definitions of the aggravating factors are vague and, thus, would likely result in “unreliable” jury verdicts.

The Commonwealth filed a brief in response to this motion, asserting that the issue of the essay camping constitutionality of Code § 19.2-264.4(B) is settled law. On December 16, 2002, Powell filed a motion to suppress various statements he made to police during the Critical Analysis Between Technology initial investigation of the crimes. Legal? Powell alleged that after giving an initial statement following waiver of his Miranda rights, he advised police that he had nothing more to say. Thereafter, Powell contended, any statement he made to police without a readvisement and waiver of his Miranda rights should be suppressed. The Commonwealth responded that the Analysis Between Information Technology Use in Children suppression issue had been decided in Powell's first trial and, thus, the doctrine of res judicata barred consideration of the issue in his second trial.

FN5 Powell filed a supplemental motion on December 17, 2002 asserting that a statement taken by an investigator on November 2, 2001, while Powell was in prison following his first trial, should be suppressed because his counsel was not present. The Commonwealth responded that Powell had been advised of and waived his Miranda rights prior to giving this statement and that he was not entitled to counsel under the age Sixth Amendment at that time because he had not yet been indicted for the offense for which he was then on trial, and the formal proceedings on of Research Between the prior indictments had concluded. FN5. Powell did not contest the theory trial court's failure to suppress his statements in the appeal of his first conviction. In summarizing its rulings on these motions during the December 23, 2002 hearing, the trial court stated that it found Powell had waived his Miranda rights with respect to the statement made after his first trial but prior to the bringing of the second indictment and, thus, the statement was not barred by either the Fifth or Sixth Amendments. The trial court also indicated that it would deny the motion to suppress the statements from the initial investigation of the crimes, incorporating by reference the Analysis Information Technology finding made during the legal first trial with respect to those statements. Critical On Interactions Information Technology? The trial court further found that evidence of Powell's attack on Kristie was admissible as being part of a common scheme and to show consciousness of legal voting age guilt. The trial court entered an omnibus order denying all these motions as well as the motion challenging the constitutionality of Analysis of Research Information Use in Code § 19.2-264.4(B). Powell's second trial commenced on January 13, 2003. Willis Syndrome? The trial court conducted voir dire of the venire in panels of five potential jurors. In questioning the of Research Between Use in first panel, the trial court inquired whether “any of you have acquired any information about the alleged offense, or of the prader willis syndrome accused from the news media, or other sources in of Research on Interactions Information Use in this particular matter?” The five panel members indicated that they had not.

The Commonwealth further inquired whether “[i]f during the course of Essay on Honoring Owners trial you should hear something which would jog your memory about the of Research Information Technology Use in publicity, would you be able to example essay about, set that aside and render your verdict based solely on what you hear in the courtroom?” The five panel members each indicated that they could do so. During his voir dire of the first panel, Powell's counsel attempted to ask the following question: You're going to hear in this case that the Defendant has already been tried and Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Technology Use in Children convicted of capital murder at one point, and he's serving life sentences for for Enrollment in a other crimes. You're also going to of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology, hear that the voting Supreme Court of Virginia overturned the- At this point, the Commonwealth objected and during a bench conference, referencing Barker v. Commonwealth, 230 Va. 370, 375, 337 S.E.2d 729, 733 (1985), asserted that, as the panel had already indicated that they had not heard of the case previously, Powell's counsel's question concerning the prior trial and appeal “may, in fact, taint” the Critical of Research Information Use in Children members of the panel and legal disqualify them from serving on the jury. Powell's counsel responded that because the Critical Analysis of Research Technology Children evidence would disclose the fact of his prior convictions and the reversal of his capital murder conviction and death sentence on appeal, the prohibition of Barker did not apply. He further contended that because a jury's knowledge of a prior conviction was potentially prejudicial to the defendant, it was a “tactical decision that we've made . and we wish this evidence to come forward.” Thus, he contended that it was proper to explore the potential jurors' bias that would result from hearing that evidence. The trial court ruled, even though it agreed that this was a “unique case” because the evidence would establish the fact of the for Enrollment prior conviction and appellate reversal, “the Barker case is of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in still good law.” Accordingly, the trial court concluded that “we have to start off with a jury that does not have” knowledge of the Essay on Honoring Responsible prior trial, conviction, and appeal. Accordingly, the trial court ruled that Powell could not question the on Interactions Technology jurors about their potential bias based upon such evidence being likely to be presented during the trial. The Commonwealth then inquired, “Are we going to strike this panel or will the Court instruct the panel to disregard the question?” When the trial court indicated that it would instruct the panel to disregard the influence body question, Powell's counsel objected that he was “not sure that instructing them is sufficient . if they've already been told-.” The trial court cut off the objection, stating that the Critical Analysis Between Information members of the Essay for Enrollment Law Class panel had already indicated they were unaware of the case and that “all I can do is tell them to disregard the question.”

Guilt-Determination Phase Apart from the new evidence of of Research Between Information Technology Children Powell's October 21, 2001 letter to the Commonwealth's Attorney in which Powell confessed to the attempted rape of Stacey, the media body evidence presented during the guilt-determination phase of of Research on Interactions Between Technology Children Powell's second trial was not markedly different from that received during the first trial. Because we have thoroughly recounted that evidence in reviewing his first trial, see Powell, 261 Va. at syndrome 518-520, 552 S.E.2d at 347-348, and Analysis of Research Information Children Powell does not challenge the sufficiency of the evidence except with respect to influence body image, proof of the attempted rape of Stacey, we need not reiterate the full extent of the evidence, but will suffice with a summary of the essential details. Powell, who was twenty years old at the time of the crimes, had been acquainted with Stacey and Analysis Between Information Technology her family for approximately two-and-a-half years. Powell, a self-avowed racist and white supremacist, objected to Stacey dating Sean Wilkerson, a black classmate of Stacey's. Id. at Essay Law Class 518, 552 S.E.2d at 347. Stacey arrived home just before noon on Critical Between Information Technology Use in January 29, 1999 to find Powell waiting for her. When Powell learned that Robert Culver, a friend of the girls' mother, would be home shortly for lunch, Powell left, but returned at about 12:45 p.m., after Culver had left. When Powell returned, he was armed with a survival knife, a butterfly knife, a box cutter, and a 9-millimeter pistol.

Id. During the initial investigation, Powell claimed that he and example essay camping Stacey had argued about her relationship with Wilkerson and in an ensuing struggle, Powell drew the Critical Between Technology Children survival knife from his belt and Stacey “got stuck.” Id. Essay On Honoring Owners? Although Powell denied stabbing Stacey deliberately or otherwise injuring her, an autopsy revealed that she had suffered multiple blunt force injuries to Analysis on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in Children, her head, neck, and upper body not consistent with her merely having fallen during a struggle, but consistent with a deliberate stomping. The autopsy also showed that the Essay Owners wound to Stacey's chest was consistent with the knife having been twisted and partially withdrawn and Critical Analysis Between Information Technology Children reinserted. Id. at 520, 552 S.E.2d at 348. Powell denied having attempted to sexually assault Stacey, but when questioned again on that point would not give the investigator “a straight answer.” Powell later told police that he “probably” raped Kristie because he “didn't get any with Stacey.” Leaving Stacey for dead, Powell smoked a cigarette and drank a glass of iced tea in willis the living room of the home, waiting for Kristie to return home from school. When she arrived, Powell met her at the door.

Shortly thereafter, Kristie discovered her sister's body. Of Research Technology Use In Children? Powell then forced her to voting age, go to the basement of the home where he brutally raped her and attempted to on Interactions Between Technology, kill her by strangulation and by cutting her wrists and throat. Id. at 519, 552 S.E.2d at willis 347. At the conclusion of the Analysis of Research Between Commonwealth's case-in-chief, Powell moved to strike the evidence on the ground that the expectency Commonwealth had not presented sufficient evidence to corroborate Powell's confession in the October 21, 2001 letter that he had attempted to rape Stacey. Analysis On Interactions Between Information Use In? The Commonwealth pointed to the physical circumstances, such as the disheveled condition of Stacey's bedroom, Stacey's defensive wounds, and Essay for Enrollment in a Law Class the fact that when her body was discovered her pants' zipper was slightly undone, as corroborating Powell's confession. Analysis Of Research Between Information Technology Use In Children? The trial court denied the age motion to of Research on Interactions Between Information Children, strike. Thereafter, Powell elected not to offer any evidence. The jury was instructed, heard closing arguments, and retired to consider its verdict.

After two hours of deliberation, the expectency jury found Powell guilty of capital murder. Powell requested a poll of the jury, which confirmed that the verdict was unanimous. Penalty Determination Phase During the on Interactions Use in penalty determination phase, the Commonwealth presented evidence of expectency theory Powell's criminal record, including three convictions for contributing to the delinquency of a minor, two larceny convictions, and his convictions for the abduction, rape, and attempted capital murder of Kristie. The Commonwealth further presented evidence concerning Powell's extreme racist views. Additional evidence showed that Powell had tortured cats when he was younger and that he told an investigator that he wanted to Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information, purchase a gun to “ [k]ill somebody. Kill a lot of Essay Owners somebodies. Just for something to do.” Powell also told the investigator that he admired Charles Manson and Adolf Hitler, saying that “[t]hey were cool.” The Commonwealth also presented evidence that Powell wrote an abusive letter to Critical Analysis of Research Between Information Technology Children, Stacey's mother in which he included a pornographic picture of a woman who resembled Stacey.

Powell presented evidence from his parents and younger brother, a social worker, a psychologist, and a probation officer. This evidence dealt primarily with Powell's upbringing and transfer of custody from his mother to the Department of expectency theory Youth and Family Services following his juvenile offenses. The psychologist described Powell's home environment as “toxic.” The psychologist further testified that, following his incarceration, Powell had received “[m]edication to help stabilize his mood,” and while medicated Powell “has not had any serious disciplinary infractions.” The psychologist did not offer a specific diagnosis for Powell's “mental-health problems,” but testified that Powell's clinical history suggested an “anti-social personality disorder” and that his behavior as a child suggested Powell had “an under controlled temperament.” The psychologist further testified that the medication Powell had received in the past was “used for manic depressive illness which is now called bi-polar disorder and for certain forms of serious depression.” After ninety minutes of deliberation, the jury returned a unanimous verdict sentencing Powell to death. The jury indicated that the sentence was predicated on both the future dangerousness and vileness aggravating factors. Sentencing On May 8, 2003, the trial court held a sentencing hearing and received a pre-sentence report and victim impact evidence from Stacey's mother. Powell's counsel argued that imposition of the death sentence was not appropriate, asserting that so long as Powell were confined and properly medicated, he did not present a continuing danger to Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Technology Use in, society and that a life sentence without possibility of parole was adequate punishment. The Commonwealth responded that Powell had shown no remorse following his conviction in the first trial. The trial court then confirmed the jury's sentence of death. We consolidated the automatic review of Powell's death sentence with his appeal of the capital murder conviction and expedited the appeal on our docket.

Code § 17.1-313(F). Powell raises twelve assignments of error, the Essay Law Class first two of which merely restate the elements of the statutory review of any death sentence mandated by Critical of Research Between Information Technology Use in Children Code § 17.1-313(C). We will review Powell's arguments in the order in for Enrollment Law Class which the trial court considered the Analysis Between Information Technology issues below. A. Failure to Dismiss the essay about Capital Murder Indictment In his sixth and seventh assignments of of Research Between Use in error, Powell contends that the trial court erred in denying his motions to dismiss the capital murder indictment against him. This was the principal issue addressed by the parties during oral argument before this Court. Legal Age? The various positions under which Powell asserts that he was not subject to trial under the capital murder indictment can be generally summarized as follows: (1) The opinion and mandate of this Court from Powell's first trial limited his retrial for the killing of Stacey Reed to a charge no greater than first degree murder on any indictment. (2) Even if retrial on a charge of capital murder was not barred under a new indictment, Powell had been acquitted, either actually or by implication, of the attempted rape of Stacey Reed in his first trial and, thus, the law of the case doctrine barred his being tried for capital murder based upon the attempted rape of Stacey as the Critical on Interactions Between Information Technology Children gradation offense.

(3) Principles of double jeopardy bar his retrial for a violation of Code § 18.2-31(5) because the indictment in his first trial did not specify the victim of the gradation offense. Effect of Prior Opinion and voting age Mandate. We recognize the principle of the “mandate rule,” stated by of Research on Interactions Technology Children the Court of on Honoring Appeals of Virginia in a different context, that: A trial judge is bound by a decision and mandate from [an appellate court], unless [the court] acted outside [its] jurisdiction. A trial court has no discretion to disregard [a] lawful mandate. When a case is Critical of Research on Interactions Information Technology Children remanded to a trial court from an appellate court, the refusal of the trial court to follow the Essay in a Law Class appellate court mandate constitutes reversible error.

Rowe v. Critical Information Technology Use In Children? Rowe, 33 Va.App. 250, 257-258, 532 S.E.2d 908, 912 (2000); see also Frank Shop, Inc. v. Crown Central Petroleum Corp., 264 Va. 1, 6, 564 S.E.2d 134, 137 (2002) (holding that “a trial court cannot permit what this Court . [has] said is unlawful” in a mandate reversing the trial court's prior judgment and body remanding the Use in case). Relying on this principle, Powell contends that the Essay Law Class trial court was without authority to retry him on a new indictment charging him with the capital murder of Stacey Reed. Powell's reliance, however, is misplaced. It is self-evident that while the opinion of an appellate court, under the doctrine of stare decisis, applies to all future cases in the trial courts, the mandate, which is the directive of the appellate court certifying a judgment in a particular case to the court from which it was appealed, speaks only to that case.

Moreover, the mandate is controlling only “as to Critical of Research Between Technology Use in Children, matters within its compass.” Sprague v. Ticonic National Bank, 307 U.S. 161, 168, 59 S.Ct. 777, 83 L.Ed. 1184 (1939). Thus, while the directive of this Court's mandate binds the circuit court, that court is not thereby prohibited from acting on matters not constrained by the language of the mandate, construed in light of the Essay Owners appellate court's opinion. The mandate rule “is merely a ‘specific application of the law of the case doctrine,’ [and] in the absence of exceptional circumstances, it compels compliance on remand with the dictates of a superior court and forecloses relitigation of issues expressly or impliedly decided by the appellate court.” United States v. Bell, 5 F.3d 64, 66 (4th Cir.1993) (quoting United States v. Bell, 988 F.2d 247, 251 (1st Cir.1993)). Undoubtedly, had the trial court permitted the Commonwealth to retry Powell for capital murder on Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Information Technology Children the original amended indictment invalidated by our decision in reviewing his first conviction, this would have been violative of willis our mandate and reversible error. Similarly, had the Commonwealth dismissed that indictment and Analysis of Research Use in sought a new indictment charging Powell with the capital murder of Stacey Reed prior to the rape of Kristie Reed, it would have been error for the trial court to permit that indictment to stand.

However, nothing in our opinion or mandate from Powell's first appeal required the example about camping Commonwealth to retry Powell on the original indictment, abridged to Critical Analysis on Interactions Information Technology, cure the prader defects found by this Court to charge only first-degree murder. To the contrary, the directive of the mandate expressly stated that Powell was to be retried on of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in Children that indictment based on the record that was before this Court at that time, only “if the Commonwealth be so advised.” Nor did our opinion or mandate expressly preclude the possibility of image trying Powell on a new indictment charging capital murder premised on of Research on Interactions Use in Children a different gradation offense after dismissal of the former, defective indictment. Powell's October 21, 2001 letter to the Commonwealth's Attorney in in a which he revealed that he had attempted to rape Stacey before he killed her is an exceptional circumstance that merits a narrow application of the Analysis on Interactions Technology mandate rule. We recognize that, generally, serial prosecutions are not permitted where the Commonwealth deliberately refrains from media body image, bringing criminal charges arising out of the on Interactions Between Technology Children same act or transaction while prosecuting others in theory order to gain the advantage of Technology Use in Children having multiple trials.

See, e.g., Ashe v. Swenson, 397 U.S. 436, 444, 90 S.Ct. 1189, 25 L.Ed.2d 469 (1970). Such was not the case here, however, given the unexpected and possibly unique circumstance of example about evidence of an uncharged offense that was not previously known or available coming to Analysis of Research Between Information, light after the conclusion of the willis syndrome first trial in the form of the defendant's voluntary confession. Accordingly, we hold that the trial court correctly ruled that the opinion and Critical Analysis Between Children mandate of this Court from Powell's prior appeal did not bar the Essay Responsible Owners Commonwealth from dismissing the indictment against him and bringing a new indictment charging him with capital murder premised upon a gradation offense not previously charged by the Commonwealth and based upon evidence that was not previously known or available to the Commonwealth at the time of his first trial. Acquittal under the “Law of the Case” Powell contends that although he was not charged in a separate indictment with the attempted rape of Stacey in his first trial, the Commonwealth nonetheless presented evidence tending to show that he attempted to rape Stacey to bolster its claim that her murder was related to a sexual assault.

To support this claim, Powell relies upon statements made by the Commonwealth's Attorney during his first trial that the evidence would show that Powell “wanted something more from Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Use in Children, [Stacey] and she wasn't going to legal, give it to him and for Critical on Interactions Between Children that she lost her life.” Powell further notes that during his first trial the Commonwealth had argued against his motion to strike the evidence on capital murder by prader willis syndrome stating, in Critical of Research on Interactions part, that “we have evidence . [that Powell] was having sex or attempting to have sex with [Stacey].” Powell contends that as neither the amended indictment for capital murder nor the instructions given to the jury specified the victim of the sexual assault gradation crimes, the Commonwealth intended for the jury in his first trial to consider the possibility that Powell attempted to rape Stacey. Powell notes that because the on Honoring Responsible jury in his first trial sent a question to the trial court “seeking clarification whether the rape of Kristie could satisfy the of Research on Interactions Technology Children gradation crime requirement for the capital murder of Stacey,” Powell, 261 Va. at 526, 552 S.E.2d at prader willis 352, this indicated that the jury had considered and rejected the theory that he had attempted to rape Stacey. Relying on Green v. United States, 355 U.S. 184, 189-90, 78 S.Ct. 221, 2 L.Ed.2d 199 (1957), Powell asserts that because the jury in his first trial rejected that theory of the crime, it impliedly acquitted him of the gradation offense and, thus, he contends that the law of the case prohibits the Commonwealth from retrying that issue under a new indictment.FN6 Powell further points to statements in the opinion from his first appeal concerning the insufficiency of the evidence to prove an attempted sexual assault of Stacey as confirming that he was charged with capital murder based on that gradation offense. FN6. On brief, Powell also used the term “res judicata” in describing the effect of his alleged “acquittal” of the attempted rape of Stacey. During oral argument of Analysis on Interactions Information this appeal, he conceded that he was relying only on the “law of the case” doctrine in media body asserting the preclusive effect of his prior trial and appeal. The Commonwealth contends that by identifying Kristie as the Analysis Between victim of the rape or attempted rape in responding to legal voting age, Powell's motion for a bill of particulars, it had clearly indicated that Powell was not charged or on trial for the capital murder of Stacey in Children the commission of the attempted rape of Stacey.

Therefore, the Commonwealth asserts that Powell was never placed in jeopardy for the commission of that crime and, thus, cannot have been “acquitted” of that crime or of its gradation offense. Powell contends that “the bill of particulars is irrelevant to the issue of whether the [Supreme] Court previously decided that Powell was charged with capital murder in the commission of the attempted rape of Stacey Reed in his first trial.” Powell bases this contention on the statements in the opinion reversing his first conviction for capital murder that “[t]he record as a whole is devoid of any evidence that Powell attempted to rape . Stacey,” Powell, 261 Va. at 534, 552 S.E.2d at media body 357, and Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Technology Children that “there is simply no evidence upon which the example essay about camping jury could have relied to find that Powell committed or attempted to commit any sexual assault against Stacey,” id. at 545, 552 S.E.2d at 363. Powell contends that by these statements we indicated that the question whether he had raped or attempted to rape Stacey had been at of Research Technology issue in his first trial. We disagree. The question, simply put, is whether the influence jury in Powell's first trial considered whether Powell attempted to rape Stacey Reed and concluded that he did not. Our guide in resolving that question is Ashe, supra, wherein the United States Supreme Court held that an of Research Information Children issue will be precluded from being retried in a subsequent criminal prosecution by the law of the case doctrine if, in Essay Law Class light of the entire record, the previous jury necessarily decided that issue against Critical of Research on Interactions Use in the prosecution. But if “a rational jury could have grounded its verdict upon an issue other than that which the defendant seeks to foreclose from consideration,” the prior judgment will not be taken as deciding that particular issue. Theory? Ashe, 397 U.S. at 444, 90 S.Ct. 1189. “The inquiry ‘must be set in a practical frame and viewed with an eye to all the circumstances of the proceedings.’ ” Id. (quoting Sealfon v. United States, 332 U.S. 575, 579, 68 S.Ct.

237, 92 L.Ed. 180 (1948)). Powell's view of the record of his first trial, and of this Court's observation that the evidence therein was insufficient for the jury to Analysis of Research Children, have found that he attempted to rape Stacey, as showing that the previous jury necessarily decided that issue against the prosecution fails to take into account the willis effect of the bill of particulars. “It is true the bill of particulars is Analysis of Research Technology Use in Children not for the purpose of essay about charging the offense. The indictment must do that.” Livingston v. Commonwealth, 184 Va. 830, 837, 36 S.E.2d 561, 565 (1946). “However, the Critical of Research Between Technology Children bill of particulars and the indictment must be read together. The function of the bill of particulars is to supply additional information concerning an accusation.” Id. A bill of particulars not only informs the accused of the charges against him with sufficient precision to enable him to prepare his defense and avoid surprise, it also enables him to plead his acquittal or conviction in bar of any further prosecution for the same offense. See Wade v. Commonwealth, 9 Va.App. 359, 363, 388 S.E.2d 277, 279 (1990); see also United States v. Davidoff, 845 F.2d 1151, 1154 (2d Cir.1988). The bill of particulars in Powell's first trial clearly limited the prosecution of the capital murder of Stacey under Code § 18.2-31(5) to proof of the rape or attempted rape of Kristie. Nevertheless, Powell asserts that the body various statements of the Commonwealth during his first trial with respect to Critical Between Technology Children, Powell's effort to initiate consensual intercourse with Stacey, and his frustration at being rebuffed by her, suggested a motive for his subsequent attack on expectency her sister and attempted to influence the jury into believing that Stacey was also the victim of an attempted sexual assault.

The fact remains that Powell was not charged with having attempted to rape Stacey, either as a separate offense or as the gradation offense of the Critical of Research on Interactions Between capital murder charge. Thus, it is not possible to conclude that the jury necessarily decided that issue against the prosecution. Powell is also mistaken in his interpretation of our statements regarding his first trial that the record contained insufficient evidence for the jury to have found that Powell attempted to rape Stacey. A careful reading of our opinion shows that these statements were not intended to convey that this issue was before the jury. To the contrary, these statements were observations made to clarify that the amended indictment must have been intended to influence, charge Powell with the capital murder of Stacey premised upon the gradation offense of the rape of Kristie, but was insufficient to do so because of a drafting error. FN7. FN7.

We also held that the Critical on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in amendment of the indictment, even if properly drafted, would not have been permitted because the grand jury “was never called upon to theory, consider [the rape of Kristie] as the gradation crime for the capital murder of Stacey.” Powell, 261 Va. at 534, 552 S.E.2d at 357. Powell also contends that even if the jury had not impliedly acquitted him of the Critical of Research on Interactions Between Technology Use in capital murder of Stacey premised on the gradation offense of her rape or attempted rape, the effect of this Court's decision in the appeal of prader syndrome his first conviction nonetheless was to expressly acquit him of that crime because we found the evidence in of Research on Interactions Between Information Children that trial insufficient to support a finding of rape or attempted rape of Stacey. Essay On Honoring Owners? Relying on Critical Analysis of Research Between Information Use in Burks v. United States, 437 U.S. Media Body Image? 1, 5-6, 98 S.Ct. 2141, 57 L.Ed.2d 1 (1978), Powell asserts that, because we held that the evidence at his first trial at Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Use in best would have supported a conviction for first degree murder, the trial court was bound by voting age that determination in any subsequent retrial. Critical Analysis Between Technology Use In Children? Powell contends that Burks stands for the proposition that the determination of an appellate court that the influence body trial court erred in permitting the jury to consider a charge not supported by the evidence acts as an acquittal on that charge and that a retrial for the same offense is barred by the prohibition against double jeopardy. Our conclusion that, lacking evidence of a sexual assault on Stacey or the attempt to commit one, Powell could be retried only for Critical Analysis of Research Information Use in first degree murder was based upon “the circumstances of this case.” Powell, 261 Va. at 545-46, 552 S.E.2d at 363. Nothing in that statement implies that Powell had been acquitted of capital murder premised on any possible gradation offense, nor, as we have already demonstrated, did it preclude the Commonwealth from seeking to indict Powell for the capital murder of voting age Stacey with the attempted rape of Stacey as the gradation offense under the Critical of Research Technology exceptional circumstances occasioned by Powell's voluntary confession. Accordingly, we hold that the trial court did not err in denying Powell's motions to dismiss the indictment for capital murder on the ground that the Commonwealth was prohibited from proving Powell attempted to rape Stacey by the law of the case of his former trial and appeal. Double Jeopardy Powell also contends that the trial court should have dismissed the indictment against expectency him because his prosecution under that indictment violated the guarantee of the Critical Information Technology Fifth Amendment of the example Constitution of the United States against Analysis on Interactions Use in being twice placed in jeopardy for the same offense.

Specifically, he asserts that having been indicted once for a violation of Code § 18.2-31(5) for essay the murder of on Interactions Technology Use in Children Stacey Reed, his constitutional guarantee of protection against being placed in essay double jeopardy prohibited the on Interactions Technology Children Commonwealth from influence body, indicting him a second time for Analysis of Research Between Information Technology that murder under the same subsection of the capital murder statute. During oral argument of this appeal, Powell acknowledged that the Commonwealth may indict and convict an accused for multiple counts of capital murder of a single victim under different subsections of Code § 18.2-31 without violating the constitutional protection against double jeopardy. See Bailey v. Commonwealth, 259 Va. 723, 747, 529 S.E.2d 570, 584, cert. denied, 531 U.S. 995, 121 S.Ct. 488, 148 L.Ed.2d 460 (2000) (a single indictment may charge two counts of capital murder of the same victim under Code §§ 18.2-31(7) and legal age 18.2-31(12)). Critical Analysis Information Technology Children? Moreover, we have held that where a particular subsection of Code § 18.2-31 lists multiple gradation offenses, the Commonwealth may indict the accused for separate offenses of capital murder of a single victim premised on each specific gradation offense.

Payne v. Commonwealth, 257 Va. 216, 228, 509 S.E.2d 293, 301 (1999) (indictments properly charged separate violations of Code § 18.2-31(5) premised on rape and object sexual penetration of the same victim). In Payne, we said that “it is clear, as well as logical, that the General Assembly intended for each statutory offense [in Code § 18.2-31] to be punished separately ‘as a Class 1 felony.’ ” Id. By statutory definition, capital murder is limited to the “willful, deliberate, and premeditated killing of any person” under specific circumstances or in the commission or attempted commission of expectency certain crimes enumerated in Code § 18.2-31. We have frequently referred to these crimes as gradation offenses because, when committed as part of the same transaction as a murder, they elevate what would otherwise constitute murder of the first degree pursuant to Code § 18.2-32 to capital murder. Pertinent to the present case, Code § 18.2-31(5) specifies gradation offenses of “rape or attempted rape, forcible sodomy or attempted forcible sodomy or object sexual penetration.” In Payne, we concluded that the rape and object sexual penetration of the same victim are separate and distinct gradation offenses and, therefore, support two capital murder convictions consistent with double jeopardy protections. Id. While Payne is instructive insofar as it establishes that separate and distinct gradation offenses are enumerated in Code § 18.2-31(5), it does not resolve Powell's case. Powell's contention that he was charged with the same crime rather than with two separate crimes under the amended indictment and the 2001 indictment is principally premised upon the fact that the former failed to identify the victim of the rape or attempted rape.

Because the amended indictment in his first trial, while identifying Stacey as the victim of the murder, did not specify a victim of the gradation offenses of Analysis of Research Between Use in Children rape or attempted rape, Powell contends that proof of the identity of the victim was not an element of those offenses. Thus, he argues that he was placed in in a Law Class jeopardy regardless of whether Stacey or Kristie were proven to be the victim of the Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Information Use in gradation offenses of media image rape or attempted rape, and the subsequent indictment that expressly identified Stacey as the victim of attempted rape violated his constitutional guarantee against double jeopardy. We agree with Powell that when an indictment does not specify the identity of the Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in victim of a gradation offense to Essay on Honoring Owners, the crime of capital murder, the of Research on Interactions Information identity of the victim of the gradation offense is prader syndrome not an Critical Information Technology element of the crime. Willis Syndrome? Powell, however, has again overlooked the significance of the bill of Critical Analysis on Interactions Information Children particulars provided by voting the Commonwealth in his first trial. As we have already explained, the Critical Analysis of Research Commonwealth expressly identified Kristie as the victim of the gradation offenses for the capital murder of Stacey under Code § 18.2-31(5). The bill of particulars was filed well in advance of the trial and before jeopardy had attached. See Commonwealth v. Washington, 263 Va. 298, 307, 559 S.E.2d 636, 641 (2002) (“The right not to be subjected to double jeopardy attaches in expectency a criminal case when the jury is impaneled and sworn”).

During oral argument of this appeal, Powell contended that the bill of particulars only limits the Critical Analysis of Research Between Information Technology Use in Commonwealth's ability to prader willis syndrome, argue a specific theory of the Critical Analysis on Interactions Use in crime, does not amend the indictment, and jeopardy attaches as to the indictment as worded regardless of whether a bill of particulars has been filed. We disagree. As noted above, while “[i]t is true the bill of particulars is not for the purpose of charging the offense . the bill of particulars and the indictment must be read together.” Livingston, 184 Va. at 837, 36 S.E.2d at 565. Thus, we hold that where, prior to the attachment of on Honoring Responsible Owners jeopardy, the Commonwealth limits the Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology Children prosecution of a capital murder, undifferentiated in the indictment by the identity of the victim of the gradation offense, by naming a specific victim of the gradation offense in for Enrollment in a Law Class a bill of particulars, jeopardy will attach only to the capital murder charge as made specific by the bill of particulars. For these reasons, we further hold that the trial court did not err in refusing to Critical Information Use in Children, dismiss the indictment for capital murder as violative of age Powell's double jeopardy protection. B. Constitutionality of Virginia's Capital Murder Statutes. In his third and eleventh assignments of Analysis Between Technology Use in error, Powell attacks the trial court's order overruling his motions to legal voting, have the Analysis Between Information Technology Children Virginia capital murder statutes declared unconstitutional. Legal Voting? With respect to the motion filed April 25, 2002 and overruled by the trial court on May 6, 2002, Powell has restated, in summary fashion, five of his arguments advanced in of Research on Interactions Information Use in Children the trial court, without citation to authority.FN8 The failure to adequately brief an assignment of error constitutes a waiver of the argument. See, e.g., Burns v. Commonwealth, 261 Va.

307, 318, 541 S.E.2d 872, 880, cert. denied, 534 U.S. 1043, 122 S.Ct. Expectency Theory? 621, 151 L.Ed.2d 542 (2001) (assignments of error not briefed are waived even where trial record contains written argument addressing same issue). FN8. At trial, Powell further contended that the expedited review of death sentence cases required by Code § 17.1-313 violated a defendant's constitutional right to Critical on Interactions Between Technology Use in Children, equal protection. Willis Syndrome? Powell contended that by eliminating an intermediate review by on Interactions Technology Use in Children the Court of expectency Appeals, a defendant is denied the opportunity to perfect the issues and arguments he wishes to make on appeal. He further contended that expediting death sentence appeals on our docket “disadvantaged death-sentence defendants by providing them with substantially less time than other criminal defendants to protect their legal rights.” Powell does not reassert these issues on appeal. Moreover, the arguments raised by of Research Between Information Technology Children Powell have been previously considered and legal age rejected by Critical on Interactions Between Use in Children this Court. Media Influence? The arguments raised by Critical on Interactions Between Use in Children Powell and recent decisions rejecting those arguments are:

That the media influence body statutes fail to provide meaningful guidance with respect to the vileness and future dangerousness aggravating factors and that the jury is not provided adequate guidance with respect to the application of aggravating and mitigating factors. Analysis Of Research Technology Children? Rejected in theory Morrisette v. Commonwealth, 264 Va. 386, 397, 569 S.E.2d 47, 55 (2002), cert. denied, 540 U.S. 1077, 124 S.Ct. 928, 157 L.Ed.2d 750 (2003). That permitting evidence of unadjudicated criminal conduct to of Research on Interactions Information, be used to establish the defendant's future dangerousness fails to meet the “heightened reliability requirement” of the 8th and 14th Amendments.

Rejected in Bell v. Commonwealth, 264 Va. 172, 203, 563 S.E.2d 695, 716 (2002), cert. denied, 537 U.S. 1123, 123 S.Ct. 860, 154 L.Ed.2d 805 (2003). That the trial court is improperly vested with discretion whether to set aside the death sentence for media influence body image good cause shown and is permitted to consider hearsay evidence in the pre-sentence report. Rejected in Lenz v. Critical Analysis Of Research Between Information Technology Use In? Commonwealth, 261 Va. 451, 459, 544 S.E.2d 299, 303-04, cert. Prader? denied, 534 U.S. 1003, 122 S.Ct. 481, 151 L.Ed.2d 395 (2001). That the mandatory proportionality review procedures employed by this Court fail to Analysis of Research Information Technology Use in Children, meet constitutional standards. Rejected in Lovitt v. Example? Commonwealth, 260 Va.

497, 509, 537 S.E.2d 866, 874 (2000), cert. denied, 534 U.S. 815, 122 S.Ct. 41, 151 L.Ed.2d 14 (2001); Bailey, 259 Va. at 740-42, 529 S.E.2d at 580-81, cert. Of Research? denied, 531 U.S. Essay Responsible Owners? 995, 121 S.Ct. 488, 148 L.Ed.2d 460 (2000). With respect to the December 11, 2002 motion, overruled by the trial court on December 23, 2002, Powell asserts, as he did in the trial court, that the United States Supreme Court's decision in Ring v. Arizona, 536 U.S. 584, 122 S.Ct. 2428, 153 L.Ed.2d 556 (2002), requires that “many of the procedural safeguards that heretofore have only been required during the guilt/innocence phase of trial must now be extended to the sentencing phase.” Powell reasons that because Ring held that it was impermissible in a jury trial to of Research Between Information Technology Children, allow the trial judge to determine whether there were aggravating factors sufficient to warrant the imposition of the death penalty, id. at 609, 122 S.Ct. 2428, the aggravating factors required to Essay for Enrollment in a, be found by Code § 19.2-264.4(B) before a sentence of death may be imposed are “to be treated as elements of the offense of a death-eligible capital murder.” Powell contends that the standards of proof and rules of evidence applicable to the determination of guilt must also be applied to the determination of sentence, and that, contrary to Critical Analysis Use in, decisions of this Court made prior to Ring, this precludes the Commonwealth from presenting under a “relaxed evidentiary standard” evidence of unadjudicated criminal conduct or hearsay evidence when the declarant is not available for expectency theory cross-examination as required by the confrontation clause.

The Commonwealth responds that Ring does not alter the analysis of the constitutionality of the Critical on Interactions Information Use in procedures applied during the penalty determination phase of a capital murder trial in Virginia. Rather, the Commonwealth contends that the procedures for the admission of relevant evidence during the penalty determination phase under Code § 19.2-264.4(B) continue to be fully in accord with the Sixth Amendment due process concerns underpinning the decision in Ring. We agree with the Commonwealth. First, we note that Powell's expansive reading of example Ring is unwarranted for the obvious reason that the statutory scheme at issue in that case, which permitted the judge in a capital murder jury trial to assume the role of the Critical on Interactions Children jury in determining whether aggravating factors permitting the legal imposition of the death penalty were present, is markedly different from that of Analysis on Interactions Between Information Children Virginia's death penalty sentencing statute. See Ring, 536 U.S. at 588. Moreover, nothing in the United States Supreme Court's opinion in body image Ring suggests that the Court intended to revisit broader issues of due process protections afforded in the penalty determination phase of all capital murder trials. We further reject Powell's contention that there is Analysis Between Information Technology Use in a “relaxed evidentiary standard” applicable to the penalty determination phase of a capital murder trial in Virginia. To the contrary, Code § 19.2-264.4(B) expressly provides, and we have consistently held, that the Commonwealth must prove the existence of one or both aggravating factors beyond a reasonable doubt. See, e.g., Clark v. Commonwealth, 220 Va. 201, 212, 257 S.E.2d 784, 791 (1979), cert. denied, 444 U.S.

1049, 100 S.Ct. 741, 62 L.Ed.2d 736 (1980). Powell's contention that the introduction of essay about camping evidence of unadjudicated criminal acts is not admissible because Ring somehow refines the need for “heightened reliability” in capital sentencing is, as the Commonwealth notes, nothing more than a reassertion of the Critical of Research on Interactions Information Technology same argument raised in his prior motion and consistently rejected by this Court. Jackson v. Commonwealth, 267 Va. 178, 188, 590 S.E.2d 520, 526 (2004) (today decided). Powell's assertion that Code § 19.2-264.4(B) permits the introduction of hearsay evidence not otherwise subject to an exception is simply wrong.FN9 See, e.g., Lovitt v. Warden, 266 Va. Media Body Image? 216, 259, 585 S.E.2d 801, 826 (2003); Jackson, 267 Va. at Critical Analysis of Research Between Information Use in Children 188, 590 S.E.2d at 526. Voting Age? For these reasons, we hold that the trial court did not err in overruling Powell's motion to have the Virginia capital murder statutes declared unconstitutional. FN9.

On brief, the Commonwealth suggests that Powell has confused the evidentiary standard applicable to the penalty determination phase with that applicable to the trial court's consideration of the presentence report. Critical Analysis Of Research Information? Powell did not respond to this assertion in his reply brief and does not otherwise assert that Ring has any implication to the post-verdict sentencing procedure. Accordingly, we express no opinion on that issue. C. Failure to Disqualify the Commonwealth's Attorney In his tenth assignment of error, Powell contends that the trial court erred in failing to grant his motion to disqualify the Commonwealth's Attorney and his office from prosecuting Powell on voting the new indictment. Powell asserts the “grossly offensive personal attacks” on of Research on Interactions Children the Commonwealth's Attorney in Powell's October 21, 2001 letter, created a direct conflict of interest because the Commonwealth's Attorney “had a personal stake in the outcome of this case.” This is so, Powell contends, because the personal attacks in his letter “undoubtedly led [the Commonwealth's Attorney] to willis syndrome, have feelings of animosity towards Powell.” The Commonwealth responds that the Commonwealth's Attorney represented to the trial court that he could impartially prosecute the case and that it was a matter within the trial court's discretion to Analysis of Research on Interactions Technology Use in, determine whether to image, disqualify him. We agree with the Commonwealth. The due process rights of Critical Analysis on Interactions Information Use in a criminal defendant under both the on Honoring Responsible Virginia and United States Constitutions are violated when a Commonwealth's Attorney who has a conflict of interest relevant to the defendant's case prosecutes the defendant. Critical Of Research Information Use In? See Cantrell v. Commonwealth, 229 Va. 387, 394, 329 S.E.2d 22, 26-27 (1985); Ganger v. Peyton, 379 F.2d 709, 714 (4th Cir.1967).

However, the question whether there is a conflict of interest is legal voting age dependent upon the circumstances of the individual case, and the burden is on the party seeking disqualification of the Analysis Children prosecutor to present evidence establishing the existence of disqualifying bias or prejudice. The determination whether the evidence supports a finding of prader syndrome a conflict of interest is Critical of Research on Interactions Information Use in Children a matter committed to media influence body, the sound discretion of the trial court. See Lux v. Critical Analysis Of Research Information? Commonwealth, 24 Va.App. 561, 569, 484 S.E.2d 145, 149 (1997). The issue may arise where the prosecutor has had an attorney-client relationship with the parties involved whereby he obtained privileged information that may be adverse to the defendant's interest in regard to the pending criminal charges. See, e.g., Commonwealth v. Kilgore, 15 Va.App. On Honoring Owners? 684, 694, 426 S.E.2d 837, 842 (1993).

A second situation is where the prosecutor has some direct personal interest arising from Analysis of Research Between Use in Children, a financial interest, kinship, or close friendship such that his objectivity and impartiality are called into legal voting, question. See, e.g., Cantrell, 229 Va. at 391-94, 329 S.E.2d at 24-27. Neither of these circumstances applies to the present case. Beyond these categories of clear and on Interactions Between Use in Children direct conflicts of legal age interest and ethical bars to a particular attorney prosecuting a particular defendant, there is the broader consideration of whether, on the facts of a particular case, the adversarial nature of the judicial process has resulted in such enmity toward the defendant on the part of the prosecutor that it will overbear his professional judgment in seeking fairly and impartially to see justice done. See Lux, 24 Va.App. at 569, 484 S.E.2d at 149. As the United States Supreme Court has observed in a related context, “ ‘[i]mpartiality is not gullibility.

Disinterestedness does not mean child-like innocence.’ ” Liteky v. United States, 510 U.S. 540, 551, 114 S.Ct. 1147, 127 L.Ed.2d 474 (1994) (quoting In re J.P. Linahan, Inc., 138 F.2d 650, 654 (2nd Cir.1943)). We are of opinion that the same can be said of the prosecutor's role. The adversarial nature of criminal prosecutions unsurprisingly tends to engender some level of friction between the Critical Analysis Technology prosecutor and the defendant in prader difficult cases, especially where, as here, the defendant seems intent on showing his contempt and disrespect for the prosecutor. However, merely demonstrating a history of one-sided acrimony between the Critical Information Use in Children defendant and prader syndrome the prosecutor is insufficient to establish a conflict of interest or prosecutorial misconduct with respect to an otherwise proper prosecution. See, e.g., Phelps v. Hamilton, 59 F.3d 1058, 1067 (10th Cir.1995). If such were not the case, a defendant would have an incentive to deliberately incite such enmity. The evidence must reflect that the prosecutor is acting not within the Between Information dictates of the example essay law, but has strayed outside those parameters in furtherance of a personal animus against the defendant.

Powell's October 21, 2001 letter undoubtedly was intended to insult, if not incense, the Commonwealth's Attorney. But, the Critical Analysis of Research Between Information trial court was within its discretion to accept the Commonwealth's Attorney's assurance that it had not had an effect on his professional judgment in seeking fairly and impartially to see justice done. Moreover, nothing in the Commonwealth's Attorney's conduct of the trial evinces any lack of such professional judgment on Essay Law Class his part. Analysis Of Research Between? Accordingly, we hold that the expectency trial court did not abuse its discretion in overruling Powell's motion to disqualify the Critical Analysis of Research Children Commonwealth's Attorney. D. Failure to Exclude Testimony of about camping Kristie Reed. In his ninth assignment of Critical of Research on Interactions Information Children error, Powell contends that the trial court erred in permitting the Commonwealth to call Kristie as a witness and to give testimony concerning Powell's rape and attempted murder of her during the on Honoring Responsible Owners guilt determination phase of his trial.FN10 He asserts that evidence of the events following the murder of Stacey was not relevant to prove his culpability for that crime and that such evidence was, in any case, unduly prejudicial.FN11.

FN10. In his pre-trial motion, Powell sought to exclude all evidence of his rape and attempted murder of Kristie. Critical Of Research On Interactions Information Technology? On appeal, he has limited his argument to the exclusion of theory her testimony and the exhibits introduced in Information Children its course. FN11. Powell also asserts that Kristie's testimony was unnecessary because it was cumulative of media influence other evidence and should more properly have been received as “victim impact testimony” during sentencing. These arguments were not made at trial and, thus, are barred from consideration in this appeal. Rule 5:25. The Commonwealth responds that evidence of the on Interactions rape and attempted murder of Kristie, including her testimony and its supporting exhibits, was admissible because those acts were interrelated parts of a common criminal plan and, thus, were relevant to prove Powell's identity, motive, and intent as the perpetrator of example about camping all the Critical Analysis of Research Between Information Use in crimes committed in the course of carrying out syndrome, that plan. In addition, the of Research Between Information Children Commonwealth contends that evidence of the subsequent attack on Kristie was probative of Powell's state of mind during the entire criminal enterprise and, thus, admissible to show premeditation in the killing of legal age Stacey to rebut Powell's claim that the killing was accidental. We agree with the Commonwealth. Generally, evidence of Critical Analysis on Interactions Information Technology Children other offenses is inadmissible in a criminal prosecution, but it is a well-established exception that such evidence is admissible to prader syndrome, show a common criminal scheme when the various acts are naturally explained as the constituent parts of the defendant's general plan.

See Satcher v. Commonwealth, 244 Va. 220, 230, 421 S.E.2d 821, 828 (1992), cert. denied, 507 U.S. 933, 113 S.Ct. 1319, 122 L.Ed.2d 705 (1993); Kirkpatrick v. Commonwealth, 211 Va. 269, 272, 176 S.E.2d 802, 805 (1970); McWhorter v. Commonwealth, 191 Va. 857, 870-71, 63 S.E.2d 20, 26 (1951). In Kirkpatrick we explained that: [e]vidence of other offenses is admitted if it shows the conduct and Analysis of Research Information Technology Children feeling of the accused toward his victim . Essay On Honoring? or if it tends to prove any relevant element of the offense charged. Such evidence is permissible in Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in Children cases where the motive, intent or knowledge of the accused is involved, or where the age evidence is connected with . the offense for which the accused is on trial.

211 Va. at 272, 176 S.E.2d at 805; see also Satcher, 244 Va. at 230, 421 S.E.2d at 828. There can be no question that it was the Commonwealth's theory in this trial, and taking the evidence in Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Use in Children the light favorable to the Commonwealth it is an unassailable fact, that Powell went to legal age, the Reed home with the intention of raping and killing both Stacey and Kristie. As such, the evidence of Powell's rape and Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in attempted murder of Kristie was directly probative of prader his motive and intent in Critical of Research Between Use in the attempted rape and murder of Stacey. Image? Moreover, Kristie's eyewitness testimony placing Powell in the home when she arrived and identifying him as her assailant was critical to establishing Powell's identity as the perpetrator of the crimes that preceded the criminal acts committed against her. Powell's contention that the graphic and emotional testimony of the on Interactions Between Use in Children victim of a brutal rape and attempted murder should have been excluded because its probative value was outweighed by the prejudice it would cause in the minds of the jury is equally without merit. All evidence tending to prove guilt is syndrome prejudicial to an accused, but the mere fact that such evidence is powerful because it accurately depicts the gravity and Critical Analysis Between Use in Children atrociousness of the about camping crime or the callous nature of the defendant does not thereby render it inadmissible. Moreover, direct evidence, such as eyewitness testimony, is Critical Analysis Between Information Use in rarely subject to exclusion on the ground that it would be unduly prejudicial.

In any case, determination of the issue is committed to the sound discretion of the trial court. Spencer v. Commonwealth, 240 Va. 78, 90, 393 S.E.2d 609, 617, cert. denied, 498 U.S. Prader? 908, 111 S.Ct. Critical Information? 281, 112 L.Ed.2d 235, (1990). Accordingly, we hold that the trial court did not err in failing to grant Powell's pre-trial motion to exclude the influence body testimony of Kristie Reed from the guilt determination phase of the trial.

E. Analysis Of Research Between Use In Children? Failure to Suppress Powell's Statements to Police. In his twelfth assignment of error, Powell contends that “[t]he trial court erred in not suppressing Powell's statements to police.” Although he uses the plural term “statements” in the assignment of Essay for Enrollment error and makes references to the ability of an accused to revoke a prior waiver of his right to Critical on Interactions Between, remain silent, Powell does not expressly restate the contention made in the trial court that statements made during the essay initial investigation prior to his first trial should have been suppressed because at the conclusion of his first interview he stated that he had nothing more to say. Because Powell has not expressly raised this issue on Critical of Research on Interactions Between Children brief or during oral argument, it has been waived and influence body image we will not address it. Burns, 261 Va. at 318, 541 S.E.2d at Critical Between Use in 880. Powell does assert that the legal age trial court erred in not suppressing the statement concerning Powell's October 21, 2001 letter that he made on November 2, 2001 while in prison to an investigator. Critical Between Technology? Powell contends that because he was still represented by counsel from prader, his first trial, the investigator should not have questioned him without his counsel being present. The Commonwealth responds that the Sixth Amendment right to counsel had not attached with respect to the crime for which the investigator was gathering evidence and for which Powell would be indicted as a result of the evidence in his October 21, 2001 letter.

Moreover, as Powell executed a waiver of his Fifth Amendment rights immediately prior to giving the November 2, 2001 statement, the Critical of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in Children Commonwealth contends that the statement was properly admitted. We agree with the Commonwealth. The Sixth Amendment right to Essay for Enrollment in a, counsel “arises from the fact that the suspect has been formally charged with a particular crime and thus is facing a state apparatus that has been geared up to prosecute him.” Arizona v. Roberson, 486 U.S. On Interactions Information Technology Children? 675, 685, 108 S.Ct. 2093, 100 L.Ed.2d 704 (1988); see also Alston v. Commonwealth, 264 Va. 433, 437, 570 S.E.2d 801, 803 (2002). Expectency? We have already determined that the crime for which Powell was tried and convicted in Analysis of Research Between Information Technology Use in the present case was a separate offense from those for which he had been previously convicted. Powell had not been formally charged with that offense when he was interviewed on November 2, 2001 and, thus, he was not entitled to have his counsel from his prior trial present during that interview.

Eaton v. Commonwealth, 240 Va. 236, 252, 397 S.E.2d 385, 394 (1990), cert. Legal Voting Age? denied, 502 U.S. Of Research Between Technology Children? 824, 112 S.Ct. 88, 116 L.Ed.2d 60 (1991). As Powell does not dispute that he freely and knowingly waived his Fifth Amendment right to counsel at the time of the interview, we hold that the willis syndrome trial court did not err in failing to of Research Children, suppress Powell's statement. F. Limiting Voir Dire and Failure to Strike Jury Panel. In his fourth assignment of example error, Powell contends that the trial court erred in Analysis on Interactions Between Information Technology Children not permitting him to question prospective jurors about whether knowledge of Powell's prior conviction for capital murder and its subsequent reversal on appeal would influence their opinion as to his guilt. Powell concedes that a prospective juror with knowledge of Essay Owners a defendant's prior conviction is subject to Analysis of Research Use in, disqualification on media body image that ground. Barker, 230 Va. at 375, 337 S.E.2d at 733. But see Patton v. Yount, 467 U.S. 1025, 1035, 104 S.Ct.

2885, 81 L.Ed.2d 847 (1984) (refusing to Critical on Interactions Information, grant a new trial where several jurors had pretrial knowledge of the prader syndrome defendant's prior conviction for the same crime). Powell contends, however, that in his case the jury would ultimately learn of his prior conviction during the trial and, thus, asserts that he should have been able to question jurors on the effect this evidence would have on them. The purpose of voir dire is “to ascertain whether [a prospective juror] is related to either party, or has any interest in the cause, or has expressed or formed any opinion, or is sensible of any bias or prejudice therein.” Code § 8.01-358. Information? To that end, prospective jurors may be asked any question relevant to determine whether they may be subject to being removed from the venire for voting age cause. The test of relevancy is whether the questions relate to any of the four criteria set forth in the statute.

If an Critical Between Technology answer to the question would necessarily disclose, or clearly lead to the disclosure of the statutory factors of relationship, interest, opinion, or prejudice, it must be permitted. LeVasseur v. Commonwealth, 225 Va. 564, 581, 304 S.E.2d 644, 653 (1983), cert. denied, 464 U.S. 1063, 104 S.Ct. Essay? 744, 79 L.Ed.2d 202 (1984) The question that Powell attempted to ask the first panel of the venire was not one that “would necessarily disclose, or clearly lead to the disclosure of the statutory factors of relationship, interest, opinion, or prejudice” of the prospective jurors. The panel had already indicted that they had no prior knowledge of the case and had not formed an opinion as to Powell's guilt or innocence. Powell's question would not have revealed any preexisting opinion or bias with respect to his case, but would instead have served to test the jurors' potential response to the evidence that he expected the of Research on Interactions Between Children Commonwealth to present.

Whether to permit a party to ask a question that goes beyond what is permissible under Code § 8.01-358 is a matter entirely within the on Honoring Responsible trial court's discretion. Id. We hold that the trial court did not err in refusing to permit Powell to test the Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Technology Use in Children potential response of the on Honoring jurors to the evidence that would be adduced at trial concerning his prior conviction. In his eighth assignment of error, Powell contends that, having denied him the on Interactions Between Information Technology Children opportunity to question the potential jurors on this point, the trial court should have disqualified for cause the five members of the first panel because his attempt to question them provided them with knowledge that he had been previously convicted for the capital murder of Stacey Reed. Thus, he contends that these jurors were subject to essay about, automatic exclusion under Barker. Even if we were to agree that Powell's curtailed question provided the Critical Analysis Information Technology five prospective jurors with sufficient information to raise the concern for potential prejudice that the jurors' full knowledge of the defendant's prior conviction raised in Barker, that circumstance arose here through Powell's own conduct during the voir dire.

The record demonstrates that Powell's counsel was fully aware that advising the prospective jurors that Powell had been previously convicted of capital murder carried with it the potential for creating bias against his client, but apparently deemed this risk acceptable in order to seek the strategic advantage of being able to test the jurors' potential response to the evidence concerning that conviction during the trial. Counsel further recognized the risk that the trial court would not permit him to pursue that line of questioning, and, as we have just determined, was within its discretion to expectency theory, do so. Under the “invited error” doctrine Powell may not benefit from his counsel's voluntary, strategic choice to place Powell at Analysis Information Use in Children a potential disadvantage in the hope, unproductive though it was, of gaining some advantage. Essay For Enrollment In A Law Class? See, e.g., Moore v. Hinkle, 259 Va. 479, 491, 527 S.E.2d 419, 426 (2000); Saunders v. Commonwealth, 211 Va.

399, 400, 177 S.E.2d 637, 638 (1970); Clark v. Commonwealth, 202 Va. 787, 791, 120 S.E.2d 270, 273 (1961). “No litigant, even a defendant in a criminal case, will be permitted to of Research Between, approbate and reprobate-to invite error . and then to take advantage of the situation created by essay camping his own wrong.” Fisher v. Commonwealth, 236 Va. 403, 417, 374 S.E.2d 46, 54 (1988), cert. denied, 490 U.S. 1028, 109 S.Ct. 1766, 104 L.Ed.2d 201 (1989). Accordingly, we hold that the trial court did not err in refusing to strike the on Interactions Information Children members of the first voir dire panel for cause under the willis particular circumstances created by Powell in this case. G. Failure to Critical Information, Strike the Evidence. In his fifth assignment of error, Powell contends that the trial court erred in failing to legal voting, strike the of Research Between Children evidence as to capital murder on the ground that the Commonwealth had not adequately corroborated his confession in the October 21, 2001 letter of having attempted to rape Stacey. On Honoring Responsible? Thus, Powell contends that the evidence at best would have supported a conviction for first degree murder. We disagree.

Although the Commonwealth may not establish an essential element of a crime by the uncorroborated confession of the accused alone, “ ‘only slight corroborative evidence’ ” is necessary to show the veracity of the confession. Williams v. Of Research On Interactions Information Use In Children? Commonwealth, 234 Va. 168, 175, 360 S.E.2d 361, 366 (1987) (quoting Clozza v. Commonwealth, 228 Va. 124, 133, 321 S.E.2d 273, 279 (1984), cert. denied, 469 U.S. 1230, 105 S.Ct. 1233, 84 L.Ed.2d 370 (1985)), cert. denied, 484 U.S. 1020, 108 S.Ct. 733, 98 L.Ed.2d 681 (1988). What is on Honoring Responsible Owners more, if “[t]his corroborating evidence is consistent with a reasonable inference” that the accused committed the crime to which he has confessed, the of Research on Interactions Between Use in Commonwealth need not establish through direct evidence those elements of the essay camping crime that are proven by the confession. Analysis On Interactions Between Technology Use In Children? See Jackson v. Commonwealth, 255 Va. 625, 646, 499 S.E.2d 538, 551 (1998), cert. denied, 525 U.S.

1067, 119 S.Ct. For Enrollment In A Law Class? 796, 142 L.Ed.2d 658 (1999). Contrary to Powell's contention that there is of Research Technology Use in not even “slight” corroborative evidence to Essay Law Class, support the reliability of his confession, the forensic evidence and direct testimony are consistent with and substantiate Powell's version of “the rest of Critical Analysis of Research Between Information Use in Children what happened” in every relevant respect. Powell's going to the home armed when he knew Stacey would be there alone, Stacey's defensive wounds, the evidence that her pants' zipper was slightly undone, the subsequent rape of Kristie, and Powell's later concession that he raped Kristie because he “didn't get any with Stacey” all corroborate his confession to the attempted rape of Stacey in the October 21, 2001 letter. Accordingly, we hold that the trial court did not err in overruling Powell's motion to strike the evidence as to capital murder premised on the attempted rape of Stacey. H. Mandatory Sentence Review In his first and second assignments of body image error, Powell contends that the jury imposed the sentence of death under the influence of passion, prejudice, or some other arbitrary factor and that the sentence of death is disproportionate to the penalty imposed in other cases considering both the crime and the defendant. As noted above, these two assignments of error parallel the mandatory review of every death sentence this Court conducts pursuant to Code § 17.1-313(C). Accordingly, we will combine the mandatory review of Powell's death sentence with our discussion of the issues raised by Powell in his assignments of error. Powell contends that “[t]he sensational nature of Critical Analysis on Interactions Technology Children [Kristie Reed's] testimony virtually assured [Powell] would receive a sentence of example death.” This is so, he asserts, because “the graphic and irrelevant evidence about the attack on Kristie” would have enraged the jury and rendered it unable to on Interactions Between Information Technology Children, reach an impartial verdict.

We have already determined that evidence of the rape and attempted murder of Kristie was relevant and admissible during the guilt determination phase of the Essay in a Law Class trial. Similarly, Powell's rape and attempted murder of Kristie was relevant for the jury's consideration of Critical of Research Between Technology Use in Children his future dangerousness during the penalty determination phase of the trial. Age? Accordingly, Powell's assertion that the jury was influenced by “irrelevant” evidence is Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Use in without merit. However, while graphic evidence of a violent crime is expectency theory admissible in the guilt determination phase of a capital murder trial, we will also consider the potential impact such evidence may have had on the jury's decision to impose the death sentence during the penalty determination phase. The brutal rape and attempted murder of a thirteen-year-old child are undoubtedly among the most abhorrent crimes that can be placed in evidence before a jury contemplating whether to impose a sentence of death upon a defendant. Nonetheless, the mere fact that the jury is presented with such evidence does not raise a presumption that the jury will be unable to set aside its natural emotions and fairly consider all the evidence. See Bailey, 259 Va. at 751, 529 S.E.2d at Analysis on Interactions Information 586 (evidence of infanticide and uxoricide, though abhorrent crimes, did not preclude jury from making a rational sentencing determination in a capital murder trial). Powell further contends that the trial court erred in submitting to the jury a verdict form that permitted it to impose a sentence of life imprisonment and a fine but which did not expressly parallel the trial court's sentencing instructions by body stating that this form was to be used if the jury found that neither aggravating factor had been proven beyond a reasonable doubt.

He asserts that this alleged error requires that this Court set aside the death sentence. Powell concedes that he did not raise this issue at Critical on Interactions Use in trial, but nonetheless contends that it is proper for this Court to consider his argument as part of the mandatory review of his sentence, apparently contending that an Responsible Owners erroneous verdict form would constitute an “arbitrary factor” that would influence the Critical of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in jury's sentencing decision. Our review of the record in this case does not disclose that the jury failed to expectency theory, give fair consideration to all the Between Information Technology Use in evidence both in favor and in mitigation of the camping death sentence. Critical Analysis Of Research Use In Children? Moreover, the jury was properly instructed upon the sentences available and the basis for imposing them and the record supports the jury's determination to impose a sentence of death upon a finding that both aggravating factors were proven beyond a reasonable doubt. We find nothing to essay about, suggest that the jury, or the trial court in Analysis of Research on Interactions Use in reviewing the verdict, imposed the death sentence under the expectency theory influence of passion, prejudice, or other arbitrary factors.

Accordingly, we hold that the sentence of death was not imposed under passion, prejudice, or any arbitrary factor. In a separate section of Analysis of Research Technology his brief, ostensibly related to the assignment of error paralleling the passion, prejudice and arbitrary factor aspect of our mandatory review, Powell asserts that the alleged error in the wording of the life sentence verdict form should result in the reversal of his death sentence and a remand for a new sentencing proceeding. While we consider the influence body image entire record of a capital murder trial to determine whether the sentence of Analysis Between Technology Children death should be set aside because of improper influence on the jury, we have previously rejected the legal voting age contention that the “arbitrary factor” language of Code § 17.1-313(C)(1) permits a defendant to raise as a separate issue on appeal an issue barred by Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology the failure to make a proper objection in the trial court by legal contending that the error influenced the jury's sentencing decision. See Quintana v. Commonwealth, 224 Va. 127, 148 n. 6, 152 n. 7, 295 S.E.2d 643, 653 n. 6, 656 n. 7 (1982) (rejecting assertion in dissenting opinion that mandatory review permitted challenge to form of jury verdict to Analysis on Interactions Between Technology Use in, be raised for the first time on appeal). Body Image? Accordingly, while Powell is not precluded from arguing that the alleged error in the life sentence verdict form improperly influenced the jury's sentencing decision as a basis for Critical of Research Between Information Technology Use in Children commuting the death sentence, we will not consider his separate argument under the Essay on Honoring Owners same assignment of error as a basis for reversing that sentence and ordering a new sentencing proceeding.FN12.

FN12. Powell also contends that the “ends of Analysis on Interactions Information Technology Children justice” exception of Rule 5:25 would permit us to consider the alleged error in the life sentence verdict form as a basis for reversing his death sentence and ordering a new sentencing proceeding. However, as Powell cannot argue for reversal of his death sentence under the assignment of error paralleling the mandatory review of that sentence and failed to make this issue the subject of a separate assignment of error, the issue is not properly before us. Voting Age? Rule 5:17. Analysis On Interactions Between Information Technology Use In? Accordingly, we will not address this issue as a basis for reversing the sentence of death and remanding for a new sentencing proceeding. Powell contends that the death sentenced imposed upon him is excessive or disproportionate when compared to similar cases considering both the crime and about camping the defendant.

Powell's sole contention is that his history of mental health problems and his failure to receive adequate treatment when in state custody as a juvenile militates against the appropriateness of the of Research on Interactions Technology Use in death penalty in his case. We disagree. Code § 19.2-264.4(B) lists as a mitigating factor the fact that “the capacity of the defendant to theory, appreciate the on Interactions Children criminality of his conduct or to conform his conduct to the requirements of law was significantly impaired.” The psychologist called by Powell did not offer a specific diagnosis of Powell's mental health problems, merely classifying them generally as suggesting an theory anti-social personality disorder and Critical on Interactions Between Children “a mood disorder, primarily depressive in expectency theory nature . characterized by irritability, short temper and so forth.” The psychologist did not testify that Powell lacked the Critical on Interactions Technology Use in ability to appreciate the criminality of camping his conduct or that his condition significantly impaired his ability to conform his conduct to Information Children, the requirements of the law. The jury heard this testimony concerning Powell's mental health problems, and we must assume that the jury followed the trial court's instruction to consider evidence presented in mitigation. The jury clearly concluded that Powell's history of mental health problems did not mitigate his offense. See Swann v. Commonwealth, 247 Va.

222, 238-39, 441 S.E.2d 195, 206-07, cert. Example Essay? denied, 513 U.S. 889, 115 S.Ct. 234, 130 L.Ed.2d 158 (1994) (death sentence imposed despite “history of mental health hospitalization and treatment”); Hoke v. Commonwealth, 237 Va. 303, 313, 377 S.E.2d 595, 601, cert. On Interactions Information Technology? denied, 491 U.S. Prader Willis? 910, 109 S.Ct. 3201, 105 L.Ed.2d 709 (1989) (death sentence imposed despite evidence of Analysis on Interactions Information Technology Use in Children defendant's prior confinement in nine or ten mental hospitals); Giarratano v. Commonwealth, 220 Va.

1064, 1076-79, 266 S.E.2d 94, 101-103 (1980) (death sentence imposed despite mitigating evidence of essay camping defendant's “schizoid personality disturbance” and “extreme mental and emotional disturbance”). Apart from Powell's contention that his history of mental health problems should preclude the of Research Between Information Technology imposition of a death sentence in his case, we are required by Code § 17.1-313(C)(2) to conduct a comparative review of the death sentence imposed in this case with other capital murder cases, including those where a life sentence was imposed. “The purpose of our comparative review is to reach a reasoned judgment regarding what cases justify the imposition of the influence body death penalty.” Orbe v. Commonwealth, 258 Va. 390, 405, 519 S.E.2d 808, 817 (1999), cert. denied, 529 U.S. 1113, 120 S.Ct. Critical Of Research On Interactions Use In Children? 1970, 146 L.Ed.2d 800 (2000). In conducting this statutorily mandated review in this case, we have focused on for Enrollment Law Class cases in Critical Analysis of Research Information Children which the victim was murdered during the commission of rape or attempted rape, and in which the sentence of death was imposed based on findings of both future dangerousness and vileness.

See, e.g., Patterson v. Commonwealth, 262 Va. 301, 551 S.E.2d 332 (2001); Swisher v. Commonwealth, 256 Va. 471, 506 S.E.2d 763 (1998), cert. denied, 528 U.S. 812, 120 S.Ct. Theory? 46, 145 L.Ed.2d 41 (1999); Pruett v. Commonwealth, 232 Va. Critical Between Technology Use In? 266, 351 S.E.2d 1 (1986), cert. denied, 482 U.S. Essay In A? 931, 107 S.Ct. 3220, 96 L.Ed.2d 706 (1987); Coleman v. Commonwealth, 226 Va. 31, 307 S.E.2d 864 (1983), cert. Critical Analysis On Interactions Between? denied, 465 U.S. 1109, 104 S.Ct. 1617, 80 L.Ed.2d 145 (1984); Mason v. Commonwealth, 219 Va.

1091, 254 S.E.2d 116, cert. denied, 444 U.S. 919, 100 S.Ct. 239, 62 L.Ed.2d 176 (1979); Smith v. Commonwealth, 219 Va. 455, 248 S.E.2d 135 (1978), cert. denied, 441 U.S. 967, 99 S.Ct.

2419, 60 L.Ed.2d 1074 (1979). We have also considered cases in on Honoring Responsible Owners which defendants received life sentences, rather than the death penalty, for capital murder during the commission of rape or attempted rape. See, e.g., Horne v. Commonwealth, 230 Va. 512, 339 S.E.2d 186 (1986); Keil v. Commonwealth, 222 Va. 99, 278 S.E.2d 826 (1981). Considering all the Between Information Use in Children factors revealed by the record, both those favoring imposition of the death sentence and those in mitigation against media influence body it, we hold that the sentence is neither excessive nor disproportionate to the penalties imposed by other sentencing bodies in Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Use in the Commonwealth for comparable crimes. Having found no error below and perceiving no other reason to commute or set aside the sentence of death, we will affirm the expectency theory judgment of the trial court. Powell v. Warden of Sussex I State Prison , 634 S.E.2d 289 (Va.

2006) (State Habeas). Background: Following affirmance of his conviction of Analysis Information Technology Use in Children capital murder and willis syndrome sentence of death, 267 Va. 107, 590 S.E.2d 537, defendant filed petition for writ of on Interactions Between Information Children habeas corpus. Example Essay About? The Supreme Court entered order rejecting all of defendant's habeas corpus claims. Defendant filed a petition for rehearing. Holding: On grant of petition for rehearing, the Supreme Court, Leroy R. Hassell, Sr., J., held that trial counsel's failure to object during penalty phase to admission of a form that contained an incorrect entry that defendant had a prior conviction for capital murder did not prejudice defendant, and thus did not constitute ineffective assistance.

Petition dismissed. OPINION BY Chief Justice LEROY R. HASSELL, SR. In this habeas corpus proceeding, we consider whether petitioner, who was convicted of capital murder for the killing of Stacey Lynn Reed during the commission of or subsequent to an attempted rape in violation of Code § 18.2-31(5), suffered prejudice within the meaning of Strickland v. Washington, 466 U.S. 668, 104 S.Ct. 2052, 80 L.Ed.2d 674 (1984) because his trial counsel failed to object to Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Technology Use in, the admission in on Honoring Responsible Owners evidence of a form that contained an inaccuracy regarding petitioner's criminal history. In September 2000, Paul Warner Powell was sentenced to death for the capital murder of Analysis of Research on Interactions Technology Stacey Lynn Reed. On direct appeal, this Court reversed the media influence body image conviction and remanded the case to the circuit court for a new trial on Critical of Research on Interactions Between Information Use in a charge no greater than first-degree murder for the killing of Stacey Reed, if the for Enrollment in a Commonwealth be so advised.

Powell v. Commonwealth, 261 Va. 512, 552 S.E.2d 344 (2001). After the Critical Between Use in Children proceeding was remanded, Powell wrote a letter to essay camping, the Commonwealth's Attorney who had prosecuted Powell during the first trial. Powell described, in detail, the murder and attempted rape of Stacey Reed, and he provided facts that were previously unknown to of Research on Interactions Between Technology Use in Children, the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth then nolle prossed the indictment in the remanded case. A grand jury for Prince William County subsequently indicted Powell for the capital murder of Stacey Reed during the commission of willis or subsequent to an attempted rape.

Powell was tried by a jury that convicted him of capital murder and fixed his punishment at Analysis of Research on Interactions Technology Use in death. The circuit court entered a judgment confirming the jury's verdict and image we affirmed that judgment. Powell v. On Interactions Use In Children? Commonwealth, 267 Va. 107, 590 S.E.2d 537 (2004). Subsequently, Powell filed a petition for habeas corpus in this Court alleging numerous claims, including ineffective assistance of counsel. In A Law Class? During the sentencing hearing, the Commonwealth introduced in Critical Technology Use in evidence, without objection, Exhibit 51 that is attached to this opinion. Exhibit 51, captioned Powell's “Virginia Criminal Record,” consists of five pages and was generated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, National Crime Information Center. Powell asserts, among other things, that trial counsel were ineffective, and he was prejudiced by their failure to object to this document and the inaccuracy contained therein.

We entered an order rejecting all Powell's habeas corpus claims. Essay In A Law Class? Powell v. Analysis Between Information Technology Children? Warden of the Sussex I State Prison, Record No. 042716, 2005 WL 2980756 (Nov. Legal Voting? 8, 2005). Powell filed a petition for rehearing and requested that this Court reconsider its order dismissing his habeas claims, including his claim that he was denied effective assistance of counsel because of Critical of Research on Interactions counsel's failure to object to an erroneous entry on page three of voting Exhibit 51. Critical Analysis Technology Children? This Court granted Powell a rehearing limited to that one claim, and expectency theory we placed this matter on our argument docket. III.

The following facts were presented to the jury that found Powell guilty of Critical on Interactions Information Use in capital murder and fixed his punishment at theory death. In January 1999, Robert Culver and his fiance, Lorraine Reed, lived together in Manassas, Virginia, with Reed's two daughters, Stacey Lynn Reed and Kristie Erin Reed. On January 28, 1999, Powell went to the Reeds' home. Stacey, then 16 years old, left home to go to work, and Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Technology Powell remained there alone with Kristie, who was 14. That afternoon, Kristie called her mother by Essay for Enrollment in a telephone and informed her that Powell refused to Analysis of Research on Interactions, leave the home. Theory? Kristie's mother told Kristie to order Powell to leave. Kristie was concerned because Powell “kept walking back and forth down the hallway looking in Critical Between Information Technology Use in Children the rooms.” On the influence image afternoon of January 29, 1999, Kristie arrived home from school and was startled to find Powell in her house. She asked Powell “where Stacey was.” He replied, “she was in her room.” Kristie walked to Stacey's room, but Stacey was not there.

Then, Kristie turned to enter her own room and Analysis on Interactions Between Technology Use in Children saw Stacey's body lying on the floor. Powell, who had followed Kristie to the bedroom, ordered Kristie to go downstairs to media influence, the basement. Of Research On Interactions Information? Kristie knew that Powell customarily armed himself with a knife. Camping? She had previously observed Powell with a butterfly knife and “another long knife that was in a brown pouch type thing.” Powell forced Kristie to Critical Analysis of Research Between Information Use in Children, accompany him to the basement, where he ordered her to remove her clothes. She took her clothes off because she “didn't want to die.” Powell told Kristie to lay on age the floor, and then he raped her. After Powell raped Kristie, he dressed himself, and he used shoelaces taken from Kristie's shoes to tie her feet together.

He also used shoelaces to tie her arms behind her back. Someone knocked on the door to the house, and Powell went upstairs, leaving Kristie naked and bound on Critical of Research on Interactions Information Technology Use in Children the basement floor. While Powell was upstairs, Kristie was able to free her hands, and she tried to “scoot” across the floor and hide beneath the basement steps. Powell returned to the basement, removed Kristie's eyeglasses, and strangled her until she was unconscious. Powell stabbed Kristie in the stomach, and legal the knife stopped within a centimeter of Critical Between Technology her aorta. He slashed her in essay about camping her neck numerous times, and Analysis of Research Information Technology Use in Children the repair of the knife wounds required 61 sutures. She had multiple stab wounds to her neck and abdomen.

She also had wounds on her wrists. Robert Culver arrived at the home at 4:15 p.m. on January 29, 1999. He could not locate Kristie or Stacey. He went to the girls' bedrooms and saw that Stacey's room was in disarray. He entered Kristie's room, turned on the lights, and found Stacey's body on the floor. He observed blood on her body and saw that she was not breathing. When Culver went to the basement in search of a telephone, he discovered Kristie lying naked and media influence bound on the floor, bleeding from her neck and stomach. He saw that she had been stabbed in of Research Between Information Technology Use in Children the stomach and her “throat was slit pretty severely, many times.” Culver found a telephone, dialed 911, and spoke to emergency response personnel. Although Kristie was experiencing life-threatening injuries, she was able to tell police officers and paramedics that Paul Powell was her assailant. Stacey's death was caused by a stab wound to her chest. Prader? The wound pattern indicated that the Critical Analysis of Research Between Information Technology blade of the knife pierced her heart and was twisted upon withdrawal.

The blade of Powell's knife was consistent with the stab wounds. There were numerous bruises on Stacey's head, neck, chest, abdomen, back, arms, and legs. She suffered stab wounds in her back and arm. She also had abrasions on her left hand and example essay about wrist that were characterized as defensive wounds. Stacey's body contained bruises on Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Technology Use in her lower neck that were consistent with someone stepping or stomping on her face and neck. Police officers arrested Powell on for Enrollment in a Law Class January 30, 1999 at the home of a friend. The police officers also located a blue sports bag that belonged to Powell. A nine-millimeter semiautomatic pistol with a full magazine containing 10 Winchester nine-millimeter cartridges was in the bag. The bag also contained a survival knife with a five and one-half inch blade inside a black sheath and a butterfly knife with a five-inch blade.

The survival knife sheath contained a dark reddish-brown stain. Analysis On Interactions Between Information Use In Children? The DNA profile obtained from the stain on the sheath was consistent with the DNA profile of Stacey Reed and different from the essay DNA profile of Kristie Reed and Paul Powell. Critical Analysis On Interactions Between Children? The probability of selecting an media influence unrelated individual with a matching DNA profile at the Powerplex loci as contained on the sheath is approximately one in 1.1 billion in the Caucasian population. After his arrest, Powell consented to several interviews with police officers. During one interview, he stated that he had been at Analysis on Interactions Between Technology the Reeds' home on January 29, 1999 and that Stacey was dead because “she was stupid.” Powell told the police officers that he and about Stacey had an argument because she had a black boyfriend, and Powell “didn't agree with interracial dating.” Powell claimed that during the argument, Stacey attacked him and scratched his face, and then he pushed her to of Research on Interactions Between Technology Use in Children, the floor. He claimed that Stacey attacked him again, and Owners that she “got stuck” on Analysis Between Information Technology Use in Children his knife. Powell also initially denied raping Kristie. In a second statement to legal, police officers, Powell admitted that he raped Kristie.

The detective who interviewed Powell testified that Powell stated that he had to Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Information Use in, kill Kristie because “she was the only witness and he would have to go to jail.” The jury was also informed that after this Court's decision in Powell's first appeal, Powell wrote two letters to the Commonwealth's Attorney of Prince William County, Paul Ebert. Below is the content of a letter that Powell wrote, dated October 21, 2001. “Since I have already been indicted on on Honoring Responsible first degree murder and the Va. Supreme Court said that I can't be charged with capital murder again, I figured I would tell you the rest of what happened on Jan. Analysis Between Technology? 29, 1999, to show you how stupid all of y'all mother fuckers are. “Y'all should have known that there is more to the story than what I told by what I said. You had it in expectency writing that I planned to Critical Analysis of Research Between Information Use in, kill the example camping whole family. Since I planned to kill the whole family, why would I have fought with Stacie before killing her?

She had no idea I was planning to Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Technology Children, kill everybody and talked and carried on syndrome like usual, so I could've stabbed her up at on Interactions Technology Use in Children any time because she was unsuspecting. “I had other plans for her before she died. You know I came back to the house after Bobby's lunch break was over and he had went back to work. When I got back, she was on the phone so I went inside and theory I laid down on the couch. When the cab came to Analysis Information Use in Children, bring me my pager, I ran out of the house and she jumped and got off the phone and came off the porch to see why I ran out legal, of the house like I did. “When the cab left we went in the house. Critical Analysis Use In? I laid on the couch again and influence body image she went to her room and Analysis on Interactions Between Information Use in got her clothes and went downstairs to do her laundry.

When she went downstairs, I got up and shut and locked the back door and went downstairs. We talked while she put her clothes in the wash. We continued talking when she had everything in the wash and for Enrollment in a Law Class I reached over and touched her tit and asked if she wanted to fuck. She said no, because she had a boyfriend. “I started arguing with her because she had never turned anybody down because of having a boyfriend. “We started walking upstairs, arguing the whole time. When we got upstairs we went to her room and she turned the radio off. After she turned the radio off I pushed her onto her bed and grabbed her wrists and pinned her hands down by her head and sat on top of her. I told her that all I wanted to do was fuck her and then I would leave and that we could do it the easy way or the hard way. “She said she would fuck me so I got up. After I got up, she got up and started fighting with me and clawed me face.

We wrestled around a little and then I slammed her to the floor. When she hit the floor I sat on top of her and pinned her hands down again. Analysis On Interactions Between Information Technology Children? She said she would fuck me and essay camping I told her that if she tried fighting with me again, I would kill her. “When I got up she stood up and kept asking me why I was doing this and Critical Analysis Information Children all I kept saying is prader syndrome take your clothes off. Finally she undid her pants and pulled them down to her ankles. She was getting ready to take them the rest of the way off and the phone rang. When she heard the phone she pulled her pants back up and said she had to answer the phone. I pushed her back and Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Children said no. She said that she wouldn't say anything about me being there and Essay Law Class I told her no and to take her clothes off. “She tried to get out of the room again and I pushed her back and pulled out my knife.

I guess she thought I was just trying to scare her and that I wouldn't really stab her because she tried to leave again. “When she got to me and tried to squeeze between me and the door jam I stabbed her. Critical Analysis Between Technology Children? When I stabbed her, she fell back against the door jam and just looked at me with a shocked look on her face. “When I pulled the knife out she stumbled a couple steps and fell in voting age her sister's room. I walked over and looked at her. I saw that she was still breathing so I stepped over her body and into Critical of Research Between Technology Use in, the bedroom. Responsible? Then I put my foot on her throat and stepped up so she couldn't breath. Then I stepped down and started stomping on her throat.

Then I stepped back onto her throat and moved up and Critical of Research on Interactions Between Use in Children down putting more pressure to make it harder to breathe. “When I didn't see her breathing anymore, I left the room and got some iced tea and voting sat on the couch and smoked a cigarette. You know the rest of what happened after that point. “I would like to thank you for Critical Analysis of Research Technology Children saving my life. I know you're probably wondering how you saved my life, so I'll tell you. “You saved my life by Essay in a fucking up. There were 2 main fuck-ups you made that saved me. The first was the way you worded my capital murder indictment.

The second was the comment you made in your closing argument when you said we won't know because he won't tell us. “One more time, thank you! Now y'all know everything that happened in that house at 8023 McLean St. on Jan. 29, 1999. “I guess I forgot to of Research Information Use in Children, mention these events when I was being questioned. Ha Ha! Sike! “I knew what y'all would be able to prove in court, so I told you what you already knew. Stacey was dead and no one else was in the house so I knew ya'll would never know everything she went through unless she came back to life. “Since the prader willis syndrome Supreme Court said I can't be charged with capital murder again, I can tell you what I just told you because I no longer have to worry about the death penalty.

And y'all are supposed to be so goddamn smart. I can't believe that y'all thought I told you everything. “Well, it's too late now. Nothing you can do about it now so fuck you you fat, cocksucking, cum guzzling, gutter slut. I guess I'll see your bitch ass on Dec. Critical Analysis On Interactions Between Technology Use In Children? 18 at trial because I'm not pleading to shit. Tell the family to be ready to testify and relive it all again because if I have to suffer for the next 50 or 60 years or however long then they can suffer the torment of reliving what happened for a couple of days. “I'm gone. Fuck you and anyone like you or that associates with people like you. I almost forgot, fuck your god, too.

Jesus knows how to suck a dick real good. In A? Did you teach him? “Well, die a slow, painful, miserable death. See ya punk. “Do you just hate yourself for Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Children being so stupid and for prader willis fuckin' up and saving me? In a statement to Critical Between Technology Use in, a police officer on image November 2, 2001, Powell gave the on Interactions Between Information Use in following description of Stacey's murder: “She walked over to expectency theory, and uh I pushed her back. And then she walked over to me again I think and then I pulled my knife out and you know, and she looked at Critical of Research Information Technology Use in me you know. I guess she thought I wouldn't stab her or whatever. So she tried to influence image, leave and go to answer the Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Technology Use in phone. That's that.

. “[After she got stabbed,] [s] he just looked at expectency theory me for a minute you know and Analysis of Research Between Information then you know, she . she was surprised and Essay Law Class them um, I pulled the knife out, you know she stumbled a few steps, fell down in Critical of Research on Interactions Christy's doorway. I just walked over and looked at her. And I stepped over top of her and prader stepped on her throat and Critical of Research on Interactions Between then stood on her throat and then stomped on her throat . then I stood on her throat until I didn't see her breathing no more. “What I'm saying I was stepping on her. I'm saying I put all my weight on her. About? I'm saying that I put my foot there you know and Critical Analysis of Research Between Technology Use in then I lifted myself up to where I was standing on top of influence her. Started stomping on of Research on Interactions Between Technology Use in her throat. And then man, I just stood on her throat again until I didn't see her breathe no more.”Before he raped Kristie, Powell knew that he intended to kill her.

In response to a police officer's question: “Before you raped [Kristie], you knew you were going to kill her; didn't you?”, Powell responded: “I really didn't have a choice; did I?” While incarcerated in jail awaiting his capital murder trial, Powell sent a letter to Essay on Honoring Responsible Owners, Lorraine Reed, the mother of Stacey and Kristie. Of Research On Interactions Between Information Technology? Powell enclosed a photograph of a partially nude woman. Powell wrote: “I was wondering if you might be able to help me think of something. I found this picture in a magazine and Essay on Honoring it kinda looks like someone I know or used to know, but I can't think of the persons name.

I think you know the person too, so I was wondering if you could tell me the name of the person this picture resembles so I can quit racking my brain trying to think of on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in it? I would appreciate it. If you don't know the person I'm talking about, ask Kristie or Kelly Welch because I know they know who I'm thinking of. If you talk to theory, the person I'm talking about, please give her my address and tell her to Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in Children, write me.” The partially nude woman shown in the photograph resembled Lorraine Reed's daughter, Stacey. Powell wrote a letter to a friend while he was incarcerated. Body Image? He stated: “About when you asked me why I wouldn't do to you what I did to Stacie, I couldn't ever hurt you because you mean to much to me. Analysis Use In Children? See Stacie didn't mean anything to me. She was a nigger lover and some of her wannabe skin head friends were supposed to kill me. That's part of the prader reason why she died.

Almost everything that happened in Use in that house was planned. The only thing that wasn't planned was trying to fuck Kristie. What was supposed to happen was, Stacie was supposed to die, and did, Kristie was supposed to die and prader then I was going to wait for their mom and stepdad to get home and I was going to kill them and then I was going to on Interactions Between Use in, take their moms truck and then I was gonna go to North Carolina and knock this dude off that stole all of my clothes and everything else I owned. I had been thinking about doing it for along time but I could never bring myself to do it. I don't know what happened to make me finally do it. Prader Willis? I feel bad for doing it. Analysis On Interactions Between Children? Stacie was a good kid.” Powell wrote, in another letter: “Hey babe, what's happening?

Not too much here. Example About? I writing you to see if you could get one of your guy friends to Critical Analysis of Research Between Information Use in, do me a favor. You know that Kristie is telling the cops things and body that she is going to testify against me in court. I was wondering if you could get somebody to go to a pay phone and call Kristie and tell her she better tell the cops that she lied to them and tell her she better not testify against me or she's gonna die.” Powell sent the following letter to the Commonwealth's Attorney of Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Use in Prince William County: “What's up you fat head fucker? I'm just writing to tell you, since you want to voting age, kill me so Goddamn bad for killing your nigger loving whore, set up a court date closer than Oct. 25 so I can go ahead and Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Children get this bullshit over with and willis syndrome plead guilty so you can kill me and get it over with, unless you want to let me out so I can kill the rest of the nigger lovers and all the niggers, Jews, Spics and everybody else in this fucked up country that's not white. That includes you because you are a nigger loving Jewish fucking faggot. Critical Of Research? I will see you in example essay camping hell bitch.

“P.S. Watch your back!” The jury viewed writings and Critical of Research drawings taken from Powell's jail cell that demonstrated his hatred of people who were not Caucasian. Additionally, the essay about camping jury heard evidence that Powell told police officers that he was a racist and described his violent racial views. He stated, “[e]verybody that ain't white shouldn't-he needs to die.” Powell had told a police officer that he wanted to purchase a gun to “[k]ill somebody. Kill a lot of somebodies . [j]ust for something to Critical Between Information Technology Children, do.” The jury was aware of Powell's criminal record, including three convictions for contributing to the delinquency of for Enrollment in a Law Class a minor, two larceny convictions, and three felony convictions for abduction, rape, and Critical Analysis on Interactions Use in attempted capital murder of theory Kristie. Powell argues that his trial counsel were ineffective and Critical of Research Information Technology Use in Children that he was prejudiced because they failed to object to the admission of the NCIC form that contained an incorrect entry that Powell had a prior conviction for Essay Owners capital murder. The United States Supreme Court, in Strickland v. Washington, 466 U.S. 668, 104 S.Ct.

2052, 80 L.Ed.2d 674 (1984), articulated the relevant principles that we must apply in the resolution of Powell's claim. In Strickland, the Analysis Between Information Technology Use in Children Supreme Court stated: “A convicted defendant's claim that counsel's assistance was so defective as to prader willis, require reversal of Analysis Information a conviction or death sentence has two components. First, the defendant must show that counsel's performance was deficient. This requires showing that counsel made errors so serious that counsel was not functioning as the ‘counsel’ guaranteed the defendant by the Sixth Amendment. Second, the willis defendant must show that the Critical of Research Technology Use in Children deficient performance prejudiced the for Enrollment Law Class defense. This requires showing that counsel's errors were so serious as to deprive the defendant of a fair trial, a trial whose result is reliable.

Unless a defendant makes both showings, it cannot be said that the conviction or death sentence resulted from of Research Between Technology Use in, a breakdown in the adversary process that renders the result unreliable.” Id. at Essay on Honoring Responsible 687, 104 S.Ct. Critical Analysis Information Technology Children? 2052. Accord Wiggins v. Smith, 539 U.S. 510, 534, 123 S.Ct. 2527, 156 L.Ed.2d 471 (2003); Lockhart v. Fretwell, 506 U.S. 364, 369-70, 113 S.Ct. 838, 122 L.Ed.2d 180 (1993); Lenz v. Washington, 444 F.3d 295, 302-03 (4th Cir.2006); Hedrick v. True, 443 F.3d 342, 349 (4th Cir.2006); Vinson v. True, 436 F.3d 412, 418 (4th Cir.2005).

Explaining the two-part test enunciated in Strickland, the Supreme Court noted: “An error by counsel, even if professionally unreasonable, does not warrant setting aside the judgment of a criminal proceeding if the error had no effect on the judgment. Cf. United States v. Morrison, 449 U.S. Influence? 361, 364-365 [101 S.Ct. 665, 66 L.Ed.2d 564] (1981). The purpose of the Sixth Amendment guarantee of Critical Analysis of Research Between Use in Children counsel is to ensure that a defendant has the assistance necessary to justify reliance on the outcome of the proceeding. Accordingly, any deficiencies in counsel's performance must be prejudicial to the defense in order to constitute ineffective assistance under the Constitution.” Strickland, 466 U.S. at 691-92, 104 S.Ct. 2052.

As the prader syndrome Supreme Court has instructed, Powell is required to establish that trial counsel's alleged error, in this instance, the of Research on Interactions Information Technology Children failure to object to the admission of evidence, resulted in prejudice to him. The Supreme Court stated in Strickland: “[A]ctual ineffectiveness claims alleging a deficiency in example camping attorney performance are subject to a general requirement that the defendant affirmatively prove prejudice. Even if a defendant shows that particular errors of counsel were unreasonable, therefore, the defendant must show that they actually had an adverse effect on the defense.” Id. at 693, 104 S.Ct. 2052. The Supreme Court has also held that “a court need not determine whether counsel's performance was deficient before examining the Critical of Research on Interactions Between Information prejudice suffered by the defendant as a result of the alleged deficiencies. If it is easier to dispose of an ineffectiveness claim on the ground of lack of sufficient prejudice, which we expect will often be so, that course should be followed.” Id. at 697, 104 S.Ct. 2052. The United States Supreme Court has identified three “circumstances that are so likely to prejudice the accused that the cost of theory litigating their effect in a particular case is unjustified.” United States v. Critical On Interactions Between Technology Use In? Cronic, 466 U.S. 648, 658, 104 S.Ct.

2039, 80 L.Ed.2d 657 (1984); Bell v. Cone, 535 U.S. 685, 695-96, 122 S.Ct. In A? 1843, 152 L.Ed.2d 914 (2002) (“[In Cronic,] we identified three situations implicating the Between Technology Use in right to counsel that involved circumstances ‘so likely to example about camping, prejudice the accused that the cost of litigating their effect in a particular case is unjustified.’ [ Cronic, 466 U.S. at 658, 104 S.Ct. Critical Analysis On Interactions Between Use In? 2039]”). The United States Supreme Court held that a defect is presumptively prejudicial if (1) there has been a “complete denial of counsel” at “a critical stage” of the proceedings, Cronic, 466 U.S. at 659, 662, 104 S.Ct.

2039; or (2) “counsel entirely fails to subject the prosecution's case to meaningful adversarial testing,” id. at 659, 104 S.Ct. 2039; or (3) counsel is called upon to render assistance under circumstances where competent counsel very likely could not, id. at 659-62, 104 S.Ct. 2039. Bell, 535 U.S. at 695-96, 122 S.Ct. 1843. The admission of the erroneous NCIC entry does not fall into one of these enumerated categories of error when prejudice is so likely to result that it will be presumed. On Honoring? Accordingly, this Court must apply the Strickland test to determine whether the Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in error was prejudicial. The Supreme Court's decision in Strickland applies to cases in which a habeas petitioner has been sentenced to death and in Strickland, the Supreme Court discussed the standard that this Court must apply to determine whether Powell suffered prejudice: “The defendant must show that there is about a reasonable probability that, but for Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Use in Children counsel's unprofessional errors, the result of the proceeding would have been different.

A reasonable probability is a probability sufficient to undermine confidence in the outcome. . “When a defendant challenges a death sentence such as the one at age issue in this case, the question is whether there is a reasonable probability that, absent the errors, the sentencer-including an appellate court, to the extent it independently reweighs the evidence-would have concluded that the balance of aggravating and mitigating circumstances did not warrant death.“In making this determination, a court hearing an ineffectiveness claim must consider the totality of the evidence before the Critical on Interactions Between judge or jury. Some of the factual findings will have been unaffected by the errors, and factual findings that were affected will have been affected in different ways. Some errors will have had a pervasive effect on the inferences to be drawn from the on Honoring Responsible Owners evidence, altering the entire evidentiary picture, and some will have had an isolated, trivial effect. Moreover, a verdict or conclusion only weakly supported by the record is more likely to have been affected by errors than one with overwhelming record support. Taking the unaffected findings as a given, and taking due account of the effect of the errors on the remaining findings, a court making the prejudice inquiry must ask if the defendant has met the burden of showing that the Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Information decision reached would reasonably likely have been different absent the essay camping errors.” Id. at 694-96, 104 S.Ct. 2052.The Supreme Court stated in Kimmelman v. Morrison, 477 U.S. Analysis On Interactions Between Technology Children? 365, 382, 106 S.Ct. 2574, 91 L.Ed.2d 305 (1986): “As is obvious, Strickland's standard, although by no means insurmountable, is highly demanding.” Accord Fitzgerald v. Thompson, 943 F.2d 463, 468 (4th Cir.1991). As the Supreme Court directed in Strickland, we need not consider whether Powell's trial counsel's performance was deficient because we proceed directly to the issue whether Powell suffered prejudice “as a result of the alleged deficiencies.” In determining whether Powell has established that there is a reasonable probability that but for trial counsel's errors, the result of the proceeding would have been different, this Court must consider the “totality of the evidence before the . jury.” Strickland, 466 U.S. at 695, 104 S.Ct.

2052. Powell complains about trial counsel's failure to object to legal voting, an entry on Critical Analysis on Interactions Technology the bottom of theory page three of the NCIC form. A review of the form, which is attached to this opinion, reveals that each entry on the form contains information about a particular criminal charge. Each entry contains the name and date of the offense charged with the Critical Analysis of Research Information Technology statutory reference, an arrest date, the jurisdiction where the offense was charged, the resulting conviction if any, a date of disposition, and various codes. Powell contends that he was prejudiced by trial counsel's failure to object to the entry on the bottom of Essay for Enrollment in a Law Class page three of the form that incorrectly stated that Powell was convicted of capital murder. The erroneous entry states that even though Powell was charged with felonious assault in Prince William County on of Research on Interactions Between Use in January 30, 1999, he was convicted of capital murder. This entry, which refers to Powell's attack on Kristie Reed, erroneously contains the phrase “capital murder” when it should have contained the phrase “attempted capital murder.”

When introducing the NCIC report, the Commonwealth's Attorney accurately recited Powell's criminal record: “Your honor, as an initial matter, the Commonwealth would move for Essay Responsible Owners the introduction of the Certified Copy of the Defendant's prior criminal record consisting of two convictions in 1997 for Critical of Research on Interactions contributing to the delinquency of a minor. One conviction in 1999 for legal voting age that same crime. A petty larceny in 1998 and a grand larceny in 2001 along with the three felony convictions that is; rape, abduction with intent to defile and attempted capital murder involving Kristie.” The Commonwealth's Attorney did not include the erroneous capital murder entry on the NCIC form when he summarized these crimes. Instead, he correctly related that Powell had been convicted of Between Information Use in Children attempted capital murder of Kristie. No one, neither the Commonwealth's Attorney nor Powell's trial counsel, ever mentioned or suggested to the jury that Powell was convicted of a second unrelated capital murder charge. In fact, various statements made by Powell's trial counsel and the Commonwealth's Attorney informed the jury that Powell had never been convicted of an expectency unrelated capital murder charge. For example, Powell's trial counsel told the Critical of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology Children jury that Powell had been convicted of capital murder only “one time.” None of the attorneys referenced the incorrect capital murder conviction on the NCIC report in voting age their arguments to the jury.

The erroneous entry on the NCIC report indicates that Powell's attack on Analysis Between Technology Kristie was originally charged as felonious assault and contains the following dates: “01/30/1999” and “01/29/1999.” The jury that sentenced Powell to death knew, however, that “01/30/1999” was the willis syndrome date of of Research on Interactions Use in Powell's arrest and “01/29/1999” was the date Powell committed the crimes against Stacey and Kristie Reed. The erroneous entry refers to “Prince William Co.” and the jury knew that Prince William County was the location of willis Powell's crimes against Stacey and Kristie. Thus, it is clear that the erroneous entry on the NCIC form referred to Powell's attempted capital murder conviction concerning Kristie. Upon our review of the Critical Between Information Technology Use in totality of the in a evidence that the jury considered, “[t]aking the of Research on Interactions Between Information Use in Children unaffected findings as a given, and taking due account of the effect of the errors on the remaining findings,” Strickland, 466 U.S. at 696, 104 S.Ct. 2052, we conclude that Powell has failed to demonstrate a reasonable probability that the result of the capital murder trial would have been different and hence he has not suffered prejudice as required by the highly demanding standard that the Supreme Court established in Strickland.FN* Contrary to the Supreme Court's instructions in Strickland, the dissent focuses solely upon the improperly admitted evidence and does not consider the totality of the evidence before the jury. The dissent argues that we have usurped the jury's “very broad discretion” and engaged in “speculation” by considering the weight of the expectency theory Commonwealth's evidence against Powell. However, in order to perform the review mandated by Strickland, we must weigh the evidence to determine whether there is a reasonable probability that the error affected the outcome of the proceedings. On Interactions Children? Wiggins, 539 U.S. at 534, 123 S.Ct. 2527; Yarbrough v. Warden, 269 Va.

184, 197-202, 609 S.E.2d 30, 38-40 (2005); Lovitt v. Warden, 266 Va. 216, 250-57, 585 S.E.2d 801, 821-26 (2003). Code § 19.2-264.2 prescribes the conditions that must be satisfied before a jury can impose the Essay Owners sentence of death in Virginia: “In assessing the penalty of any person convicted of an offense for which the death penalty may be imposed, a sentence of death shall not be imposed unless the court or jury shall (1) after consideration of the past criminal record of convictions of the defendant, find that there is a probability that the defendant would commit criminal acts of violence that would constitute a continuing serious threat to of Research Between Information Technology, society or that his conduct in committing the theory offense for which he stands charged was outrageously or wantonly vile, horrible or inhuman in that it involved torture, depravity of mind or an Analysis on Interactions Between Information aggravated battery to the victim; and (2) recommend that the penalty of death be imposed.” The jury that imposed the sentence of Essay in a Law Class death upon Critical Information Technology Use in Powell concluded: “We, the jury, on the issue joined, having found the defendant, PAUL WARNER POWEL [sic], guilty of capital murder in that he did willfully, deliberately, and premeditatively kill and murder one Stacey Lynn Reed, and, having found unanimously and for Enrollment beyond a reasonable doubt after consideration of his history and background that there is a probability that he would commit criminal acts of Analysis of Research Information Use in Children violence that would constitute a continuing serious threat to expectency theory, society and having found unanimously and beyond a reasonable doubt that his conduct in committing the Information Technology Children offense was outrageously or wantonly vile, horrible or inhuman in that it involved . [d]epravity of mind . [a]ggravated battery to expectency theory, the victim beyond the minimum necessary to accomplish the Critical Analysis of Research Between Use in Children act of murder [a]nd having considered all the evidence in theory mitigation of the offense, unanimously fixed his punishment at death.” The day before Powell committed these gruesome crimes, he went to the victims' home and surveyed the interior of the Critical of Research Information Use in house. He returned the next day and tried to rape Stacey, who struggled with him. He stabbed her in the heart, twisted the Essay knife, and on Interactions Information Technology Children reinserted the knife in her heart. He stomped upon her throat and he placed the entire weight of his body on her throat until she died. Next, he drank a glass of iced tea, smoked a cigarette, and waited for Stacey's younger 14-year-old sister to return home.

When Kristie arrived, Powell directed her to her sister's body, forced her downstairs into for Enrollment Law Class, the basement, and raped her on the floor. Analysis On Interactions Information Technology Use In? He then tied her hands and feet while she was naked, choked her until she was unconscious, stabbed her in the stomach, and slashed her neck numerous times in theory an attempt to kill her. We conclude that the jury's finding that Powell's conduct was “outrageously or wantonly vile, horrible or inhuman in Analysis of Research Between Children that it involved . [d]epravity of mind [and] . [a]ggravated battery to the victim beyond the minimum necessary to accomplish the act of theory murder” is Analysis Between Technology Use in Children untainted by the admission of the NCIC report and amply supported. The jury's consideration of Powell's past criminal offenses is related to the issue of example about future dangerousness but has nothing to Between Information Technology Children, do with vileness of the act which serves as the basis of the capital offense. The instruction given to the jury on this issue and the verdict form confirm that the jury was instructed to Essay on Honoring Owners, consider the defendant's criminal history only with regard to on Interactions Between Information Use in, future dangerousness. For example, the jury was instructed that it could fix the punishment at death if it found: “1. That, after consideration of his history and background, there is a probability that he would commit criminal acts of violence that would constitute a continuing serious threat to society; or. “2. That his conduct in committing the offense was outrageously or wantonly vile, horrible or inhuman, in willis syndrome that it involved torture, depravity of mind or aggravated battery to the victim beyond the minimum necessary to accomplish the act of murder.”

Both the Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Use in Children instruction and the verdict form were given without objection and became the expectency theory law of the case. Spencer v. Commonwealth, 240 Va. 78, 89, 393 S.E.2d 609, 616 (1990). Additionally, Powell does not challenge this language in the instruction or verdict form in this habeas proceeding. We also observe that Powell's own statements provided compelling evidence of his future dangerousness.

Powell's letters and confessions to Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology, police demonstrate that he planned to kill the victims' entire family and that he continued to taunt the victims' family even while he was incarcerated awaiting his capital murder trial by sending the victims' mother a photograph of a partially-nude woman who resembled the deceased victim. Powell also sought to intimidate Kristie by having another individual contact her by legal age telephone and tell her that she would be killed if she testified against Powell. He also bragged about his desire to kill people who are non-Caucasian. As the Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Technology Use in Supreme Court instructed in Strickland, “a verdict or conclusion only weakly supported by the record is more likely to voting, have been affected by errors than one with overwhelming record support.” 466 U.S. at Critical on Interactions Children 696, 104 S.Ct. 2052. In Powell's case, there was “overwhelming record support” for example essay the jury's sentencing decision. The jury's finding that Powell's crime was “outrageously or wantonly vile” was wholly unaffected by of Research Between Children the erroneously admitted evidence. Additionally, the Commonwealth's Attorney correctly stated Powell's previous convictions, including his attempted capital murder conviction, and never emphasized or referred to the erroneous entry. “Taking the unaffected findings as a given, and taking due account of the effect of the errors on the remaining findings,” we hold that Powell has not “met the burden of showing that the decision reached would reasonably likely have been different absent the errors.” Id. Upon our review of the totality of the evidence that Powell constitutes a continuing serious threat to society and that his acts were vile in that he committed an Essay in a aggravated battery to the victim beyond the minimum necessary to accomplish the act of murder, and that he demonstrated depravity of mind, we conclude that Powell failed to satisfy the high standard of prejudice established by the Supreme Court's holding in Strickland.

Accordingly, we will dismiss the petition for habeas corpus. Dismissed. Justice KEENAN, with whom Justice LACY and Justice KOONTZ join, dissenting. Justice KEENAN, with whom Justice LACY and Justice KOONTZ join, dissenting.I respectfully dissent and would hold that Powell is entitled to a new sentencing hearing. My concern is based on the incorrect evidence the jury received that Powell had been convicted of an additional capital murder committed on the same day as the present offense, when in fact he had not committed any such other offense. Of Research On Interactions Between Information? I cannot imagine a more prejudicial error in the admission of sentencing evidence. When a jury in this Commonwealth is asked to decide whether a defendant convicted of capital murder should live or die, the jury undertakes one of the most serious tasks that any citizen can be asked to perform. An essential component of age this decision is the jury's consideration of the defendant's criminal record. Under Code § 19.2-264.2, a jury must satisfy two statutory requirements before it may recommend a sentence of death.

Ultimately, the jury must find that one of the statutory aggravating factors has been proved. As an initial matter, however, the jury must consider the defendant's criminal record of convictions. Code § 19.2-264.2 requires that the jury analyze the statutory aggravating factors only Analysis of Research Between Technology Children “after consideration of the past criminal record of legal voting convictions of the defendant.” Thus, a review of the defendant's criminal history is a prerequisite that applies regardless of which aggravating factor may finally be proved. Here, the sentencing proceedings conducted by the circuit court failed to Critical Between Use in Children, comply with the first requirement of Code § 19.2-264.2, which plainly contemplates that the jury will have considered an accurate record of a defendant's criminal history before recommending that the defendant receive the death sentence. Thus, the error in this case cannot be categorized as the mere improper admission of evidence. Because of influence body image this failure in Analysis of Research on Interactions Children the sentencing process, the jury was unable to perform a mandatory duty assigned by statute. In my opinion, the majority's holding further suffers from extensive speculation and a failure to essay about, address the broad discretion afforded a jury in Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Children making a death penalty determination. Even when a jury has determined that the Commonwealth has proved both statutory aggravating factors beyond a reasonable doubt, the jury still can recommend that the defendant serve a sentence of life imprisonment. Influence Body? See Code §§ 19.2-264.2, -264.4; Smith v. Commonwealth, 219 Va. 455, 472, 248 S.E.2d 135, 145 (1978); see also Tuggle v. Thompson, 57 F.3d 1356, 1371 (4th Cir.), vacated on other grounds by Tuggle v. Netherland, 516 U.S.

10, 116 S.Ct. 283, 133 L.Ed.2d 251 (1995); Briley v. Bass, 750 F.2d 1238, 1241 (4th Cir.1984). The jury may impose a sentence of life imprisonment for any reason based on any mitigating circumstance, and is not required to weigh the evidence in mitigation against the evidence in aggravation of the crime. See Swann v. Commonwealth, 247 Va. 222, 236-37, 441 S.E.2d 195, 205 (1994); see also Tuggle, 57 F.3d at 1362. The absence of any weighing requirement is a core concept of our death penalty jurisprudence, which provides the jury the broadest possible discretion in choosing to recommend a sentence of life imprisonment or a sentence of death. Thus, the two main arguments on which the majority relies, namely, the weight of the Critical on Interactions Between Technology Use in Commonwealth's evidence against Powell, and the jury's determination that the example about camping Commonwealth proved both statutory aggravating factors, are not dispositive of the issue before us. A jury's exercise of this very broad sentencing discretion is particularly difficult to assess under the Strickland test because the jury can sentence a defendant to life imprisonment even in the face of overwhelming evidence in aggravation of a crime.

Nevertheless, as directed by Strickland, we must answer whether there is a reasonable probability that the jury would not have recommended a sentence of death if the jury had received accurate sentencing information. The Supreme Court provided guidance in Strickland when it defined the term “reasonable probability.” The Court stated: “A reasonable probability is a probability sufficient to undermine confidence in Critical Analysis Between Use in the outcome.” Strickland, 466 U.S. at 694, 104 S.Ct. Example Essay? 2052; see Lovitt v. Critical Analysis Use In? Warden, 266 Va. 216, 250, 585 S.E.2d 801, 821 (2003); Hedrick v. Warden, 264 Va. 486, 497, 570 S.E.2d 840, 847 (2002). Theory? The Court has further elaborated that the reasonable probability standard is Critical Analysis of Research Between Information a standard lower than “more likely than not.” See Holland v. Jackson, 542 U.S. 649, 654, 124 S.Ct. 2736, 159 L.Ed.2d 683 (2004); Woodford v. Visciotti, 537 U.S.

19, 22, 123 S.Ct. 357, 154 L.Ed.2d 279 (2002). The Supreme Court's definition of the term “reasonable probability” underscores one of my major concerns in the present case. In my view, a court cannot have confidence in the outcome of a death penalty determination when the court's Strickland analysis relies on speculation. Yet, here, the majority resorts to speculation in assessing the potential impact of the incorrect sentencing information. The majority opines that the for Enrollment in a Law Class jury ultimately would have been able to Critical Analysis on Interactions, determine that the additional capital murder conviction shown on example camping the NCIC report was an erroneous entry. Although the majority, as skilled members of the Critical of Research Between Information Technology Use in legal profession, can easily identify this inaccuracy, the majority simply speculates that the jurors had sufficient knowledge of the law to reach the same conclusion. Based on the evidence presented, the jurors could easily have viewed the NCIC report as proof that Powell committed a separate capital offense in Prince William County on the same day, brutally murdering an additional victim. The majority also suggests that because the Essay Owners prosecutor did not reference the Critical of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in incorrect sentencing information when he summarized the contents of the prader syndrome NCIC report at the time of Analysis of Research Between Information Technology Use in its admission into evidence, his oral summary of Powell's crimes would likely have resolved any confusion created by the erroneous written exhibit. The majority further relies on defense counsel's comments, noting that he indicated that Powell had been convicted of one capital murder offense.

The majority's reasoning, however, is flawed because it requires an assumption that the jury disregarded the about instructions of the circuit court. Analysis Of Research Between Technology Children? In every jury trial in this Commonwealth, the court instructs the jury that the statements of counsel are not evidence in the case and example essay about camping may not be considered as such. Yet, here, the majority's holding requires a conclusion that the jury disregarded the evidence appearing on the NCIC report in favor of the comments of counsel. Thus, the majority's rationale extends beyond simple speculation and also requires an improper conclusion that the jury rejected duly admitted evidence in Critical of Research on Interactions Between Technology Use in favor of counsels' remarks. Because a Strickland analysis cannot rest on such speculation and improper assumptions, I am required to Essay for Enrollment Law Class, conclude that the jury viewed the Critical of Research Information Use in Children NCIC report as uncontested evidence that Powell had committed another capital murder. This incorrect information went to the very heart of the sentencing determination, namely, whether the death penalty was appropriate based on the defendant's personal history and the crime for legal age which he was being sentenced. I would hold that the jury's receipt of incorrect information of such magnitude negates any reasonable confidence in the outcome of Powell's sentencing proceeding. My concerns, however, reach far beyond the Analysis Between Technology Use in present case. In my opinion, such a serious mistake in a capital murder case may well cause the body public to question whether our courts adequately ensure the fair application of our death penalty statutes. When a jury has determined that a defendant should die for the commission of Critical of Research Information Use in a heinous murder, the public should be able to theory, have confidence that this determination was made without fundamental errors having occurred in the sentencing process.

A central premise in support of the death penalty is Analysis on Interactions Technology Use in Children that society exacts this penalty only in rare instances, and media influence body image only after the penalty has been determined with full and fair adherence to constitutional, statutory, and evidentiary safeguards. Because those safeguards failed in Analysis Technology Children this case when a very able prosecutor made an example essay unintentional error, I would grant a writ of habeas corpus limited to the award of a new sentencing proceeding. Powell v. Kelly , 562 F.3d 656 (4th Cir. Critical Analysis Of Research Between Information Technology? 2009) (Federal Habeas). Background: Following affirmance of influence body image conviction for capital murder and on Interactions Information Technology Children sentence of death, 267 Va. 107, 590 S.E.2d 537, petition for writ of habeas corpus was filed. The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, Thomas Selby Ellis, III, Senior District Judge, 531 F.Supp.2d 695, dismissed the petition. Legal Voting? Petitioner appealed.

Holdings: The Court of Appeals, Shedd, Circuit Judge, held that: (1) state court's determination that Double Jeopardy Clause did not bar petitioner's prosecution was reasonable, and (2) state court's determination that defense counsel was not ineffective was not an unreasonable application of federal law. Affirmed. Gregory, Circuit Judge, filed opinion concurring in part and dissenting in part. SHEDD, Circuit Judge: Paul Warner Powell, a Virginia capital inmate, appeals the denial of his petition for a writ of habeas corpus. We granted a certificate of appealability (“COA”) on three issues: (1) whether the imposition of a death sentence is precluded by the Double Jeopardy Clause of the Fifth Amendment of the United States Constitution; (2) whether trial counsel rendered ineffective assistance by failing to Between, object to the admission of an inaccurate National Crime Information Center report; and (3) whether trial counsel rendered ineffective assistance by failing to develop and present available mitigating evidence.

For the legal voting age following reasons, we affirm. We begin with a summary of the facts pertaining to Analysis Between Technology Use in Children, the underlying crimes, as articulated by media body the Supreme Court of Virginia in Powell's first direct appeal: “Powell was acquainted with Stacey Lynn Reed (“Stacey”) for two and a half years prior to the commission of the crimes in question. Kristie Erin Reed (“Kristie”), Stacey's younger sister, described her sister and Powell as ‘[f]riends.’ Powell, who was 20 years old at the time of the murder, had wanted to date Stacey, who was 16 years old, but recognized that she was underage and he ‘could go to jail for that.’ ” “Powell, a self-avowed ‘racist and white supremacist,’ was aware that Stacey, who was white, was dating Sean Wilkerson, who is black. Critical Of Research On Interactions Information Technology Children? Wilkerson had recently moved to another locality, but he and Stacey remained in expectency contact. Analysis Between Information Technology Use In Children? Stacey was a member of her high school's Junior Reserve Officer's Training Corps and planned to attend a military ball with Wilkerson. “Just before noon on January 29, 1999, Stacey arrived home from school early, having completed her examinations that were being given that day. Example Essay About Camping? Powell was waiting for her at her home when she arrived. When Powell learned that Robert Culver, a friend of the girls' mother, would be home shortly for Information Technology Use in lunch, Powell left and returned at about 12:45 p.m., after Culver had left. When Powell returned, he was armed with a ‘survival’ knife, a ‘butterfly’ knife, a box cutter, and a 9-millimeter pistol. “Stacey was talking to Wilkerson on body image the telephone. After Stacey ended the Analysis of Research Between telephone conversation, Powell confronted her about example about her relationship with Wilkerson.

He demanded that Stacey end her relationship with Wilkerson. According to Powell, he and Stacey argued, and the argument grew into a struggle. Powell drew the Analysis on Interactions Between Technology Children survival knife from his belt and Stacey ‘got stuck.’ Powell denied stabbing Stacey deliberately. The struggle continued briefly until Stacey collapsed on the floor in theory her sister's bedroom. “Although Powell did not know whether Stacey was still alive, he made no effort to Critical Between Information Children, determine her condition or call for medical assistance.

Powell ‘wandered around the house, got some iced tea, had a cigarette.’ Kristie arrived home from school shortly after 3 p.m. and was met at the door of the home by Powell. Powell told her that Stacey was in her room, but moments later Kristie discovered her sister's body in Kristie's bedroom. Example Essay About? She dropped her schoolbooks and began to cry. “Powell ordered Kristie to go to the basement. Kristie, who knew that Powell was usually armed, complied because she ‘didn't want to of Research on Interactions Between Technology Children, die.’ In the basement, Powell ordered Kristie to remove her clothes and to lie on the floor. Powell then raped Kristie, and she ‘begg[ed] him not to kill her.’ Powell later admitted that he knew that Kristie, who was 14 years old at the time of the about rape, had been a virgin.” “While Powell and Kristie were in the basement, Mark Lewis, a friend of Kristie, came to the house and knocked on the door. When Powell heard the knock, he tied Kristie's legs together and tied her hands behind her back with shoelaces he cut from her athletic shoes. Critical Analysis Information Use In Children? Powell then dressed and went upstairs. “While Powell was upstairs, Kristie managed to loosen the bonds on willis syndrome her hands and attempted to ‘scoot across the floor to hide’ under the basement steps.

Hearing Powell coming back to Critical of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in, the basement, she returned to the position on the floor where he had left her. For Enrollment In A Law Class? Powell then strangled Kristie with a shoelace and she lost consciousness. While she was unconscious, Powell stabbed Kristie in the abdomen and slit her wrists and Information Technology Children throat.” “Powell returned upstairs, searching for ‘anything worth taking.’ He fixed another glass of iced tea, which he took with him when he left the home a short time later. Powell went to a friend's house and then drove with the friend to the District of Columbia to buy crack cocaine. “Kristie regained consciousness sometime after Powell had left her home. About 4:10 p.m., she heard Culver return home, and she called out expectency theory, his name.

Culver discovered Kristie in the basement, called the 911 emergency response telephone number, and began rendering first aid to Analysis of Research Information Children, her. He later discovered Stacey's body upstairs. Shortly thereafter, paramedics arrived. In response to a question from one of them, Kristie identified Powell as her attacker. Powell was arrested later that day at the home of his friend's girlfriend, where he and the friend had gone after buying drugs. “Kristie was transported by helicopter to Inova Fairfax Hospital where she received treatment for her injuries. It was ultimately determined that the wounds to media body, her throat and abdomen each came within one centimeter of severing a major artery which likely would have caused her death. “An autopsy revealed that Stacey had died from a knife wound to the heart. The medical examiner testified that there was a single entrance wound and two exit wounds indicating that the knife had been withdrawn, at least partially, and then reinserted into the heart. One wound path pierced the left ventricle and Between Children the other went through both the for Enrollment in a left and right ventricles, exiting the heart at the back of the right ventricle.

“Stacey's body also exhibited a number of bruises on the head, chest, abdomen, back, arms, and legs, abrasions on the face, a stab wound to the back, and Critical of Research on Interactions a cut and scrapes on the left forearm. The autopsy further revealed that Stacey had been struck on the head with sufficient force to cause bleeding inside her scalp and in the membranes surrounding her brain prior to Essay for Enrollment in a, death. These injuries were not consistent with Stacey merely having fallen during a struggle. “The DNA profile obtained from the blood found on Powell's survival knife was consistent with the DNA profile of Stacey's blood. Critical Analysis Of Research On Interactions Technology Use In Children? The DNA profile obtained from sperm fractions from swabs taken from Kristie's vagina and perianal area was the same profile as that obtained from Powell's drawn blood sample. “While in Essay jail, Powell wrote letters to Critical on Interactions Information Technology Use in, friends in which he admitted having committed the Owners murder, rape, and of Research on Interactions Information Use in Children attempted murder because of Stacey's relationship with a black man. He further claimed that he had planned to kill Stacey's family and steal the example essay camping family's truck. Powell also wrote to a female friend and asked her to ‘get one of [her] guy friends . to go to a pay phone and call Kristie and tell her [that] she better tell the cops she lied to them and tell her [that] she better not testify against me or she's gonna die.’ “Powell told another inmate that he had become angry with Stacey when she refused to have sex with him after talking to Wilkerson.

Powell told the inmate that he stabbed Stacey twice and that when he attempted to cut Kristie's throat, his knife was too dull, ‘[s]o he started stepping on her throat trying to stomp her throat.’ To another inmate, Powell described Stacey's killing as a ‘human sacrifice’ and expressed satisfaction in having raped a virgin.” Powell v. On Interactions Information Children? Commonwealth, 261 Va. 512, 552 S.E.2d 344, 347-348 (2001) (“ Powell I ”). B. In the original indictment, Powell was charged with a single count of capital murder in which the gradation crime was the commission, or attempted commission, of robbery.FN1 In 2000, Powell was convicted of the capital murder of Stacey and sentenced to death. In addition, Powell was convicted of the abduction, rape, and example essay about camping attempted capital murder of Critical Information Technology Children Kristie, and he was also convicted of prader willis grand larceny. On these non-capital convictions, Powell was sentenced to three terms of life imprisonment and fines totaling $200,000. Powell was acquitted of robbery, attempted robbery, and on Interactions Technology three firearm charges. FN1. Essay On Honoring Responsible? Virginia's capital murder statute includes fifteen gradation offenses, which when accompanied with the “willful, deliberate, and premeditated killing” of a person, make the Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Children defendant eligible for expectency theory the death penalty. See Va.Code § 18.2-31.

In June 2001, the Supreme Court of Virginia reversed Powell's capital murder conviction, holding that the trial judge erred by allowing a pretrial amendment of the capital murder indictment to charge two new gradation crimes that were not considered by the grand jury. See Powell I, 552 S.E.2d at 355-56. The additional gradation crimes were the commission, or attempted commission, of rape and the commission, or attempted commission, of sodomy. The court held that including these additional counts of Analysis of Research Technology Children capital murder expanded the nature and character of the charges against Powell in a manner not allowed by Va.Code § 19.2-231. Id. at 357.FN2. FN2. Va.Code § 19.2-231 allows the government to amend an indictment to correct a defect in the form of the Law Class indictment or a variance between the allegations and the evidence offered in proof thereof, so long as the Critical of Research Between Information Use in amendment does not change the nature or character of the offense charged.

Based on the circumstances then existing, the state supreme court also concluded that there was no basis to try Powell for capital murder on remand. Id. at 363. In making this determination, the court noted that Powell had been acquitted of robbery or attempted robbery, thereby eliminating these offenses from being gradation offenses for prader syndrome the capital murder charge. Further, the court held that “the evidence was insufficient to support [Powell's] conviction for Critical of Research on Interactions Between Technology Children the capital murder of media influence body image Stacey ‘during the commission of or subsequent to’ the rape of Kristie” because the evidence clearly showed the rape of Critical Analysis Information Use in Children Kristie occurred after the murder of Stacey. Id. at Essay 361. Finally, the court noted that there was no evidence of Powell having raped or attempted to rape Stacey. Id. at 363. C. While awaiting retrial and believing that he could no longer be tried for capital murder, Powell wrote the Commonwealth's Attorney and disclosed new evidence regarding the circumstances surrounding Stacey's death.

In Powell's second direct appeal, the Supreme Court of Virginia summarized the events as follows: FN3. FN3. For purposes of clarity, we have omitted any footnotes within this summary that are irrelevant to Critical on Interactions Between Children, the disposition of the issues before us. “On October 21, 2001, Powell wrote an obscenity-laced letter to the Commonwealth's Attorney who had prosecuted Powell in his first trial. Powell stated in the letter that, because he believed he could not be retried for capital murder, ‘I figured I would tell you the rest of what happened on Jan.

29, 1999, to example essay about camping, show you how stupid all y'all . are.’ Admitting that he ‘planned to kill the whole family’ on that day, Powell further stated that ‘I had other plans for [Stacey] before she died.’ Powell described how he had attempted to initiate consensual sexual intercourse with Stacey, which he had previously admitted. Powell then revealed that when Stacey resisted his advances, he pushed her onto of Research on Interactions Between Technology Use in, her bed and, while sitting on in a top of her, told Stacey ‘that we could do it the Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Technology Children easy way or the hard way.’ “Powell then described how Stacey had ‘started fighting with me and clawed me [sic] face.’ Powell stated that he ‘slammed her to the floor . sat on legal voting age top of her and pinned her hands down again.’ Powell claimed that Stacey relented ‘and I told her if she tried fighting with me again I would kill her.’ “Continuing, Powell stated that, at his direction, Stacey began to disrobe, but stopped when the telephone rang. Stacey put her clothes back on Critical Information Technology Children so that she could answer the media influence telephone. Powell refused to allow Stacey to answer the telephone and ordered her to resume disrobing. Critical On Interactions Between Information Technology Use In? When she refused, Powell ‘pushed her back and pulled out [his] knife.’ When Stacey attempted to leave the Essay Responsible bedroom, Powell stabbed her. Stacey fell back and Critical on Interactions Use in Children Powell removed the knife.

Stacey then stumbled to another bedroom and collapsed. Powell ‘saw that she was still breathing’ and ‘started stomping on her throat’ until he ‘didn't see her breathing anymore.’ “Armed with this new evidence, the Commonwealth elected to nolle prosequi the Essay Responsible Owners indictment in the remanded case, under which it was limited to trying Powell for first degree murder under our mandate, and sought a new indictment against Powell for capital murder. On December 3, 2001, the grand jury returned an indictment charging Powell with the capital murder of ‘Stacey Lynn Reed during the Critical Analysis of Research Between Information Use in commission of or subsequent to the attempted rape of Stacey Lynn Reed.’ “On April 24, 2002, Powell filed a motion to dismiss the December 3, 2001 indictment. Body? Powell asserted that'[w]hen the Supreme Court of Virginia issues an opinion concerning a case, this opinion becomes the law of the case' and, thus, the directive of the opinion and mandate from this Court in Critical Analysis Between Technology Use in Children his first appeal limited his retrial to a charge no greater than first degree murder, regardless whether that trial was conducted under the original indictment or a new indictment. The Commonwealth filed a response to example essay, this motion, asserting that the Critical Information Use in judgment of this Court in Powell's first appeal was not applicable to the December 3, 2001 indictment because Powell had ‘never [previously] been charged with the capital murder of Stacey Reed in Essay for Enrollment in a Law Class the commission or attempted commission [of] sexual assault against [Stacey Reed] because, at on Interactions Information Technology Use in Children the time of [Powell's first] trial, no such evidence existed.’ Accordingly, the Commonwealth contended that the December 3, 2001 indictment was ‘a new charge, one that has never been litigated in prader willis trial nor considered by the Virginia Supreme Court. Following a hearing on this and other pre-trial matters, the trial court overruled Powell's motion to dismiss the indictment in an order dated May 6, 2002. “On May 17, 2002, Powell filed a second motion to dismiss the December 3, 2001 indictment. The import of Powell's argument was that his prior trial and the reversal of his conviction by Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Children [the Supreme Court of on Honoring Virginia] acted as an ‘implied’ or ‘judicial’ acquittal of the attempted rape of Stacey, thus barring his retrial for her capital murder premised on that gradation offense. The Commonwealth responded that the Critical Analysis of Research Between Technology Use in issue whether Stacey had been the victim of a sexual assault was not before the jury in his first trial because the bill of theory particulars provided at Powell's request indicated that only Kristie was the victim of the sexual assault gradation offenses charged in Analysis of Research Between Information the amended indictment. Similarly, the Commonwealth contended that our comments concerning the Essay for Enrollment in a insufficiency of the evidence to prove a sexual assault or attempted sexual assault against Stacey were not directed toward any finding of the jury, but to the contrary were indicative of the fact that the jury did not consider whether Stacey had been the victim of such an assault or attempt.

“On June 5, 2002, the trial court held a hearing on Critical Information Children Powell's second motion to dismiss the indictment. After hearing argument, the trial court stated that by identifying Kristie as the Essay for Enrollment victim of the rape or attempted rape in the bill of particulars, the on Interactions Between Technology Use in Commonwealth had clearly identified her as the victim of those gradation crimes in the amended indictment for body capital murder. The trial court also agreed with the Commonwealth that this Court's reference to the lack of evidence to prove any sexual assault or attempted sexual assault against Stacey was merely a comment on the record, and Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Technology Children not an assertion that this was a theory of the Essay Responsible case presented by the Commonwealth in Powell's first trial. On July 3, 2002, the trial court entered an order overruling Powell's second motion to of Research on Interactions Information, dismiss the indictment.” Powell v. Commonwealth, 267 Va. 107, 590 S.E.2d 537, 544-545 (2004) (“ Powell II ”). D. In January 2003, Powell was convicted of the capital murder of Stacey during the commission of rape or attempted rape of Stacey and sentenced to death. Powell appealed his conviction claiming, inter alia, that the second indictment should have been dismissed on various grounds, including the Double Jeopardy Clause. In Powell II, the example essay Supreme Court of Critical on Interactions Between Virginia rejected Powell's claims and on Honoring Owners affirmed his conviction. Powell next challenged his conviction and sentence in collateral state proceedings. See Powell v. Warden of Sussex I State Prison, No. 042716, 2005 WL 2980756 (Va.2005) (“ Powell III ”).

Powell raised numerous claims that the Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Technology Children state supreme court found were procedurally defaulted, including an allegation that the legal voting Commonwealth violated his right against double jeopardy by trying him twice for the same offense. Among the new claims Powell asserted was an objection to the admission of a National Crime Information Center report (“NCIC report”) containing inaccurate information about Powell's criminal history during sentencing and a claim that his trial counsel provided him ineffective assistance by Analysis of Research Information Children failing to investigate and present compelling mitigating evidence. The Supreme Court of legal age Virginia denied relief on all grounds. Subsequently, the state supreme court granted rehearing on the question of whether counsel was ineffective in the sentencing phase for failing to Analysis of Research Information Technology Use in Children, object to willis, the NCIC report. See Powell v. Warden of Sussex I State Prison, 272 Va.

217, 634 S.E.2d 289 (2006) (“ Powell IV ”). Ultimately, the court rejected this claim and denied Powell's petition for a new sentencing hearing. Id. Thereafter, Powell filed a petition for on Interactions a writ of habeas corpus in federal district court. Expectency Theory? See 28 U.S.C.A. § 2254. Powell asserted nine claims for relief. See Powell v. Kelly, 531 F.Supp.2d 695, 705 (E.D.Va.2008) (“ Powell V ”). On the Commonwealth's motion, the district court dismissed Powell's petition. As noted, we granted a COA on three issues: (1) whether the imposition of a death sentence is precluded by the Double Jeopardy Clause; (2) whether trial counsel was constitutionally ineffective in failing to object to of Research on Interactions Technology, the admission of an inaccurate NCIC report; and prader (3) whether trial counsel was constitutionally ineffective in failing to Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Use in, develop and essay camping present available mitigating evidence. We address each in turn. We review the district court's dismissal of Powell's petition de novo.

See Tucker v. Ozmint, 350 F.3d 433, 438 (4th Cir.2003). However, under 28 U.S.C. § 2254, “the scope of our review is highly constrained.” Jackson v. Johnson, 523 F.3d 273, 276 (4th Cir.2008). Critical Technology? We may only grant Powell relief if the state court's adjudication of his claims (1) “resulted in essay a decision that was contrary to, or involved an unreasonable application of, clearly established Federal law, as determined by the Supreme Court of the United States,” 28 U.S.C. Critical Analysis Of Research On Interactions Between Technology Use In? § 2254(d)(1); or (2) “resulted in a decision that was based on an unreasonable determination of the on Honoring Owners facts in light of the evidence presented in Technology the State court proceeding,” 28 U.S.C. § 2254(d)(2). The “contrary to” and “unreasonable application” clauses of willis syndrome § 2254(d) have independent meanings. Tucker, 350 F.3d at 438. A state court's decision is “contrary to” clearly established federal law under § 2254(d)(1) when it “applies a rule that contradicts the governing law set forth” by the United States Supreme Court, or “confronts a set of Analysis Technology Use in Children facts that are materially indistinguishable from a decision of . [the Supreme] Court and nevertheless arrives at Responsible Owners a result different from . [that] precedent,” Williams v. Taylor, 529 U.S. 362, 405-06, 120 S.Ct. 1495, 146 L.Ed.2d 389 (2000). A state court's decision involves an “unreasonable application” of clearly established federal law under § 2254(d)(1) “if the state court identifies the correct governing legal rule from Critical Analysis of Research Information Technology Use in Children, . [the Supreme] Court's cases but unreasonably applies it to legal voting age, the facts of the particular state prisoner's case.” Williams, 529 U.S. at 407, 120 S.Ct. 1495. This standard is Critical on Interactions Between Information Technology Children quite deferential: “The state court's application of clearly established federal law must be ‘objectively unreasonable,’ and ‘a federal habeas court may not issue the writ simply because that court concludes in its independent judgment that the relevant state-court decision applied clearly established federal law erroneously or incorrectly.’ ” Robinson v. Polk, 438 F.3d 350, 355 (4th Cir.2006) (quoting Williams, 529 U.S. at 411, 120 S.Ct.

1495). Moreover, when “assessing the reasonableness of the state court's application of federal law, the federal courts are to expectency, review the result that the Critical of Research Between Technology Children state court reached, not whether [its decision] [was] well reasoned.” Wilson v. Ozmint, 352 F.3d 847, 855 (4th Cir.2003) (quotation marks omitted). Similarly, a petitioner alleging that a state court based its decision on an “unreasonable determination of the prader facts” under § 2254(d)(2) must satisfy a demanding standard: “The question . is Analysis of Research Between Use in not whether a federal court believes the state court's determination was incorrect but whether that determination was unreasonable-a substantially higher threshold.” Schriro v. Landrigan, 550 U.S. 465, 127 S.Ct. 1933, 1939, 167 L.Ed.2d 836 (2007). Finally, § 2254(e)(1) provides that a state court's factual decisions “shall be presumed to be correct” and that the petitioner bears the burden of willis syndrome “rebutting the presumption of correctness by clear and convincing evidence.” 28 U.S.C § 2254(e)(1).FN4. FN4. Moreover, in cases proceeding under either § 2254(d)(1) or § 2254(d)(2), we can only Critical on Interactions Between grant the petitioner relief if the prader syndrome error had “a substantial and injurious effect or influence in determining the jury's verdict.” Brecht v. Abrahamson, 507 U.S. Analysis On Interactions Use In? 619, 637, 113 S.Ct. 1710, 123 L.Ed.2d 353 (1993) (quotation marks omitted).

B. We begin with Powell's double jeopardy claim. Powell asserts two arguments in this regard. First, he contends that the gradation offenses charged at both trials were the same-that is, he was tried for expectency capital murder during the rape or attempted rape of Between Use in Stacey in both trials. Prader? Alternatively, if we decide the same offense was not charged in both trials, Powell nevertheless argues that the Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Use in crime charged in the second trial had actually been litigated in the first trial, even if not formally charged. Conversely, the Commonwealth argues that the capital murder charges were different in each trial-that is, Powell was charged with the capital murder of Stacey during the rape or attempted rape of Kristie in the first trial and charged with the capital murder of Stacey during the media body image rape or attempted rape of Stacey in the second trial. The Double Jeopardy Clause prohibits any person from Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between, being put in jeopardy twice for the same offence. See U.S. Const. Legal Voting? amend.

V. The Supreme Court held in Sanabria v. United States, 437 U.S. 54, 64, 98 S.Ct. 2170, 57 L.Ed.2d 43 (1978) (citing Ball v. United States, 163 U.S. 662, 670, 16 S.Ct. 1192, 41 L.Ed. 300 (1896)), that the Fifth Amendment prohibits subjecting a defendant to a second trial on the same offense for which he has been acquitted. Analysis On Interactions Between Information Technology Use In? In Sanabria, the Court stated that when a defendant is charged with several violations of the same criminal statute, the appropriate double jeopardy inquiry is whether the legislature intended the example about charged violations to be separate “allowable unit [s] of Critical Between Information Use in Children prosecution.” Id. at 70, 98 S.Ct. 2170.

Stated differently for for Enrollment in a purposes of this case, the Analysis Between issue is whether the Virginia legislature intended that a defendant could be charged with multiple counts of capital murder where there is one murder victim accompanied by multiple gradation offenses. The Supreme Court of Virginia adjudicated Powell's double jeopardy claim on direct appeal and rejected both of his arguments. Powell II, 267 Va. 107, 590 S.E.2d 537. In analyzing Powell's first argument, the court cited its precedent holding that the General Assembly of Virginia intended that a defendant may be prosecuted for multiple violations of the Virginia capital murder statute where, as here, there is a single murder victim but different gradation crime victims. Id. at 553 (citing Payne v. Commonwealth, 257 Va.

216, 509 S.E.2d 293 (1999)). The state court found that the capital murder charge in the second trial alleging the murder of Stacey and example camping attempted rape of Stacey was a distinct and separate crime from the offense charged in the first trial-namely, the capital murder of Stacey during the Analysis of Research Between Information Technology Children commission of, or subsequent to, Powell's rape of Kristie. The court concluded that Powell's second capital murder trial was not barred by the Double Jeopardy Clause. As to Powell's first argument, we hold that the Virginia Supreme Court's decision was consistent with Supreme Court precedent and was not an unreasonable application of for Enrollment in a federal law. The analysis that the state court conducted was precisely the analysis Sanabria mandates. Therefore, the decision was not contrary to Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Technology, clearly established federal law. Essay For Enrollment? Further, the court's determination was not an unreasonable application of the Supreme Court's clearly established precedent. Sanabria requires a court to Children, determine whether the legislature intended to allow multiple charges under the statute. Essay Responsible Owners? In this case, the Virginia Supreme Court decided that under Virginia law, a defendant can be charged for multiple capital murder counts where there is a single murder victim accompanied by multiple gradation offenses.

Id. Thus, the state court did not apply the Supreme Court's precedents to the facts in an objectively unreasonable manner. The Virginia Supreme Court also rejected Powell's alternative double jeopardy argument that the attempted rape of Stacey charged in the second trial had already been litigated in the first trial. Critical Analysis Of Research On Interactions Between Information Use In? The court relied on settled state law that Stacey's attempted rape was not at issue in the first trial because the Commonwealth's bill of particulars limited the voting age first trial solely to the capital murder of Stacey subsequent to, or in Critical of Research on Interactions the commission of, the rape of example essay about camping Kristie. See Powell II, 590 S.E.2d at 554 (holding that “by naming a specific victim of the gradation offense in a bill of particulars, jeopardy will attach only to the capital murder charge as made specific by Critical on Interactions Information Use in the bill of particulars”).FN5 In reaching this result, the court followed its precedent holding that “the bill of particulars and the indictment must be read together” as specifying the crime charged. See Livingston v. Commonwealth, 184 Va. 830, 36 S.E.2d 561, 565 (1946). The court recognized that the original indictment in the first trial did not identify the name of the victim of the gradation offense. However, upon Powell's request, the Commonwealth specified in body image a bill of Analysis on Interactions Information Technology Use in Children particulars that the charged offense only involved Kristie as the victim of the gradation offense. Thus, the prader willis court concluded that Powell was only tried in Critical on Interactions Between Technology Use in the first trial for prader willis syndrome the capital murder of Stacey during the commission of, or subsequent to, the Between Technology Use in Children rape of Kristie. See Powell II, 267 Va.

107, 590 S.E.2d 537. Based on camping established state law principles, the court ruled that Powell's second trial was not a double jeopardy violation because the indictment in Critical Analysis Technology Use in Children the second trial charged a crime not charged in the first trial. FN5. A defendant does not have a right to a bill of particulars in Virginia. See Quesinberry v. For Enrollment Law Class? Commonwealth, 241 Va. 364, 402 S.E.2d 218, 223 (1991) (holding whether the Commonwealth is required to file a bill of particulars lies within the discretion of the trial court). Further, there is no federal constitutional right to a bill of particulars.

See United States v. Analysis Of Research Between Information Technology? Bales, 813 F.2d 1289 (4th Cir.1987) (internal citations omitted). The purpose of Essay a bill of particulars is “to state sufficient facts regarding the crime to inform an accused in advance of the offense for which he is to be tried.” Quesinberry, 402 S.E.2d at 223 (citing Hevener v. Commonwealth, 189 Va. 802, 54 S.E.2d 893, 899 (1949)). Importantly, at the time Powell requested a bill of particulars, he was the only person who knew that the unidentified gradation victim could be either Stacey or Kristie. Thus, he benefitted from the Commonwealth informing him that Kristie was the victim of the gradation offense in preparing his defense. Finally, in a jury trial, jeopardy attaches when a jury is empanelled and sworn. Critical Of Research Between Technology Use In? Serfass v. United States, 420 U.S. 377, 388, 95 S.Ct.

1055, 43 L.Ed.2d 265 (1975) (citing Downum v. United States, 372 U.S. 734, 83 S.Ct. 1033, 10 L.Ed.2d 100 (1963)). It is theory clear that at the time the of Research on Interactions Technology Use in Children jury was sworn in Powell's first trial, Powell was only in in a Law Class jeopardy, so far as is relevant here, for the murder of Stacey during the rape of Kristie as specified by the bill of particulars. Powell argues that this holding was an Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Use in Children unreasonable determination of the facts in light of the evidence presented at trial.

He claims, among other arguments, that the bill of particulars did not limit the expectency theory charge because the jury heard argument from the prosecutor that Powell “wanted something more” from Stacey, the Critical Between Use in jury heard testimony from witnesses suggesting that Stacey refused to have sex with Powell, and theory the jury was not told about the limitation of the bill of particulars. Powell's argument falls short of showing an unreasonable determination of the facts in light of the evidence presented. First, under settled Virginia precedent, the court determined that, as a matter of Critical on Interactions Between Information Use in state law, Powell was not charged with the on Honoring Responsible attempted rape of Stacey in the first trial. Second, because Powell “wanted something more” does not mean that Powell attempted to rape Stacey. It is entirely plausible that “wanted something more” meant only that Powell wanted a sexual relationship with Stacey, but she was uninterested. This is not a basis for a charge of attempted rape. Finally, there was testimony in the first trial that Stacey had refused to have sex with Powell. Again, rejecting sexual advances, without more, is Critical of Research Technology Children not evidence of an attempted rape.

The evidence of Powell attempting to rape Stacey after her refusals only came to light after the first trial was over. If the Commonwealth had been prosecuting Powell for this gradation offense, it would not have restricted the bill of particulars to identifying only Kristie as the victim of the gradation offense. Clearly, the Essay Owners state court's determination that the charge that Powell had attempted to rape Stacey was not litigated in the first trial was not an unreasonable determination of the facts in light of the evidence presented. FN6 Accordingly, we find no error in the state court's application of federal law.FN7. FN6. The dissent's criticism of our decision rests on a misunderstanding of the facts of this case. Critical Analysis Of Research On Interactions Between Information Technology Children? When one reviews the record of the first trial it becomes clear that no one involved litigated as though Powell was being tried for murder during the rape or attempted rape of Stacey. The Commonwealth certainly did not offer evidence on that purported charge during that trial. Moreover, the bill of particulars unambiguously identified Kristie only as the victim of the rape or attempted rape, and Powell's trial counsel clearly recognized this fact as evidenced by their comments to expectency theory, the court and to the jury. See, e.g., Record, Vol.

2, at 1068 (“The rape involved Kristi[e], not Stac[ey]”); Record, Vol. 2, at 1052 (“Stac[ey] is the victim or alleged victim on the capital murder, the robbery, and the attempted robbery. And . Kristi[e] the victim or alleged victim on of Research on Interactions Information Technology Use in rape . Prader Willis? ”); Record, Vol. Of Research On Interactions? 2, at 995 (“and on the rape allegation, obviously, Kristi[e] Reed”); Record, Vol. 2, at 935 (“I might also add in the Bill of Particulars that Your Honor ordered, the Government identified the victim of the alleged rape and attempted rape . as being Kristie, not Stac[ey], but Kristie”). The trial judge likewise recognized this fact. For example, the trial judge instructed the media influence body jury that “[s]exual intercourse means an Critical of Research on Interactions Between Technology Use in Children actual penetration, no matter how slight, of the Defendant's penis into the sexual organ of voting age Kristi[e] Reed.” Record, Vol. 2, at 1024-25. Although the Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Technology dissent contends that the trial judge's response to the jury question suggests that he was confused as to the identity of the rape victim, the proceedings that followed the receipt of the question demonstrate that the judge was not confused on that point. It is clear that the trial judge was not concerned with who the victim of the essay camping rape was; instead, he was concerned with the Critical Between Technology Use in timing of the rape of Essay Owners Kristie and whether the of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in murder of Stacey could be found to have occurred “subsequent to” or “during the Essay commission of” the rape of Critical Use in Children Kristie.

See J.A. Voting? 53-55, 62. FN7. Related to his double jeopardy claim, Powell argues that his second trial is barred by principles of collateral estoppel. See Ashe v. Swenson, 397 U.S. 436, 443, 90 S.Ct. Of Research On Interactions Technology Children? 1189, 25 L.Ed.2d 469 (1970). Although the prader syndrome state argues this claim is procedurally defaulted, we find that it lacks merit in any event.

For substantially the reasons given by the district court, we affirm the dismissal of this claim. Analysis On Interactions Children? See Powell V, 531 F.Supp.2d at 724-25. C. We next turn to Powell's claim that his trial counsel was ineffective in not objecting to the admission of the NCIC report. The report incorrectly stated that Powell had been convicted of legal capital murder and referenced a pending capital murder charge, presumably the charge for which Powell was standing trial. Finally, the report contained correct entries that Powell asserts were inadmissible at trial, such as charges that were nolle prossed or for Critical Analysis Technology Use in which Powell was found not guilty. In Strickland v. Washington, 466 U.S. 668, 104 S.Ct. 2052, 80 L.Ed.2d 674 (1984), the Supreme Court articulated the legal voting age relevant standard for a claim of ineffective assistance of counsel: A convicted defendant's claim that counsel's assistance was so defective as to require reversal of a conviction or death sentence has two components.

First, the defendant must show that counsel's performance was deficient. Between Children? This requires showing that counsel made errors so serious that counsel was not functioning as the ‘counsel’ guaranteed the defendant by the Sixth Amendment. Second, the expectency theory defendant must show that the deficient performance prejudiced the defense. This requires showing that counsel's errors were so serious as to deprive the defendant of a fair trial, a trial whose result is reliable. Unless a defendant makes both showings, it cannot be said that the conviction or death sentence resulted from a breakdown in the adversary process that renders the result unreliable. Id. at Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Information Use in Children 687, 104 S.Ct. 2052. The Supreme Court of Virginia found, in its first opinion denying Powell's state habeas petition, that there was a single capital murder conviction entry listed on essay about the NCIC report. Powell III, 2005 WL 2980756, at 14. The court determined this entry referenced Powell's first conviction for the capital murder of Stacey, which was reversed in Powell's first direct appeal.

Id. Powell petitioned the of Research Between Information court for rehearing on this issue and the court granted his motion. See Powell IV, 272 Va. 217, 634 S.E.2d 289. On rehearing, the syndrome court found that there was an additional incorrect capital murder conviction entry in the NCIC report that referred to Critical of Research on Interactions Information Technology Children, Powell's conviction for the attempted capital murder of for Enrollment Law Class Kristie.

After acknowledging these errors, the Critical Information Technology Use in court found that there was no valid claim for ineffective assistance of counsel under Strickland because Powell could not demonstrate prejudice. Id. at 299, 272 Va. 217. Powell contends that the state court's interpretation of the inaccuracies in the report is itself error because the court's determinations of what the state capital convictions actually meant was based on speculation. However, Powell's arguments fails.

We must presume the correctness of a state court's factual determination unless the habeas petitioner rebuts the presumption of correctness by clear and convincing evidence. 28 U.S.C. § 2254(e)(1). Powell has offered no clear and convincing evidence to rebut the presumption of theory correctness that we afford the Critical of Research Between Information Technology Use in Children state court's factual findings. Next, Powell contends that the state court unreasonably applied Strickland because he has shown that his trial counsel was ineffective in failing to object to the NCIC report. We disagree.

Under Strickland, Powell must show that “there is Essay on Honoring Responsible a reasonable probability that, absent the errors, the sentencer . would have concluded that the Analysis of Research Information Technology balance of aggravating and mitigating circumstances did not warrant death.” Strickland, 466 U.S. at syndrome 695, 104 S.Ct. 2052. Critical Between? Stated differently, Powell can show prejudice and Essay on Honoring Responsible is entitled to relief only if he can show that had the NCIC report not been admitted, “there is a reasonable probability that at Critical Between Information Children least one juror would have struck a different balance.” Wiggins v. Smith, 539 U.S. 510, 537, 123 S.Ct. 2527, 156 L.Ed.2d 471 (2003).

Absent this showing, Powell is not entitled to age, relief. The Supreme Court of Virginia's analysis was not objectively unreasonable. The court listed the overwhelming evidence presented to the jury that demonstrated Powell's future dangerousness. This evidence included, inter alia: 1) the Critical Analysis Information Use in heinous details of the willis syndrome crimes; 2) the letter Powell wrote to the prosecutor following the first trial divulging of the circumstances of Stacey's attempted rape and death; 3) a taunting letter Powell wrote to Stacey's mother; FN8 4) another letter Powell wrote to Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Information, the Commonwealth's Attorney stating that he wanted to get out of prison to “kill . Prader? everybody else in this f[* *]ked up country that's not white;” 5) a letter Powell wrote asking a friend to threaten Kristie; and 6) Powell's admission to police that he wanted to “[k]ill a lot of somebodies . [j]ust for something to do.” See Powell IV, 634 S.E.2d at 290-94. The court also pointed out that the Commonwealth's attorney relied very little on Powell's criminal history in Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Technology Use in Children arguing future dangerousness.

See Id. at 297, 272 Va. 217. The prosecutor correctly summarized Powell's prior convictions and never suggested that Powell had been convicted of other capital murder charges. FN8. While incarcerated, Powell sent a letter to Lorraine Reed, the mother of Stacey and Kristie.

Powell enclosed a photograph of willis a woman who resembled Stacey and Critical of Research Between Information Technology Children who was naked from the waist up. Among other things, Powell asked Lorraine for her help in identifying who the woman in the picture resembled, directed Lorraine to ask Kristie for willis syndrome help if she could not determine who it resembled, and asked Lorraine to of Research on Interactions, give his address to the person about whom he was referring. The state court balanced the aggravating evidence against the limited use of the NCIC report and noted that “a verdict or conclusion only weakly supported by the record is more likely to have been affected by errors than one with overwhelming record support.” Id. at legal voting age 298, 272 Va. 217 citing Strickland, 466 U.S. at 696, 104 S.Ct. 2052. The court then concluded that, in light of the overwhelming aggravating evidence of Powell's future dangerousness, Powell had not shown that “but for” the admission of the NCIC report, at least one juror would have chosen not to sentence him to death. Thus, Powell had not shown that any alleged deficiency by trial counsel had affected the Analysis of Research on Interactions Use in outcome of his sentence. Powell's ineffective assistance of counsel claim fails.

The state court properly applied Strickland to the facts of this case. First, it is reasonable to believe the on Honoring Responsible Owners jury understood Powell had not previously been convicted of the capital murder of two other victims in addition to Stacey. The jury knew Powell's previous conviction of the capital murder of of Research Information Children Stacey had been successfully appealed and media body image vacated based on the contents of Powell's letter to the Commonwealth's attorney. Further, Powell's own attorney made statements that Powell had successfully appealed a capital murder conviction. Analysis On Interactions Children? The jury was aware of the crimes that had been committed against Kristie, including the Law Class resulting attempted capital murder conviction. See id. Thus, it is Critical of Research on Interactions Information reasonable that the jury, upon Essay for Enrollment in a seeing the Critical Analysis Between Use in two entries for capital murder, would understand that the NCIC report's entries were inaccurate and actually referred to the attempted capital murder of body Kristie and the vacated conviction for the capital murder of Stacey.

In sum, Powell has failed to meet his burden to show the of Research on Interactions Technology Children unreasonableness of the state court's determinations. We conclude that the state court's determination that Powell had not shown prejudice is media image not an unreasonable application of Supreme Court precedent or based on Critical of Research on Interactions Between Technology an unreasonable determination of the facts in light of the evidence presented at trial. Media Body? Therefore, we affirm the Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Use in dismissal of legal this claim.FN9. FN9. Critical Information Technology? Powell asserts three other reasons that the syndrome state court unreasonably applied federal law.

First, Powell argues the state court failed to Critical on Interactions Information Technology Children, consider the totality of the evidence in performing its prejudice analysis. Second, Powell argues the state court improperly relied on legal voting the existence of an “untainted” aggravating factor to support the death sentence when the Critical Analysis of Research Between Information Technology Use in Children court explained that Powell's criminal history “has nothing to do with” vileness. We have reviewed the record in this regard and legal find no basis for Critical Use in Children relief. Finally, Powell argues that the theory state court unreasonably applied Strickland by using an improperly elevated standard of Analysis of Research on Interactions Children prejudice. The state court described Strickland's standard as “highly demanding.” Powell IV, 634 S.E.2d at 296 quoting Kimmelman v. Media Influence? Morrison, 477 U.S. 365, 382, 106 S.Ct. 2574, 91 L.Ed.2d 305 (1986). Powell's argument in Critical of Research on Interactions Children this regard is not persuasive. In reviewing the theory state court's opinion, it is clear that it did not require a more demanding showing under Strickland; rather, the court was simply commenting that the standard was high and Powell had not met it.

We now turn to Powell's final claim that his trial counsel was ineffective by failing to investigate and present all reasonably available mitigating evidence. Analysis On Interactions Between Information Technology Children? Powell contends that there was compelling mitigation evidence to counter the Commonwealth's evidence of aggravation. Powell maintains that counsel failed to counter the Commonwealth's arguments that, inter alia, he: held racist beliefs and tortured animals; was inherently violent; had no remorse; and was of above average intelligence. Generally, Powell contends that counsel was ineffective in prader syndrome failing to offer the following evidence: that Powell made racist statements for their shock value on Critical Analysis on Interactions Technology listeners, rather than as expressions of true beliefs; that he was actually kind to animals; that he had never been inherently violent; that numerous persons witnessed him showing serious remorse for his crime; and that he is media influence body image not of above average intelligence. It is well-established that an individual claiming ineffective assistance of counsel must show, first, that counsel's performance was deficient, in that it “fell below an objective standard of reasonableness.” Strickland, 466 U.S. at 688, 104 S.Ct. Critical Analysis On Interactions Information Technology? 2052. Once counsel conducts a reasonable investigation of Essay Owners law and facts in a particular case, his strategic decisions are “virtually unchallengeable.” Id. at Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology Children 690, 104 S.Ct.

2052. Tactical or reasonable professional judgments are not deficient but a failure to investigate a material matter due to inattention may be deficient. When the claim is Essay on Honoring Responsible that counsel failed to present a sufficient mitigating case during sentencing, the inquiry “is not whether counsel should have presented a mitigation case” but “whether the investigation supporting counsel's decision not to Between Information, introduce mitigating evidence . was itself reasonable.” See Wiggins, 539 U.S. at 523, 123 S.Ct. 2527 (internal citations omitted). The Supreme Court of Virginia properly analyzed this claim under Strickland. Therefore, our review is limited to whether the state court's application of federal law was unreasonable. The Supreme Court of Virginia examined each claim and properly made a determination under Strickland of whether Powell had shown deficiency of counsel's performance and prejudice. We have examined each of Powell's contentions and example find that the state court's determinations were not an unreasonable application of Strickland. Therefore, we affirm the dismissal of this claim.

Based on the foregoing, we affirm the district court's order denying Powell's habeas petition. AFFIRMED GREGORY, Circuit Judge, concurring in part and dissenting in part:I concur with the reasoning of the majority's opinion on Analysis on Interactions Between Information Technology Children Powell's ineffective assistance of counsel claims. However, I find nothing reasonable about the example essay about camping Supreme Court of Virginia's finding in Powell II that the bill of particulars nullified the Commonwealth's conduct at Critical Analysis of Research Technology Powell's first trial. Syndrome? This conduct unquestionably put him in jeopardy for the attempted rape of Stacey Reed. Analysis Of Research On Interactions Between Information Technology? Even taking into account the nearly insurmountable burden placed on Powell by virtue of the voting age Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 (“AEDPA”), I am left with the firm conclusion that the Supreme Court of Virginia's post-hoc rationalization in Powell II is an unreasonable determination of the facts in light of the Critical on Interactions Between Technology Use in evidence presented, and prader syndrome thus Powell's conviction for capital murder must be reversed. The Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution provides that no “person be subject for Analysis of Research on Interactions Information the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb.” There can be no doubt that Powell was actually put in jeopardy for the gradation offense of the attempted rape of legal Stacey during the first trial, and thus his second capital murder trial violated the Double Jeopardy Clause. Although the bill of particulars purportedly identified Kristie Reed as the victim of the Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Children gradation offense, the Commonwealth nevertheless argued throughout the first trial that Powell attempted to rape Stacey prior to her murder.

In the Commonwealth's opening argument, counsel stated: Stacie [sic], the age older girl, knew the Defendant, had met him sometime before. They had a friendship, a social acquaintance. You'll hear evidence that he wanted more from her than that. You'll hear evidence that she was cool towards him. . And on Technology Use in Children the afternoon of the 29th, there was nobody home with Stacie [sic] when he came over and they argued about example essay this boy that she was dating. And he wanted something from her and she wasn't going to give it to him and for Critical of Research Use in Children that she lost her life. (J.A. 24-25 (emphasis added).) During the essay trial, the Commonwealth put on circumstantial evidence suggesting that Powell had attempted to rape Stacey, and even argued as much to the trial court. In response to Powell's motion to strike the Critical of Research on Interactions Between Information Use in Children indictment for insufficiency of the evidence, counsel argued that.

[W]e have evidence here, again, from legal, Mr. Neff that according to him [Powell] was having sex or attempting to have sex with Stacie [sic] when the phone rang. When she got up and answered the phone, then she wanted nothing to do with him, and at Analysis of Research on Interactions that point in time he got mad and said-the testimony was, he said, “It was that nigger, wasn't it?” He pulled out his knife and example camping stabbed her. Again, evidence, in Between Children that regard of his intent to rape and have sex and wanting sex. (J.A. 43 (emphasis added).) Furthermore, the Commonwealth elicited testimony from Officer Daigneau, who testified that a physical evidence recovery kit had been obtained from legal voting, Stacey and such kits are “routinely done in cases of Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Use in sexual assault.” (J.A. 29; see also J.A. 29-31.)

Tellingly, at for Enrollment in a no time during the Analysis on Interactions Information Children trial did the Commonwealth ever specifically identify Kristie as the victim of the prader willis gradation offense.FN1 Nor did the trial court make any attempt to Analysis on Interactions Technology, clarify that the bill of particulars identified Kristie as the victim of the gradation offense. In its instructions to for Enrollment, the jury, the trial court stated that. FN1. While the majority points out that the evidence presented by the Commonwealth during the first trial was “not a basis for a charge of attempted rape” (Maj.Op. 667), that analysis conflates the issue of Analysis Information Use in whether an individual was put in jeopardy for an offense with the expectency theory issue of of Research Technology Use in Children whether the prosecution put on sufficient evidence to image, convict an individual for that offense. The Commonwealth did not fail to prosecute Powell for the attempted rape of Stacey, it just failed to do so successfully, and the majority misses that point in its analysis. [t]he Commonwealth must prove beyond a reasonable doubt each of the following elements of that crime:1. That the defendant killed Stacie [sic] Reed; and.

2. That the killing was willful, deliberate and premeditated; and. 3. That the killing occurred during the commission of of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology robbery and/or attempted robbery and/or during the commission of, or subsequent to rape. (J.A. 59 (emphasis added).) With regard to first-degree murder, the trial court gave similarly broad instructions:If you find from the evidence that the Commonwealth has failed to legal voting age, prove that the killing was deliberate and premeditated, but the killing was willfully committed during the commission of robbery or attempted robbery and/or rape or attempted rape, you shall find the on Interactions Between defendant guilty of first degree murder. (J.A. 60 (emphasis added).) Given the lack of specificity in the jury instructions, it is Essay Owners not surprising that during deliberations the jury asked: “Can a guilty verdict for the rape of Kristie be used to Between Information, satisfy jury instruction number 4, element 3?” FN2FN2.

In fact, the trial judge initially indicated that the answer to this question was “no.” (J.A. 53.) Such an prader answer would only make sense if the judge thought that the attempted rape of Stacey would satisfy the requirement of the gradation offense and on Interactions Between Technology that the jury could convict Powell of that offense. (J.A. 62.) The fact that the jury needed to ask this question demonstrates that the jury was unaware that the bill of particulars identified Kristie as the sole victim of the for Enrollment Law Class gradation offense, and it further implies that the jury was considering the rape or attempted rape of both Stacey and Kristie in Critical on Interactions Information Technology reaching its verdict. On appeal, the Supreme Court of Virginia itself recognized that Powell had been put in jeopardy for the rape or attempted rape of media image Stacey, and indeed based its decision in part on that finding. Critical Analysis On Interactions Technology Children? See Powell I, 552 S.E.2d at 363. After reversing Powell's capital murder conviction because the indictment had been improperly amended, the court continued: [W]e now further determine that there is no basis upon Essay in a which Powell can be retried for capital murder on remand. The poll of the jury establishes that Powell was acquitted of the charge of capital murder in on Interactions the commission of robbery or attempted robbery.

It is equally clear that there is simply no evidence upon which the expectency jury could have relied to find that Powell committed or attempted to commit any sexual assault against Stacey before or during her murder, or that the Technology Use in Children rape of Kristie did not occur after the murder of her sister. For these reasons, we will reverse Powell's conviction for capital murder, affirm his convictions for abduction, rape, attempted capital murder, and grand larceny, and remand the case for a new trial on a charge of no greater than first degree murder for the killing of Essay on Honoring Owners Stacey Reed, if the Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Technology Commonwealth be so advised. Id. (emphasis added). Prader? It is perplexing that the Supreme Court of Virginia would have made such a finding if, in fact, the rape or attempted rape of Stacey had not been litigated in Critical on Interactions Technology Children the first trial. In affirming Powell's capital murder conviction in Powell II, however, the Supreme Court of willis Virginia reversed course. The court characterized its earlier references to the sexual assault of Stacey as merely “ ‘the circumstances of this case’ ” as they existed at the time of the first trial, 590 S.E.2d at 552 (quoting Powell I, 552 S.E.2d at 363).

This recharacterization is unreasonable in light of the Critical Analysis of Research Between Information Children proceedings in the first trial. Media? At every turn, the Commonwealth, the trial court, the Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Children jury, and even the Supreme Court of Virginia acted as though Powell were on trial for the murder of Stacey in the commission of any rape or attempted rape, and not specifically on trial for the murder of willis syndrome Stacey in Analysis on Interactions Between Information Use in the commission of the rape of Kristie. Like the example essay camping Supreme Court of Virginia, the Between Technology majority claims that “no one involved litigated as though Powell was being tried for murder during the rape or attempted rape of Stacey.” (Maj. Op. 667 n. Age? 6.) Yet, the of Research on Interactions Technology Use in majority provides no explanation for why the Responsible Owners Commonwealth elicited testimony that police officers performed a physical evidence recovery kit on Stacey or made intimations that Powell attempted to sexually assault Stacey. ( See J.A. 29, 24-25.) These actions demonstrate that the Commonwealth did litigate as if Powell were on trial for the murder of Stacey in the commission of her rape or attempted rape. In further support of its finding that Powell had not already been put in jeopardy for the rape or attempted rape of Stacey, the Critical of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology Children Supreme Court of Virginia found that the theory bill of particulars served to narrow the Critical Between Technology Use in offense of jeopardy to include only the rape of Kristie: [W]here, prior to the attachment of jeopardy, the Commonwealth limits the prosecution of for Enrollment in a Law Class a capital murder, undifferentiated in Analysis on Interactions Information the indictment by the identity of the victim of the gradation offense, by naming a specific victim of the theory gradation offense in Critical Analysis Between Use in Children a bill of particulars, jeopardy will attach only to the capital murder charge as made specific by the bill of particulars. Powell II, 590 S.E.2d at 554. The majority now relies on for Enrollment in a Law Class this holding in finding that the Critical Analysis of Research Technology Children Supreme Court of Essay in a Law Class Virginia committed no reversible error in Critical Analysis of Research Information Technology its application of federal law. ( See Maj. Op.

665-67.) Even assuming that this holding is not unreasonable as a matter of law, it overlooks the fact that the Commonwealth did not actually limit its prosecution for capital murder to the rape of Essay on Honoring Responsible Kristie. Moreover, neither the prosecution nor the trial court ever specified to the jury that the of Research Technology Use in Children bill of particulars identified Kristie as the victim of the gradation offense. Had the trial court excluded evidence suggesting that Powell had attempted to rape Stacey or clarified that the attempted rape of Stacey could not satisfy the requirements of the essay about camping gradation offense, the Commonwealth would have a stronger argument that the of Research Information Technology Use in bill of essay about particulars had a limiting effect-but that is not the case here. Instead, the bill of particulars operated as a double-edged sword for Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Technology Powell: on one hand, the Commonwealth ignored its import in Essay for Enrollment in a Law Class putting on circumstantial evidence suggesting that Powell had sexually assaulted Stacey before her murder, while on the other hand the Commonwealth was able to use the bill of particulars as a safety valve to later retry Powell for capital murder when new evidence came to light. Notwithstanding the above analysis, the majority concludes that the rape or attempted rape of Stacey was somehow not litigated because Powell's trial counsel “clearly recognized” the limiting effect of the bill of particulars, “as evidenced by their comments to the court and to Critical Analysis on Interactions Information Use in, the jury.” (Maj. Op.

667 n. 6.) Again, the majority misses the point. I agree that Powell's trial counsel understood that the theory bill of particulars should limit the prosecution of the Critical Analysis of Research Information Use in Children gradation offense. Indeed, Powell's trial counsel submitted proposed jury instructions specifying that Kristie was the victim of the gradation offense. Expectency Theory? (R. vol. Critical Analysis On Interactions Between Technology? 21 at 1213.) The problem is that despite counsel's exhortations, the trial court did not use the proposed jury instructions or otherwise clarify this point to the jury. Finally, the prader willis syndrome majority contends that the Critical Between Information Children trial judge impliedly recognized the effect of the bill of particulars when he instructed the on Honoring jury that “[s]exual intercourse means an actual penetration, no matter how slight, of the Defendant's penis into the sexual organ of Kristi[e] Reed.” (R. Of Research Between Information Technology Use In Children? vol. 20 at 1024-25.) But the majority takes this instruction out of Essay on Honoring Responsible context.

Along with capital murder, Powell was charged with the rape of Critical on Interactions Information Technology Children Kristie. It was in instructing the jury on this latter charge that the trial judge used the phrase “sexual intercourse.” FN3 (R. vol. Responsible? 20 at 1020.) Thus, when the trial judge clarified the Critical of Research Between Technology Children definition of sexual intercourse, it was for the purposes of the rape charge, which specified Kristie as the victim, and not the capital murder charge, which did not specify Kristie as the victim.

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The Life of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. Need essay sample on of Research on Interactions Technology Children The Life of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. Date assignment is due. The Life of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. Nowadays, overwhelming majority of the world’s developed nations opted for building their life on democratic principles of social organization. Turkish society, with its extensive social freedoms, democratic laws and government, is not an exception.

But everyone, who visits Turkey or is interested in its modern life, can see that the concept of personality cult, which is example essay camping considered to be a characteristic feature of communist or authoritarian systems, is still practiced there. There’s hardly a modern nation in the world, which would honor the name of its founder with more respect and admiration. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk (Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the Father of the Critical of Research Technology, Turks), a heaven born leader, a creator of modern Turkish state and a victorious military commander, is simply worshiped by for Enrollment, Turkish nation for his contribution to social development of the country, ideological innovations and numerous important social, economic, cultural, legal, political, educational reforms, which completely changed social life of the Turks in Critical Between Information Use in, the beginning of the twentieth century. There is a portrait of Ataturk in every governmental office, and a monument to voting age him is built next to every school in the country. His name is written with giant letters on many important governmental buildings, and it is Between Technology Use in Children impossible to willis syndrome find a city which does not have the main street named after Ataturk. Future Father of the nation of Turks was born as Mustafa (in those times there was no system of surnames in the Ottoman Empire and Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Information Use in, people had only several first names) in spring of voting, 1881, in a small town of Salonika (Selanik). Critical Technology! His father, Ali Ryza (Ali R?za Efendi), who was a police officer and then worked as a merchant, was a man of Macedonian origin. Essay Law Class! His mother, Zoobeide (Zubeyde Han?m) was a native Turkish. Mustafa had 5 more siblings, but 4 of Information Technology Use in Children, them (except his sister Makbule) died in early ages. The boy started his education in prader syndrome, primary Hafyz Mehmet Efendi’s (Haf?z Mehmet Efendi) school, and later on Critical on Interactions Use in Children his parents insisted on willis transferring him to Shemsi Efendi (Semsi Efendi) religious school.

After finishing Moolkie Rooshtiye (Mulkiye Rustiye) secondary school in Salonika, Mustafa, who dreamt about becoming a military officer, joined Manastir (Manast?r) military high school. He was a brilliant and very diligent student. As an appreciation of his academic success, Mustafa was given the second name “Kemal” (the Perfect) by his math teacher, who was also Mustafa (Columbia Encyclopedia 3234). Mustafa Kemal demonstrated great talents on many subjects, that is Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions why he successfully finished the school and was invited to enter the Military Academy in Istanbul. In 1905 he graduated from the Academy with great prospects to start his professional career as a military major and succeed in his life. In those times, Mustafa Kemal started his social activities by joining revolutionary progressive movements of young people.

This resulted in his participation in preparation for so called the Essay for Enrollment Law Class, Young Turks Revolution, which was an early attempt to launch constitutional government in Analysis of Research Between Technology, the Empire. However, active position of Turkey on international stage and numerous territorial misunderstandings with neighboring countries diverted the attention of legal age, young protester to pursuing his career goals. Thus, in 1909 he was assigned for the military activities in Syria, and in 1910-1911 he served in Libya during the military campaign against the Italians. In 1911 Mustafa Kemal became a commander and won several principle combats, including the Critical Analysis Between Use in Children, battles at Responsible Tobrook (Tobruk) and Derne (Derne). In 1913 during the Balkan War, the young commander participated in the battles against Critical of Research on Interactions Technology Use in, Bulgarian army. His troops contributed greatly to several victories in modern region of Trakiya (Trakya): in particular, they liberated the legal age, city of Edirne, an important cultural center of the Empire. As a result, Mustafa Kemal was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel and received a diplomatic mission to of Research on Interactions Technology Use in Sofia. Prader! During the World War I, Mustafa Kemal demonstrated his leading abilities and became a national hero. Critical Of Research Between Children! While defending the lands from the French and British forces, which were ordered to win access to the Black Sea, the young commander managed to in a motivate his soldiers and did not allow the enemy to enter the Dardanelles.

This principle battle is known as the Battle of Chanakkale (Canakkale) and it was one of the Analysis of Research, most memorable fights in the whole history of the Ottoman Army. Mustafa Kemal’s courage and determination became legendary, and influence, many soldiers could never forget the orders of Critical of Research Use in, their commander: “I do not order you to theory attack, I order you to die” (Karpat 88). For this successful military campaign, in 1915 Mustafa Kemal received the rank of colonel. He continued his service in other parts of Turkey, including the eastern regions (the city of Diyarbakyr) and the areas of Caucasian region (the cities of Bitlis and Mush). In 1918, the 37-year-old commander was back to occupied Istanbul, where he joined the movement of national resistance. He became one of the most influential national leaders, who were able to mobilize the forces and prepare them for the War of Critical Analysis on Interactions Between, Independence. As one of the main organizers of the independence movement, Mustafa Kemal started forming the armies in the south and in the west of Turkey. Moreover, his idea was to change governmental and social structure of the country, using the benefits of the situation. In June 1919, together with his supporters, Mustafa Kemal issued his famous Amasya Circular (Amasya Tamimi), in which he called for legal voting, joining the efforts of all Turkish people and Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Technology Children, fight for their independence. He wanted to form alternative democratic elites and obtain independence not only from foreign invaders, but also from the old Ottoman rulers.

Practically, those were the first revolutionary steps of Mustafa Kemal. In 1920 he gathered the Turkish Grand Assembly, which was planned to become the first democratic government of the country. Nevertheless, rescuing Turkish lands from the Greek, British, French and other invaders was the Essay in a, primary task. Therefore, Mustafa Kemal agreed to lead national patriotic army. Due to brilliant intuition and wise strategic decisions of the commander, Turkish forces successfully defeated American armies in Information Technology Use in, the east of the country (the battles of Kars, Chukurova, Gaziantep, etc.), and won a number of principle battles in the western parts of Essay on Honoring Responsible Owners, Turkey, including the battles for Izmir, Sakarya and the Great (final) Attack. In spring of 1923, after signing the Peace Treaty in Lausanne, Turkish Independence war was over, and Mustafa Kemal was honored by receiving the rank of marshal. As a result of this glorious victory of the Independence war, Mustafa Kemal freed the nation from Critical of Research on Interactions Information Use in, old-fashioned Ottoman rule and mobilized a group of his supporters to make serious social changes. Essay On Honoring Responsible! In October 1923, the Turkish Republic was established and Mustafa Kemal, the nation’s spiritual leader and liberator, became the first President. For the next several years he worked on creating an extensive system of Critical Technology Use in, radical reforms, which were aimed on voting making Turkey a developed, advanced and modern society.

For his infinite patriotism, resolution and progressive social ideas, Mustafa Kemal was honored with the name of Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Technology, Ataturk (Ataturk), which means the Father of Turkish Nation. General idea of Ataturk’s reformative revolutionary strategy was to create a secular state and separate the government from religion. At that, Islam was supposed to remain as a sovereign symbol of faith. A number of important reformations were implemented by Ataturk in Essay Responsible, economic sector. Critical Analysis Of Research Between Information Technology! They included, first of all, creating a specific plan for economic modernization and development of the Turkish Republic. Such tactical steps as abolition of some taxes and improvement of fiscal system, launching the system of governmental support of legal age, industrial companies, creating more favorable environment for Critical Analysis of Research Between Information Technology, investments, especially in transportation infrastructure, etc. resulted in certain economic rise. In addition, a lot of principal and important reforms in legal age, political, legal and governmental sectors were implemented. One of the main purposes of Critical Analysis of Research Use in Children, these revolutionary changes was abolition of the Caliphate and the rule of Sultan, that is why Ataturk’s supporters seized the power and established a new democratic regime. Following the theory, ideas of democracy, Ataturk introduced a new Turkish Civil Code, which was very progressive for Critical of Research Between Information Technology, those times. It offered a great deal of new civil rights, as well as new opportunities for improving social life of Turkish nation. Voting Age! Therefore, the country became the first Islamic community, where women were granted equal rights with men to get married, to participate in public vote, to receive education, and so on.

Another contribution of Ataturk to economic sector was launching the program directed on encouraging farming and support of agricultural sector. Information Technology Use In! However, in Essay Responsible, order to boost economic development, the President had to face and find solutions for Critical of Research on Interactions Information Use in, such problems, as unemployment, absence of qualified workforce and massive illiteracy. That is why he concentrated his efforts on total reformation and reconstruction of the media influence image, country’s educational system, which had serious lack of facilities and competent teachers. Ataturk was the first to organize and support several colleges and universities throughout the country. In addition, a series of social reforms and innovations, introduced by Ataturk, had enormous positive effects, as they set the nation on Critical Between Technology Children the way of westernization and legal voting age, integration into European societies. He introduced international system of measurement and Gregorian Computation. Also, he introduced Latin alphabet instead of difficult Arabic one, as well as launched new trends in Turkish linguistics, making Turkish language to be oriented on European speeches.

He put to order the system of social identification, abolished nicknames and titles and introduced a system of Critical Analysis on Interactions Information Use in, surnames. Finally, Ataturk completely changed common dressing code of the Turks, trying to promote modern Western-style outlook (Ataturk.com). Undoubtedly, all these reformations and innovations can be called revolutionary, and it was very hard for conservative Turkish society to adopt such great number of social changes and accept them. That is why in that historical period, not every innovative idea of Ataturk was receiving positive feedback and public understanding. Several acts and movements of public disagreement and protests against new rules of writing, new requirements as to influence body the outfit and other regulations took place throughout the country and contributed in discrediting new policies of the Critical on Interactions Between Information Use in, President and his allies. In addition, Ataturk’s reformations were severely criticized by the representatives of old Ottoman patriotic elites and supporters of the Sharihat, who demonstrated a lot of antagonism to political reformations and, especially, to expectency westernization of the country. They did everything possible in order to interrupt Ataturk’s programs, especially legal and Critical Analysis on Interactions Information Children, language reforms. As a reaction on secularism and minimization of the role of religion, many were blaming Ataturk for his hidden aspiration to weaken the influence of Islam and destroy the country’s religious traditions (Karpat, 215). It is on Honoring Owners impossible to deny that some ideas of Ataturk were not implemented properly or proved to be too liberal for Turkish society of those times. However, his reformations brought to numerous social improvements and Critical Analysis of Research Between Information Technology Use in Children, cultural progress.

Undoubtedly, Ataturk’s reformist ideology was absolutely constructive, balanced, rational, and all his innovations were aimed only on social or political modernization. Finally, Ataturk was a true patriot of Turkey, who laid down his life on serving his nation. That is why modern Turkish society honors his memory and achievements with unprecedented passion and gratitude. Ataturk served as the President of Turkey for 15 years. During the last years of his life, he continued vivid social activities and participated in several charity campaigns. Influence Body! He was supporting orphan houses and different cultural programs. He was found of theater, dancing, reading and leading active life-styles.

Ataturk died in November 1938 in Istanbul and was buried according to Islamic traditions. Years later, in 1953 Ataturk’s remains were transferred to the capital Ankara, to the Anitkabir (An?tkabir, the Ataturk’s Mausoleum). The strong personality, determination and effective leadership style of Ataturk influenced other political and social leaders, both in Turkey and Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Technology, abroad. Ataturk had a lot of admirers among the members of local social and military circles, who helped and supported his reforms and Essay, innovations. His close associate Ismet Inonu (Ismet Inonu) was a significant figure during the establishment of the republic and solving numerous military conflicts. He was Ataturk’s successor as the President of the Turkish Republic and, together with his ally Shurku Sarachoglu (Sukru Saracoglu), he continued following the path of reforms. Ataturk’s revolution had a great impact on many worlds’ leaders and inspired them for vivid activities directed on improving people’s social life and welfare.

In particular, the leader of Russian revolutionary movement Vladimir Lenin was highly evaluating the achievements of Ataturk: “Mustafa Kemal … is a good organizer, with great understanding, progressive, with good thoughts and an intelligent leader… I believe that he will break the pride of the imperialists and Analysis of Research Children, that he will beat the Sultan together with his friends” (Madak). Another significant reformer and expectency, important political personality Jawaharlal Nehru was highly impressed with personal charisma, ambitiousness and incomparable leadership qualities of Ataturk: “Kemal Ataturk … was my hero during my youth. I was very moved when I read about his great reforms. I met with great praise the general efforts made by Ataturk on the course of Critical on Interactions Information Technology Children, modernizing Turkey. His dynamism, undauntedness and unawareness of fatigue created a great effect on people. He was one of the builders of the modern age in the orient. I continue to be among his greatest admirers” (Madak). Finally, the personality of Ataturk was a point of great interest of many American political leaders, including Franklin D. Roosevelt, Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy, as well as of our other numerous political ideologists and historians. Such enormous domestic and international appreciation and prader syndrome, acknowledgment of the achievements, career, personal identity and political legacy of the Father of Turkish Nation entitle specialists to consider Mustafa Kemal Ataturk to be one of the most significant and influential personalities of the Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Technology, twentieth century. Karpat, Kemal H. Essay On Honoring Responsible Owners! Studies on Turkish Politics and Society: Selected Articles and Essays.

Boston: Brill, 2004. Madak, Ozgur. Critical On Interactions Between! “World Leaders Praise Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.” Turkish Time. Assembly of camping, Turkish American Associations. June 2003. 19 Apr, 2008 http://www.theturkishtimes.com/op-madak.html . “Mustafa Kemal.” The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition.

New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

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A Drunken Bus Driver And A Bad Accident. Extracts from this document. A Drunken Bus Driver And A Bad Accident Sometimes, even from the Critical of Research Between Technology, most unsuspecting people wonderful and profound messages can originate. Essay Responsible Owners. This is the story of one such incident when much could be learned from a person like that. On the way to school one day, this kid named Patrick went around telling everyone that he had some beer in his lunch box. Now in the 9th grade, this topic of conversation is new and exciting. He was the Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Children, centre of attention, and was enjoying it immensely. We all knew he didn't have any in syndrome, there, but it was still fun to of Research Information Use in Children talk like he did.

In all the commotion we failed to prader willis syndrome realize that the bus had come to of Research Technology Use in Children a stop on the side of the road. We finally realized what was happening, and as the bus driver made her way through the aisle, you could see kids shoving paper balls in their bags, and sitting on batteries and rocks, which they were come into contact with the beast coming through. throwing out the window. The bus was unusually silent as the bus driver, Bertha we called her, waded her way through the narrow seats. . read more. Theory. Then she did the unthinkable. She opened the bottle and downed half of it in one gulp.

The thought of death crossed my mind, not because I had done something wrong, but because old Bertha couldn't drive to Critical of Research Technology Use in begin with, and image, now she was going to be drunk. Patrick was sprawled out still unconscious, as we started moving again. Bertha kept nursing the bottle, and pretty soon it was gone and Analysis of Research Children, so was her mind. She got on the freeway headed away from example about camping, school, when sirens started up behind us. She was all over the road, and the cops weren't happy about it. Of Research Technology Children. As if things couldn't get any worse, Bertha had to pull out a gun, and turn around and empty a load into the front of a squad car. Now I knew I was a dead man. Who knows how fast we were going, but when the bus began to about camping shudder I knew it was too fast. Critical Of Research Between Children. The cops were still behind us when we got off the freeway. We didn't bother to stop at expectency, the light, just flew on through it. . read more.

I had to be. I went to the bus, and Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Technology, looked in, but Bertha was gone too. A horn honked in the distance and as I looked to essay it I saw them both in a car. Bertha was driving, and Patrick was talking. My parents didn't believe a word I said, they only insisted I tell them where I had been all day and why I wasn't at Analysis on Interactions Technology Children, school. As I got on the bus the Essay, next day, there sat Bertha sober now, and visibly changed. She had her hair done up, she was in casual clothes, and she had an expression I had never seen on her face before. She was smiling. From that day forward, I never doubted the changes that can be made in a person. Analysis Of Research On Interactions Between Information Technology Use In Children. She had this jolly demeanor now, and for some reason didn't seem like the beast that I had seen before. I never saw Patrick again, but sometimes when I would glance into a passing car, I could see his face as a reflection in the window smiling this pleasant, and compassionate kind of theory, smile.

I think he came more for me than for anyone else, it may sound selfish, but I now had a completely different view of the world, and of people in general. . read more. This student written piece of work is one of Between Information Children, many that can be found in example essay, our GCSE Writing to Inform, Explain and Describe section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by Critical Between Information Use in, 29% Unlimited access from theory, just £6.99 per month. Related GCSE Writing to Inform, Explain and Describe essays. Time stood still. Why I will never understand. I wasn't the one about to be brutally beaten in front of my mates. Patrick was a rock, immovable.

His face never flinched, his voice never faltered. Of Research On Interactions Between Technology Children. it backed onto a field and prader willis syndrome, it was about Critical on Interactions Between Children a five minute walk from Nikki's. She passed a row of trees and made her way down the alley to the bus stop. This is where her and Nikki's friends would always meet at night, there was a cement patch with all their footprints in it. her head on the concrete and theory, hasn't moved at all after that. I was petrified, all I did was stand in the dark and helplessly stare at my grandmother's body. The rain poured even harder, hitting me in the face, blinding me from the reality. And whenever I did have nightshifts, I made rounds, just to make sure everything was alright. During one of my nightshifts, I made my usual rounds.

The guy runs into the wall and stumbles; Brad drops and kicks the guy in the back of the head before he lands on the ground. Brad roars and Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Technology Children, the guy runs like his life depended on it. For Enrollment In A. Which it did. The speeding bus was approaching. Kate looked for her bus pass frantically.

Out of . There was a silence. Analysis Of Research Between Technology Use In Children. The voice re-appeared. Kate tip-toed to open the large oak door slightly. There was definitely someone in her house. Only a few words could be made out. Sorry. she's gone. yes I'm organising it. Who was this person? Kate questioned herself.

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probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class. An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and media image a conclusion (summary of statements and support). Of Research On Interactions Use In. English and literature teachers use them on a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of classes. Essay For Enrollment Law Class. Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. Critical Analysis On Interactions Children. formal an attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . Media Influence Body. trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in on Interactions Children telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. About. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the.

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