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on line essay background and analysis by Scott Miller. from his book Sex, Drugs, Rock Roll, and Musicals. The year is 1959, a pivotal moment in American cultural history, when rock and roll was giving birth to the Sexual Revolution and everything in America culture was about to be turned upside down. Record companies were releasing more than a hundred singles every week and the country was about to explode. Grease , generally considered a trivial little musical about larry The Fabulous Fifties, is really the story of America’s tumultuous crossing over Testing Personality Essay from the 50s to larry jeff the 60s, throwing over repression and tradition for freedom and adventure (and a generous helping of cultural chaos), a time when the Projective for Analyzing Personality Essay styles and culture of the jeff fort disengaged and disenfranchised became overpowering symbols of teenage power and autonomy. Originally a rowdy, dangerous, over-sexed, and insightful piece of alternative theatre, Grease was inspired by the rule-busting success of Hair and shows like it, rejecting the trappings of other Broadway musicals for a more authentic, more visceral, more radical theatre experience that revealed great cultural truths about America. An experience largely forgotten by Kahlo Essay, most productions of the show today. Like Hair before it and The Rocky Horror Show which would come a year later, Grease is a show about repression versus freedom in American sexuality, about the clumsy, tentative, but clearly emerging sexual freedom of the late 1950s, seen through the lens of the larry middle of the Sexual Revolution in the 1970s. It’s about the near carnal passion 1950s teenagers felt for their rock and roll, the first art form that actually changed human sexuality. (The phrase rock and tyler do bad all by myself roll was originally African American urban slang for sexual intercourse, going as far back as the 1920s, and it made its way onto many rhythm and blues recordings before the 1950s.) As theatre, Grease finds its roots in the rawness, the rowdiness, the lack of polish that made Hair and other experimental pieces in the 1960s such cultural phenomena. The impact of Hair on Grease can even be seen in the two shows’ titles, both taking as their primary symbols the hairstyles of young Americans as a form of rebellion and cultural declaration of independence.
Just as the characters of larry hoover fort Hair and do bad Grease reject conformity and authority, so too do both Hair and Grease as theatre pieces. Like Hair , Grease is an anti-musical, closer to the experimental theatre pieces of New York’s off off Broadway movement in the 60s, and hoover jeff light years from other musicals running on i can myself, Broadway at the time, like No No Nanette (in a terrible revival), Sugar, The Rothschilds, Applause, or A Little Night Music . Goodbye to Sandra Dee. Also like Hair , Grease is about authenticity , the watchword of larry hoover jeff fort that first rock and roll generation. Teen sexuality has been an issue in America since the invention of the rumble seat, always moving forward like a freight train, forever going faster and of 1908 farther; and Grease is a snapshot of America right before teen sexuality exploded, examining the early cracks in the armor of larry hoover jeff middle-class respectability and repression, the fantasy American Dream that never was but that came beaming into Americans’ homes over the television airwaves. Movie star Sandra Dee becomes Grease ‘s overarching metaphor for tyler perry i can the artificiality of adult American life, a symbol that needed piercing. Larry Hoover Jeff. Sandra Dee was a big star at this point, and Hope and Desolation by Frank Luis Borges just in the two years that Grease spans, she released The Restless Years (1958), The Reluctant Debutante (1958), A Stranger in My Arms (1959), Gidget (1959), Imitation of Life (1959), The Wild and hoover jeff the Innocent (1959), and A Summer Place (1959), jumping back and forth between empty-headed teen comedies and principle stark melodrama.
Today, it may be hard to understand what Sandra Dee represented, but she was the poster girl for the big studios’ attempts to make teen movies, a genre which was up until that point the exclusive territory of larry hoover fort small, low-budget producers like the ubiquitous Roger Corman ( The Little Shop of Horrors, Bucket of Testing for Analyzing Essay Blood , and others). But the studios’ teen flicks were inevitably artificial in larry jeff fort the extreme, creating a freakish – and clueless – adult imitation of the teen world, a kind of cultural Frankenstein, that teens could see right through. To savvy teenagers, Sandra Dee was a teen sellout, and in a world where authenticity was the goal, there was nothing worse. She was a fake – in her life, in her acting style, and in Essay her onscreen emotions. Jeff Fort. Teen audiences didn’t want that; they wanted High School Hellcats and Teenage Doll . But adults loved Sandra Dee; she reassured them that their teen was a good girl. And many American girls took Sandra Dee as a role model – but not the principle real Sandra Dee, the cheery public character Sandra Dee, confusing her onscreen persona with her real life. Millions of Americans in postwar America were trying to live an American Dream that was pure fiction, particularly for the working class; and that fiction is symbolized by Sandra Dee, a fiction at the heart of Sandy’s arc in Grease . Jeff. But on another level, the metaphor gets even deeper – and this demonstrates the craftsmanship of this script – because Sandy’s relationship with Danny mirrors Sandra Dee’s difficult real life relationship with Bobby Darin. As Rizzo taunts Sandy with Look at Me, I’m Sandra Dee, she doesn’t really know how dark that dark underbelly really is… Darphne Merkin wrote in The New York Times in 2005 at the time of Sandra Dee’s death: …the darling, pink world, as she herself characterized it, that Sandra Dee was thought to inhabit by her fans had always been a grotesque mockery, plagued not by Essay, an overripened case of hoover jeff fort virginity but by childhood incest. The girl with brimming brown eyes and a fizzy lilt to Projective Testing Essay her voice was born Alexandria Zuck in Bayonne, New Jersey.
Her parents divorced when she was five; her father, a bus driver, disappeared from her life shortly thereafter, and her mother, Mary, married a much-older real-estate entrepreneur named Eugene Duvan within a few years. . . Worse yet, Dee's devoted but manipulative mother turned a conveniently blind eye to the defiled sexual appetites of her new husband. Duvan, who liked to tease his wife that he married her just to get Sandy, started having sex with his beautiful stepdaughter when she was 8 and continued doing so almost until his death when she was 12. As a result, Sandra Dee later suffered from anorexia, depression, and alcoholism throughout her life. All this made her cynically manufactured faade of sweetness even darker and hoover jeff more complex. This was the conventional, repressed, hypocritical, manufactured life from which Sandy Dumbrowski must escape. The thing is, [her career] happened so fast, was over practically before it began, that we can almost be forgiven for misconstruing her as a cultural simulacrum: a blip on the monitor, a media invention, an adorable incarnation of a feminine ideal of the reluctant or unwitting nymphet, rather than a flesh-and-blood creature with needs and wishes (not to mention raging demons) of her own. Grease looks at the fifties with twenty-twenty hindsight and smurfette it sees the darkness and deception of the decade’s role models and authority figures. Sandra Dee wasn’t happy in her real life because she was never allowed to be herself – to be authentic – and Sandy Dumbrowski suffers the larry same problem. Sandra Dee represents not just strict morality and virginity in Grease , but the entire manufactured mainstream culture of 1950s America, a culture the kids of on I Fiction Grease reject. Rizzo’s pretty great at choosing metaphors… Still, for most kids, the fifties were a time when America caught its breath.
After decades of upheaval – World War I, Prohibition, the Depression, World War II, and the Korean War – suddenly times weren’t so hard and the world didn’t seem as dangerous. Larry Fort. (Kids were told about the threat of a Cold War nuclear attack, but it didn’t mean much to them and didn’t really affect their lives.) Before the 50s, if kids worked it was for the family’s survival. During the 50s, if kids worked it was because they were saving up to buy a car or buy parts for the car they had. It was a happy, playful decade for many (white) Americans, even those in the working class, as family cars transformed adult culture and rock and Fire roll transformed teen culture. And one of the points of jeff Grease is that kids of the 50s could afford to worry only about their own trivial problems; there was no world war, no Hitler to fear anymore. Kahlo. Though Grease implies many complex things, it is actually about the larry hoover fort ordinary, everyday lives of Frida Kahlo a group of teenagers. Jeff. Their chief worries are whether or not they’ll have a date to the dance and can they get the tyler myself car. But the fifties were only jeff, a brief window of respite before the dark, dangerous times would return, with Vietnam, race riots, the anti-war movement, Watergate, and recession. Today, some conservatives idealize the 1950s as a time of moral clarity, patriotism, family stability, and traditional values, a time to which America should return. But that 1950s never actually existed. What looks to them like moral clarity was actually well-masked racism, sexism, and economic oppression. The only people who were safe and comfortable were middle class and upper class white men (the only demographics that still idealize that time).
What they see as patriotism was more like nationalistic terrorism, demagoguery, witch hunts. In Biographies By Frank And Jorge Luis Borges. What they see as family stability was really mind-numbing conformity and drug-addicted suburban housewives. What they label traditional values were nothing short of race, class, and gender warfare. And it all boiled down to jeff two central bogeymen, inextricably linked in the minds of the tyler perry i can do bad mainstream: sex and rock and larry roll. The Twin Gods of Grease . As Grace Palladino asks in Teenagers: An American History , Did the world really work better when girls had no choice in Fire life but to get married, blacks knew their servile place, and kids who lived outside the charmed circle of larry upper-middle class life were invisible? The story of Grease is set during the 1958-59 school year, at exactly the same time that America was facing the preliminary rumblings of the Sexual Revolution that would arrive in the mid-1960s and blossom in the 70s, only to Essay on I A Narrative Fiction be ended by AIDS in larry hoover jeff fort the early 80s. And like The Rocky Horror Show did later, Grease shows us how America reacted to this tumultuous time though two of tyler i can all by myself its main characters.
Danny Zuko (along with Rizzo and Kenickie) represents that segment of American teens already sexually active in the 1940s and 50s, who ultimately frees the conforming Sandy to express her sexuality without fear or shame, leading her into a new life and a new decade of larry jeff fort sexual freedom – a theme also at the heart, though far more cautiously, of the 1959 film A Summer Place , starring Sandra Dee and Troy Donahue. Sandy Dumbrowski (notice how ethnic all the character names are, to suggest that they are working class) is mainstream America, reluctant to throw off the sexual repression of the conforming 1950s for the sexual adventuring of the 1960s. That is the Hope and Desolation by Frank Kafka Essays story of hoover jeff Grease –and the story of America – the way sex was changing and the part rock and roll and cars and drive-ins played in that transformation. In the movie, the central love story may be the point, but on stage the romance is just a device for The Great Essay making a larger, more interesting point. Grease isn’t about Danny and Sandy (which is why fifteen of the show’s twenty songs have nothing at all to do with them); Grease is hoover fort about how rock and roll changed sex in Frida Kahlo Essay America.
And those who criticize Grease for its immoral ending don’t understand what this show is really about fort – and Projective for Analyzing Personality they really haven’t paid attention to the lyric of All Choked Up. The Word Made Flesh. Grease first opened in Chicago, where its story is set, in 1971. To a large extent, the 1970s marked the end of the Rodgers and Hammerstein revolution. It was the decade that gave permanent berth to larry both the concept musical and the rock musical, both explored during the sixties but now taking their rightful place in Frida Essay mainstream musical theatre. These were shows that rejected the sunny optimism of earlier decades and instead revealed the hoover jeff feelings of perry i can all by myself rage and hoover loss that pervaded America in this era of Vietnam and Watergate. Frida Kahlo Essay. The concept musical had been germinating since Marc Blitzstein’s very political, very angry The Cradle Will Rock in 1937, but it wasn’t until Stephen Sondheim and Hal Prince’s Company in 1970 that the concept musical was in hoover jeff a position to i can do bad myself change everything. The rock musical had been born with Expresso Bongo in 1958 and became mainstream with Hair in larry 1968, but it became a fixture on Broadway during the seventies, partly because the The Great Fire definition of rock was so pliable, so inclusive by then.
A rock musical could be Jesus Christ Superstar, Hair, Two Gentlemen of Verona, The Rocky Horror Show , or Grease, none of which sounded anything like the others; and yet they all shared a disdain for authority, a taste for rebellion, and larry hoover jeff a sexual frankness to smurfette which only the language of rock and roll could give full voice. The phenomenon that was Grease began its long life in the summer of 1971 at larry hoover jeff Chicago’s Kingston Mines Theatre, in which its authors Jim Jacobs and Warren Casey were acting ensemble members. The show opened February 5, 1971, in smurfette a basement theatre where an larry fort audience of a hundred sat on the floor on newspaper. The set consisted of Hope by Frank and Jorge Luis Borges Essays backdrops painted on brown paper. At that time the show had far less music, far less plot, and no central characters. But it did have infectious songs like Greased Lightning, Beauty School Dropout, Those Magic Changes, and We Go Together, and a solo for Patty Simcox that was later cut, Yuck. Larry Jeff Fort. New York producers Ken Waissman and Maxine Fox saw the A Narrative show and recognized its surprising honesty and the appeal of its rough edges. Two of the jeff fort Chicago cast members, Dinah Manoff (Marty) and James Canning (Doody) would play those roles on Broadway. Manoff would continue her role in Testing Personality Essay the film.
Once the producers decided to bring Grease to New York, they set about finding a production staff. One agent tried to sell them on hiring the bright young director-choreographer Michael Bennett, but they didn’t think he was right for Grease . They were probably right. They asked Gerald Freedman to direct, since he had helmed the original off Broadway production of Hair , but Freedman turned them down without even reading the script. They finally settled on director Tom Moore and choreographer Patricia Birch who had created such interesting, real staging and choreography for The Me Nobody Knows ¸ a show about homeless kids. The producers wanted everything about the larry hoover jeff fort show to feel rough, unpolished, de-glamorized – honest and authentic, like Hair – a concept the subsequent film and revivals did not understand.
According to Adrienne Barbeau’s autobiography There Are Worse Things I Could Do , the producers hired Moore to principle direct because Tom's strength was getting performances that were so realistic the audience didn't believe they were watching actors. That's what Ken [Waissman] and Maxine [Fox] wanted for Grease . What they didn't want was a cotton-candy musical. It’s easy to hear on the original 1972 Grease cast album the raw, pure, untrained sound of 1950s rock and roll. Grease knows that sound because its creators lived it, the sound of Muddy Waters, Chuck Berry, Little Richard, and larry Bo Diddley. The earliest rock and roll was never about polish or precision; this was the punk rock of the fifties, purposefully rejecting mainstream necessities like playing in A Narrative Fiction tune, singing on pitch, keeping the larry jeff tempo, staying together. The Great Of 1908. It was a wholesale rejection of the values of their parents and their parents’ culture, an aggressive fuck you to Pat Boone and the like. Three decades later, American kids in the Reagan Era (The Neo-50s) would rebel in much the same way with the creation of punk rock. Just as the greasers sported leather jackets, engineer boots, crazy hairstyles, and other rebellious fashions, so did their descendants, the punks, have their rebellious fashion statements in tattoos, piercings, and occult symbols. And now, so does the hip-hop community. Critic Michael Feingold wrote in his introduction to the 1972 published Grease script: The people of Grease are a special class of aliens, self-appointed cynics in a work-oriented, upwardly mobile world.
We know from the prologue that history has played its dirty trick on them before they even appear. They are not at the reunion; they will not be found among the prosperous Mrs. Honeywells and the go-getting vice presidents of larry hoover jeff Straight-Shooters, Unlimited. Nor, on the other hand, did they actively drop out; that was left to their younger siblings and cousins. (Memory of Projective for Analyzing a line too explicit, and cut from the larry hoover jeff fort script early on: Course I like life. Testing For Analyzing Essay. Whaddaya think I am, a beatnik?) They were the group who thought they had, or chose to jeff fort have, nowhere to go. They stayed in the monotonous work routine of the lower middle class, acquiring, if they were lucky, enough status to A Narrative move to one of the more nondescript suburbs, and losing their strongest virtue – the group solidarity that had made them, in high school, a force to be reckoned with.
It is larry appropriate that the finale of Grease celebrates that solidarity, with the saving of its heroine, and the reclamation of its hero from the in Biographies by Frank and Jorge Luis clutches of respectability – a good lusty razz at the sanctimonious endings of those Sal Mineo j.d. [juvenile delinquent] movies ( Somebody Up There Likes Me , remember?) wherein the tough punk is saved for society at the end. Everybody knew you didn’t go to those films to see that part. After only larry jeff, three and The Great of 1908 Essay a half weeks of rehearsal (again, in an effort to keep it from looking too polished), Grease opened off Broadway at the Eden Theatre on Valentine’s Day 1972. The reviews were negative to larry jeff mixed. One hapless television reviewer said, The worst thing I’ve ever seen opened tonight at the Eden Theatre. Fire Of 1908. It ran 128 performances anyway. And then the show moved uptown in June 1972 to the Broadhurst Theatre. In December 1979, Grease broke Broadway’s long-run record. It made several moves during its Broadway run and finally closed April 13, 1980, after a total run of 3,388 performances. Larry Hoover Jeff Fort. It was nominated for seven Tony Awards but won none. Frida. The original production paid back its investors four thousand percent.
The show also ran for over two years in Mexico under the title Vaselina, becoming the longest-running musical there. The watered-down 1978 film version starring John Travolta, Olivia Newton-John, and Stockard Channing became one of the most successful movie musicals of all time. After fifteen years of fort declining numbers, the teenage population in America began to grow again in the early 1990s – They’re Back, said one Business Week cover – and so a glitzy, brainless, neon-scorched revival of Grease opened on Broadway in perry do bad myself May 1994, painfully misdirected and misunderstood by Tommy Tune’s protg, director-choreographer Jeff Calhoun (who would years later direct a brilliant revival of Big River for Deaf West Theatre). Completely ignoring (or just missing) Grease ’s agenda as social commentary, this terrible revival decked out its set in bright, neon colors, making it into a simple-minded cartoon, and it added an actual 50s song, Since I Don’t Have You, a song completely without the irony of the jeff rest of the score and therefore completely out of Frida synch with the rest of the show. Hoover Jeff Fort. The revival’s logo was a picture of Danny from behind, his leather jacket bedazzled with rhinestones that spell Grease . Could they have misunderstood the Burger Palace Boys any more? But despite the lack of taste or honesty, it was apparently perfect for and Desolation in Biographies by Frank Kafka Borges the theme park Broadway had become by that point and it ran 1,503 performances. It was not, however, Grease . Over its life, Grease gave starts to fort many now well-known actors, including John Travolta (who had begun as Doody in the first national tour), Richard Gere, Treat Williams, Patrick Swayze, Adrienne Barbeau, Barry Bostwick, Jeff Conaway, Greg Evigan, Marilu Henner, and Hope in Biographies by Frank Kafka and Jorge Luis Borges Essays Judy Kaye, among others.
In 2003 the British television network Channel 4 held a poll to larry hoover jeff fort determine the principle greatest musicals of jeff fort all time. Grease won the top honor. In 2007, NBC created a reality show through which to choose the two leads for a new Broadway revival helmed by Kathleen Marshall, though any hopes of Projective for Analyzing authenticity from larry a new Broadway Grease were slight. But perhaps it’s time for Grease in its original form to return at last, in this new Age of Ironic Detachment. In 2005, Norman Lebrecht wrote about the new postmodern musicals ( Urinetown, Bat Boy, Hedwig and the Angry Inch, Spelling Bee ) in his online column: The music in each of these shows amplifies this element of separation, licensing us to of 1908 stand apart from what we are seeing and enter a third dimension where each of us can individually decide whether to take the plot literally or sardonically, whether to take offense or simply collapse in giggles. This degree of Ironic Detachment is the very making of the postmodern hit musical. Ironic Detachment would be unattainable in a Tom Stoppard play because I.D. requires musical inflexion; it is impossible in opera and larry hoover jeff ballet, which are stiffened by tradition against self-mockery. Its application is unique to the musical comedy, an ephemeral entertainment which has found new relevance through its philosophical engagement with 21st century concepts of irony and alienation. Still, Ironic Detachment isn’t entirely new in musical theatre – we’ve seen it before, periodically over the twentieth century, in The Threepenny Opera (1928), Of Thee I Sing (1931), The Cradle Will Rock (1937), Guys and Dolls (1950), The Fantasticks (1959) , How To Succeed in for Analyzing Business Without Really Trying (1961) , Promenade (1965), Cabaret (1966), Promises, Promises (1969), Company (1970), The Rocky Horror Show (1973), The Robber Bridegroom (1974), and yes, Grease.
Sock Hop Baby, Roll Up Your Crazy Jeans! Almost every American musical sets up the larry hoover jeff same challenge for the protagonist – assimilate or be removed. Smurfette. These central characters must make a choice to either change in certain ways in order to join the existing community or they must be removed from that community either by leaving or by dying. Larry Jeff Fort. In The Music Man , Harold Hill turns legit in order to join the River City community. For Analyzing. In Sweeney Todd, Jesus Christ Superstar, Bat Boy, and Evita , the main characters will not (or cannot) change so they must be removed by death. In Brigadoon , Tommy decides he must reject his previous life and change everything in order to hoover fort stay in Fire Brigadoon and become part of the community. Fort. In Show Boat , Julie and Steve will not play by tyler i can all by, mainstream society’s rules, so they must be removed, and larry hoover fort they leave the Cotton Blossom. Smurfette. In Man of La Mancha , Quixote/Quijana refuses to larry fort live by conventional rules of behavior, so he must die. In Grease , Sandy ultimately assimilates into the greaser community, rejecting her parents’ world view. Many people are uncomfortable with the show’s ending because they miss the fact that Sandy doesn’t actually become a slut in the finale; she just learns how to dress like one, finally letting go of the tendency of too many Americans to Kahlo Essay stigmatize sexuality as dirty and shameful.
She gives up the larry hoover jeff desexualizing poodle skirt that hid away her female form and replaces it with clothing that reveals and The Great Fire Essay celebrates – and takes ownership of – her body and larry hoover jeff its adult curves. This is not a descent into decadence for Sandy; it is a throwing open of the doors of her moral prison. The authors’ intentions are clear in a stage direction in the final scene. Essay Am Unique: A Narrative Fiction. After describing Sandy’s new hypersexual look – the tight pants, leather jacket, earrings, wild new hair – the script says, Yet she actually looks prettier and larry hoover fort more alive than she ever has. Teenagers’ clothing was a major source of contention at the time. Grace Palladino writes in her fascinating history Teenagers : School authorities solved the immediate problem (teenage delinquency) with dress and smurfette behavior codes. Tight blue jeans, ducktail haircuts, and excessive makeup were prohibited in jeff school.
Dress Right campaigns set appropriate high school styles that drew national attention in the late 1950s. Boys were required to wear shirts and ties, standard trousers (or neatly pressed khakis), and polished shoes (or clean white bucks). Girls were required to wear dresses or shirts and perry i can do bad all by myself forgo pincurls, dungarees, and larry hoover fort slacks. As an article in smurfette Newsweek explained the theory: Bejeaned girls behave better when they’re in ladylike dress. Sandy’s clothing in larry jeff fort All Choked Up is extraordinarily subversive. The end of Grease suggests that a lasting, healthy relationship is only possible when both partners are openly and Projective Testing for Analyzing Essay completely themselves, without regard for other people’s opinions, social conventions, or personal insecurities – and also when neither of them are afraid of their sexuality. This was not the message of the conforming adult world; this was a uniquely teen perspective. Jeff Fort. Both Sandy and all by myself Danny have to learn to be themselves, to shake off the larry masks of cool and respectable. If there is any question about who the protagonist of the show is, Sandy is primary; she’s the one who has changed, who has learned something significant. The same may be true of Danny, but to a much lesser extent.
But the ending of Grease isn’t a moral and shouldn’t be read that way. It doesn’t declare what we should or shouldn't do; it's an objective and accurate description of America in 1959. Sandy is The Great Essay America in its progression from puritanical repression in the 50s to sexual freedom in hoover fort the Sexual Revolution of the 60s. (And yet, as her lyric in All Choked Up tells us quite explicitly, she isn’t ready to give up her virginity quite yet.) In 1959 America was about to grow up sexually, into The Great Fire, adolescence in the 60s ( Hair ), and into full sexual adulthood in the 70s ( Rocky Horror ). Too many people believe that the jeff message of Grease is that to by Frank and Jorge Luis Essays win the larry jeff fort man you love, you have to be a slut. But there's not a single line or lyric anywhere in Kahlo the show to suggest Sandy has changed anything but her looks. Like Eliza Dolittle in larry jeff fort My Fair Lady , Sandy learns The Secret, that anyone can Fit In just by Essay on I A Narrative, talking and looking the jeff fort right way (and don’t we all do that to Essay some extent?), and her overnight transformation proves that it’s all just play-acting – and that they all know it ! She has learned what Rizzo and the girls have known all along. Sandy has become one of jeff them just by changing her clothes! She throws off the weight and triviality of 1950s conformity and allows herself the freedom of the The Great coming 1960s, a refusal to larry jeff fear her own sexuality, to Frida Essay see sex as dirty, the freedom to hoover jeff be able to talk and laugh openly about sex. But behind all the rest, there’s a simpler, more subversive message. Sandy isn’t just saved by smurfette principle, how she dresses; she’s saved by singing rock and roll. It isn’t until she can achieve the larry hoover fort authenticity and sexual frankness of rock and roll, that she can be healed.
Grease doesn’t moralize; it just reports. Tyler I Can Myself. Grease is set in 1958 and 1959 for a good reason – it’s not just about the changing of hoover jeff decades but also the changing of eras . Smurfette Principle. Sandy’s triumphant line late in the show, Goodbye to Sandra Dee, puts away not only Sandy’s false good-girl persona, but also the 1950s as a whole, a world in which the goody-goody Sandra Dee can be a role model, in which facades were cracking. We were moving on… The Fabulous Fractious Fifties. The Fabulous Fifties. The Decade Deluxe. The Ike Age. These were the good old days, the happy days, the source of many an American’s earliest, fondest memories and many of our postwar institutions. For the jeff fort past two decades Americans had lived in the grip of Fire of 1908 poverty and war. Now they were ready for some giddy, goofy fun. The country was swept up in frivolous fads – baton twirling, hula hoops, paint-by-number art kits, Davy Crockett hats, 3-D movies.
Life seemed a wide-screen, stereophonic special effect. Culture popped – in shades of turquoise, pink, salmon, and, if one color wasn’t enough, delicious two-tones. Larry Jeff Fort. Madison Avenue created an unlikely world of perfect appliances and perfect families, of highballs and hi-fis, Bermuda shorts and backyard barbecues. In the Essay on I Am Unique: ads, the wives are beautiful (mowing the lawn in fort peasant blouses and a hint of lingerie); the children above average (exuberantly joining in the Saturday morning car wash). Over the clink of Am Unique: A Narrative Fiction ice cubes, Americans mingled and misbehaved. That’s how James Petersen’s book The Century of Sex describes 1950s America and the false, repressed world from which Sandy must escape.
There were three distinct cultures in America during the 1950s – mainstream middle-America, New York City (including the Beat writers), and hoover jeff fort teenagers – and Frida they rarely intersected each other, so none of them spoke the others’ languages or shared their morality. Most of mainstream adult America lived a life of complete ignorance, happily watching safely artificial television sitcoms and carefully censored studio films, having little or no idea what was going on in teen America, in teen music, movies, magazines, social life, and larry most significantly, teen sexuality. After World War II, most adult women had been expected to and Desolation and Jorge leave behind the independence of their lives on the home front during the larry war and return to a life of near complete dependence again – no more job, no more money, no more sexual control or choice. Betty Friedan wrote of the times, It was fun at first, shopping in those new supermarkets. Testing For Analyzing Personality. And we bought barbecue grills and made dips out of jeff fort sour cream and dried onion soup to serve with potato chips, while our husbands made the martinis as dry as in the city and cooked hamburgers on the charcoal, and we sat in canvas chairs on our terrace and thought how beautiful our children looked, playing in the twilight, and how lucky we all were, and Hope by Frank Kafka and Jorge Essays that it would last forever. These were the real people behind the metaphor of the 1956 film Invasion of the larry hoover Body Snatchers. As The Century of Sex says, Conformity became a national passion, part of Essay on I Am Unique: Fiction a return to sexual and political conservatism. The Battle Over Sex has always been waged between the Haves and the Have-Nots in America. Throughout history, there has been great sexual freedom and little shame among the Have-Nots, since they have nothing which can be imperiled. But the Haves are always terrified of any kind of cultural change, especially sexual, because the fallout could always endanger their position as Haves. Sandy is a Have, Danny is a Have-Not.
The sparks are bound to fly. All in all, the hoover jeff 1950s was one of the most interesting decades of the twentieth century – so much wealth, so much repression, so many massive changes in the culture, perhaps most significantly the invention of the suburbs, in principle which middle-class wives would be forever isolated and tranquilized. The characters in Grease were born around 1942, the last generation born before the Baby Boomers, and they went to high school from fort fall 1955 to Am Unique: A Narrative Fiction summer 1959. The cultural influences on them during this period were some of the fiercest America had yet seen. In 1951, J.D. Salinger’s controversial Catcher in jeff the Rye had been published and became an Essay A Narrative instant, lasting hit among teenagers, with its profanity and frank discussions of teenage angst and larry sexuality. Then, just as these kids were hitting puberty, America was hit with The Wild One in 1953, starring Marlon Brando, the movie that started the on I A Narrative Fiction whole leather jacket greaser thing as well as the teen exploitation film genre. The central relationship in larry fort Grease between Danny and Sandy is a goofier imitation of the central relationship in The Wild One between Johnny and Kathie. Exactly like the teen market they were targeting, teen exploitation films were full of Projective Testing Personality Essay sex and sin and booze and hoover jeff cars, but many of them also had a sanctimonious moral laid out explicitly, at the beginning or end of the film, often by a nameless authority figure behind a desk or podium, sometimes by a survivor of the principle tragedy.
These fake morals gave the larry hoover raunchy stories the patina of respectability to placate parents and would-be censors. But for the kids, these movies mirrored the perry all by myself real world, in which teenagers were discovering they had a certain kind of larry jeff fort power, a kind of power that just might be able to challenge the perry i can do bad myself power of jeff fort their parents. Smurfette Principle. And the hoover jeff teen rebel was born. In 1954, just a year before the Grease kids would start high school, Elvis Presley burst upon smurfette principle, the American scene with his first hit, forever changing notions of gender and sexuality, rebelling against the strong, silent type model of previous generations of men like John Wayne and Gary Cooper, in favor of a remarkably sexual, nakedly emotional new model of maleness embodied by the likes of Marlon Brando and James Dean. John Waters documented this cultural shift in jeff fort his film Cry-Baby , set just a few years before Grease. While the Grease kids – and smurfette the show’s authors – were in high school, the movies Rock Around the Clock and Rock, Rock, Rock were released in 1956 (the same year the mayor of Jersey City, New Jersey, banned all rock and roll within the city limits), giving some teens their first chance to actually see Little Richard, Chuck Berry, Bill Haley and jeff the Comets, The Platters, and many others performing their songs.
That same year the teen exploitation flick Hot Rod Girls was also released. In 1957, Roger Corman’s daring Teenage Doll (which still holds up pretty well) and Eighteen and Anxious were released. Teenage Doll was about a girl gang out for revenge after one of their members is murdered by a rival gang. Kafka Essays. The film ended with a giant rumble with girl and boy gangs fighting in an auto salvage yard. This was not their parents’ kind of movie.
That same year saw Michael Landon in I Was a Teenage Werewolf , a much more serious film than it sounds, about a damaged, misunderstood teen and hoover jeff fort about American teenagers’ feelings (reinforced by rock and roll) of Essay Am Unique: A Narrative us vs. them. Jack Kerouac’s groundbreaking, anti-authoritarian On the Road was published that year too, the inevitable follow-up to Catcher in the Rye . In 1958, two more teen movies were released that showed us the hoover fort underbelly of American teenage life (real or imagined), High School Confidential and the girl-gang High School Hellcats . By Frank And Jorge Luis. In 1959, T-Bird Gang was released, one of the great teen gang drive-in movies, as well as A Summer Place , one of the larry hoover jeff fort great make-out movies. The 1928 sexually charged novel Lady Chatterley’s Lover was finally released in America in 1959 and sold six million copies the first year. Just after these kids graduated, in perry i can 1960, The Wild Ride was released, starring Jack Nicholson as the kind of hoover jeff fort cocky, smartass rebel that the Burger Palace Boys in of 1908 Essay Grease wish they could be. Larry Fort. But 1960 also brought us that moment toward which everything had been leading and from which everything would flow. Dick Clark saw some kids doing a sexually suggestive dance called The Twist in his studio, inspired by a year-old record. Clark called the Kahlo Essay record label and asked for a new recording of The Twist.
It caught on like wildfire and convinced the adult population of America that the world was coming to larry hoover an end. Sex was no longer subtle or implied. Sex had broken free of the bedroom and the 1960s were coming. These kids in Grease are on the cusp of Fire of 1908 Essay that moment, just as they are on jeff, the cusp of adulthood. Michael Feingold wrote: Grease does not discourse about our presence in Saigon. Nor does it contain in-depth study of such other 50s developments as the growth of mega-corporations and conglomerates, the suburban building boom that broke the backs of and Desolation Luis Essays our cities, the separation of labor’s political power from the workers by union leaders and organization men.
Although set in and around an urban high school, it does not even discuss one of the decade’s dominant news stories, the massive expansion of the university system, and the directing of a whole generation of war babies toward the pursuit of college degrees. Grease is an hoover escape, a musical designed to entertain, not to concern itself with serious political and social matters. But because it is truthful, because it spares neither the details nor the larger shapes of the narrow experience on which it focuses so tightly, Grease implies the topics I have raised, and many others. Frida Essay. So I think it is a work of art, a firm image that projects, by larry hoover jeff fort, means of what it does contain, everything it has chosen to leave out. Principle. And between the throbs of its ebullience, charm, and comedy, it conveys a feeling, about larry hoover where we have been and how we got to where we are… During the Greasers’ senior year at Fire of 1908 Rydell High, in larry jeff fort February 1959, another epoch changing event took place, the plane crash that killed Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, and The Big Bopper – the day the music died.
The 1950s were coming to Testing for Analyzing a close, and a decade full of chaos and controversy was coming fast, with a whole new kind of rock and jeff a whole new kind of American sexuality. A Narrative. Grease is a prequel to fort Hair , every bit as well crafted, every bit as authentic, every bit as insightful, and principle just as truth about an incredibly volatile, fascinating moment in American history. Rock and Roll Party Queen. In the book Fever: How Rock’n’Roll Transformed Gender in hoover jeff America , author Tim Riley writes, The boomers born after World War II, both men and women – the Projective Testing for Analyzing characters in larry hoover Grease were all born around 1942 – learned much of smurfette what they know about how to be young, how to seek and earn love, and how to struggle toward adulthood from the popular music they listened to. As it would be for decades to come, rock music was more of an authority figure than any adult could ever be.
Rock stars helped their young fans grow from larry hoover jeff boys to men and tyler do bad myself girls to women, Riley writes, by exploring and celebrating the nature of that struggle – the full range of sexual bewilderment, frustration, and larry longing. Grease chronicles exactly that phenomenon. The kids in for Analyzing Personality Grease may well have seen their rock heroes in larry hoover jeff fort person, since DJs like Alan Freed (a likely inspiration for Testing for Analyzing Personality Essay Vince Fontaine) frequently hosted live rock and roll concerts in hoover Cleveland, Chicago and elsewhere. Howard Miller, known as Uncle Moo Moo, was the number one morning DJ in Chicago from Fire 1947-1968, on WIND, where the Grease kids would no doubt listen to hoover him every morning before school. In 1957, Miller produced the first live rock show in Chicago, featuring Tab Hunter, Charlie Gracie, Chuck Berry, Eddie Cochran, and the Everly Brothers. That same year Alan Freed got his own TV show, and it was such a success, the next month ABC picked up Dick Clark’s American Bandstand as well. In The Century of Sex, Petersen writes, Previously, teenagers had shared their parents’ world – watching the same movies, listening to the same songs on the radio. Now they had their own teenage idols, their own films, music, fads, and fashions.
In retrospect we know that the Fire Essay well-behaved youngsters of yesteryear weren’t well-behaved because they were morally superior, but because they rarely had the larry hoover fort opportunity to mis behave. In the 1950s – and even more so in the decades to come – those opportunities would be almost without limit. Adults were no longer sources of wisdom; adults were now outsiders. Teenagers had power and, more important, they had their own culture. Palladino writes in Teenagers : By the Projective for Analyzing Personality mid-1950s, however, Seventeen [magazine]’s respectable brand of adolescent culture had real competition – white, middle-class teenagers were not the only high school students with money to spend! Postwar prosperity had opened the door to an entirely different teenage world, one that was populated by larry hoover jeff fort, working-class and black teenagers who had never participated in Essay on I Am Unique: high school social life before.
This demographic shift changed the nature – and the appeal – of the teenage market. These two worlds are represented in Grease by Sandy and Danny. Rock and larry hoover jeff fort roll was the first music ever created specifically for teenagers, and many adults literally predicted the Essay on I A Narrative apocalypse when they heard it. Now all American teens would lose their moral compass, they wailed, they would abandon all ambition and drive, and drown in a morass of juvenile delinquency. (These were the same arguments against swing music in the 40s and drugs in the 60s, yet America kept plugging along.) Sure, there were occasionally riots at rock concerts, but there had also been a riot at a Guy Lombardo concert in 1944. In The Century of Sex , Petersen writes: The ethic, if that’s what it could be called, was simply: Don’t get in trouble. Hoover Fort. The sexually active lived in fear of The Great Fire Essay pregnancy. Larry Hoover Fort. The Kinsey Report had revealed that a large number of women were having premarital sex. A third Kinsey Institute report on Pregnancy, Birth and Abortion, which was published in 1958, would reveal that one out of perry i can myself every five women who had premarital sex became pregnant. Hoover. Of those, one in Testing Essay five would be forced into marriage. The other four women had their pregnancies terminated by abortion.
Grease ’s subplot with Rizzo and her fear of pregnancy was a real part of larry jeff fort life in Hope and Desolation in Biographies by Frank Kafka and Jorge Borges the 50s for many unmarried, sexually active women. Unlike their parents, rock and roll took teenagers seriously . It took teenage sex and fort teenage love seriously. Tyler Perry I Can Myself. It put teenage emotions on a level with adult emotions, and it made teenagers feel like adults. And the larry hoover fort best part for the kids was that parents hated rock and roll. (A 1957 article in on I Am Unique: Cosmopolitan asked Are You Afraid of Your Teenager?) Much of the larry authenticity of Grease lies in its songs, a virtual catalog of 1950s styles, structures, chord progressions, lyrical themes, distinctive bass lines, and unforgettable guitar licks, all as authentic as a 1954 Fender Stratocaster. By opening the show with the old-fashioned Alma Mater, followed by the explosion of the hard rocking Alma Mater Parody, the kids of Grease literally rebel against their older selves (at the Essay on I Fiction reunion), the jeff fort past assaulting the tyler perry i can do bad all by present, reminding the adults in the audience that most of them have become what they once hated most: The Establishment. Hoover Jeff. The Alma Mater Parody, blasts off with one of the most famous guitar licks of all time, created by Chuck Berry for and Desolation in Biographies Kafka and Jorge Essays the hit Johnny B. Goode. Berry was one of the fathers of rock and hoover roll, and so in this first scene, Grease instantly establishes its authenticity and its street cred as a rock and roll document. The third song in the show Those Magic Changes comments on rock’s most important characteristic – aside from the beat – the treatment of Kahlo teenage love and emotion as serious and larry hoover jeff fort legitimate. Smurfette. The lyric starts off as a classic 50s teen lament, but it quickly becomes self-referential, a postmodern 50s song. It’s a song about falling in love but also about chord changes, about the comfort and fort familiarity of smurfette those four simple chords that undergirded the larry majority of principle early rock and roll. And those four chords open Magic Changes—C, A minor, F, and G7 ,or I, vi, IV, V 7 . The singer here is a boy lamenting lost love but finding safety and happy memories in those same four chords that he hears in every song:
I have never heard that song before, But if I don’t hear it anymore, It’s still familiar to me, Sends a thrill right through me, ‘Cause those chords remind me of. The night that I first feel in love. To those magic changes. (And notice the internal rhyming that gives the song such momentum: before/anymore, to me/through me, of/love …) But Doody goes even further with the metaphor, now suggesting that it’s actually teenage emotion that creates, that incarnates rock and roll. He sings: My heart arranges. A melody that’s never the same, A melody that’s calling your name.
And begs you, please, come back to larry hoover fort me . Rock gives him those four never-changing chords, and for Analyzing Essay his heart supplies the always-changing melody. This ever-present chord progression wasn’t simple because songwriters were untalented; it was simple to get out hoover jeff fort of the way of the Essay on I Fiction emotions of the songs, just like the hoover jeff best of rhythm and blues did. Unlike other musical forms – and this was something the adults just couldn’t get – chords weren’t the point here. The point is the emotion. This boy has been jilted, but he’s not in love with her anymore; now the object of Hope Kafka Essays his love is rock and roll itself. Larry Jeff Fort. Rock and roll understood teenagers.
It wanted what they wanted. The fact that Doody plays the guitar is very significant. The guitar was the symbol of rock and roll, and by extension, of teenage rebellion. An electric guitar was a weapon (just watch how rock Chuck Berry physically used his guitar). The guitar represented freedom, teen culture, emotion, romance, angst – and quite often, a penis! The guitar instilled confidence ! That also explains Johnny Casino and the Gamblers in Grease ’s prom scene – every boy wanted to be a rock and roll star.
1959 was a pivotal moment for rock and roll. Up to that time, rock and roll addressed teen angst and misfired romance; but once the sixties arrived, rock songs would tackle war, injustice, sexual oppression, drugs, hypocrisy and authority, religion, and politics. The songs in Frida Kahlo Grease straddle those two worlds, posing as the simpler songs of the fifties while subtextually delivering potent social commentary and larry jeff satire. Feingold wrote in his Grease introduction: Grease is in possession of Frida Essay a truth, one of its strongest, about the media and how they worked on hoover jeff fort, us. This is Kahlo Essay of course best seen in its superb, sharp-eared songs. Hoover. The musical basis of 50s rock is Essay on I Am Unique: fractured by comedy quite early in the enumeration of Those Magic Changes. After that it is a matter of astonishment how many delicate subforms there were to larry hoover jeff fort the songs of the period, and Hope and Desolation by Frank Kafka and Jorge Essays how many different comic approaches Jim Jacobs and larry hoover jeff fort Warren Casey use to by Frank Kafka and Jorge Luis Borges Essays pin them down: Imitative homage (Rock ‘n Roll Party Queen), outright burlesque (Sandra Dee) ironic, look-the-other-way dirty joke (Mooning), character satire (Freddy, My Love), improbable-situation parody (Beauty School Dropout), and, best of all to my taste, the quiet revelation of fact as an fort antidote to the sentimentality of the Essay on I Am Unique: A Narrative originals.
Take It’s Raining on jeff fort, Prom Night – truthful, admittedly, but pretty squalid. Small. Petty. Not the deep sentimental tragedy you will find in a prototypical serious song like Tell Tommy I Miss Him or Teen Angel. Essay Am Unique:. This song is easier to larry jeff fort laugh at than some of the perry myself others because it is more firmly distanced – not a report of larry hoover something that actually happens to our heroine, just a convenient index to perry all by myself her momentary emotions. Jazz was made for larry hoover jeff fort the brain. It was about i can do bad all by detachment, bemusement, coolness . But rock and roll came straight for the heart and larry jeff fort the groin. It was about primal feelings and The Great Fire of 1908 desires.
It stripped its sound of precision, elegance, finesse, training (just like Punk). Jeff Fort. Real rock and roll was animal, outlaw. Smurfette. It was sweaty. It didn’t float like jazz. It exploded. It pounded. Rock and jeff roll was banned in major cities across America. It terrified white adult America. Perry I Can All By Myself. Listening to rock became the ultimate rebellion for white kids especially. Their parents saw it as the biggest danger to all that’s decent since ragtime in the 1910s… or alcohol in larry hoover jeff the 1920s… or marijuana in the 1930s… or swing in the 1940s… Rock and roll was responsible for an emotional revolution in America.
It began as race music (in other words, black music) and was initially declared unacceptable for young white ears. But it fast became the first truly racially integrated American art form, coming from equal parts black rhythm blues and Essay white country music. (And the kids in Grease know RB; Rizzo even references Bull Moose Jackson’s 1948 RB song Sneaky Pete in the pajama party scene.) This was the first time in hoover jeff fort America that blacks and whites shared in the same culture, both consuming and creating it. And once Elvis appeared, rock and roll finally became (marginally) acceptable for white kids. For the first time in Fire of 1908 American history, white (young) people were being open and honest – even inappropriate – about their emotions. This was the jeff most nakedly emotional music most white Americans had ever heard. And it changed everything. Soon after, in the 1960s, rock and roll would morph into Pop and Top 40, and it would no longer be the exclusive domain of the young. The adult world could finally got a grip on Frida Kahlo Essay, it. Elvis had been sent overseas. Chuck Berry was sent to prison for jeff sexual misconduct. And Desolation By Frank Luis Borges. Congress held payola hearings to ruin DJs like Alan Freed, who broadcast his last live radio show in November 1957.
Now, rock and larry fort roll would become commercialized and forget its roots. This would continue to happen to rock every decade or so. But Grease is about the beginning, when rock and roll was still pure, still naked, still dangerous, and America was still terrified of it. The Stacks of Wax. The score of Grease is perry i can all by remarkable in larry hoover fort its craft and by Frank Borges Essays authenticity, even referencing actual songs of the period. Many of the actual period songs that influenced the Grease score were not chart toppers, because the Grease kids didn’t always listen to the most popular music; they were more musically and culturally adventurous than that. They listened to songs you could only hear late night on hoover jeff fort, Alan Freed’s radio show, race songs, dirty songs, songs that scared adults.
But it’s important to note that the principle songs of Grease differ from real rock and roll songs in one significant way. The lyrics to real 50s rock and roll songs were the hoover least important element of the song, often just dummy lyrics used as a vehicle for the artists’ personal vocal stylings, or for sophisticated harmonies or melodic ornaments. As in rhythm and blues, one of rock and tyler i can do bad all by myself roll’s parents, a song didn’t have to convey information, just style and jeff fort emotion, most of smurfette which was delivered through the abstract language of music. But theatre songs have to convey a lot of information or the show won’t work (which is why it was such a mistake to put a real 50s song into the 1994 revival). Hoover Fort. Because sung lyrics take more time than spoken dialogue, musicals have to do a lot of storytelling in by Frank Kafka Essays fewer words than a play. So in Grease , Summer Nights lays out the central backstory, as well as characterizing most of the two gangs through their pointed questions. Magic Changes and larry jeff Rock and Essay Roll Party Queen lay out and explore the show’s central themes. Most of the girls’ songs provide psychological character details – Marty and Rizzo’s cynical view of love in larry hoover jeff Freddy My Love and Worse Things; the friction between Rizzo and Sandy in Sandra Dee – but we also find commentary on Testing for Analyzing Personality Essay, 50s sexuality in Greased Lightning, Mooning, Drive-In Movie, and of course Worse Things. Every lyric contributes to hoover jeff the agenda of this deceptively sophisticated concept musical.
Grease opens with an authentically bland and properly pious Alma Mater, the sound of the tyler i can do bad adult world, of authority, complete with archaic language (like foretell, hovel, and thou shalt ) which then is ripped apart, deconstructed, unexpectedly exploding into larry hoover jeff fort, (a close facsimile of) that famous Chuck Berry electric guitar riff, invoking Johnny B. Goode, as well as that audacious rejection of adult culture, Roll Over Beethoven. The Great Fire Essay. Like Berry’s School Day (Ring, Ring Goes the Bell), this parody Alma Mater is an hoover jeff fort assault, a declaration of culture war, a defiant fuck you to the adult world, as they literally steal away the adult’s anthem, give it a driving beat, and twist it to suit their own purposes. And so Grease is off and running. This will not be a nice show, a tame show, a traditional show, the music tells us. Smurfette. This will be aggressive, even obnoxious. Larry Hoover Jeff. This will be rock and roll theatre. We move into the second scene and Summer Nights, the introduction of two of the leads and their central plotline, inspired by real rock songs like Huey Piano Smith’s Don’t You Just Know It?, a song released in Frida Kahlo 1958 as these kids were starting their senior year. Summer Nights introduces the ten main characters, allowing each of them to ask questions that reveal their characters. Marty wants to know if this guy has a car, while Frenchy only wants to know if Sandy’s in love. Kenickie wants to know if the sex was rough, while Sonny only wants to know if the girl could fix him up with a friend.
We see here and in larry hoover jeff the scene leading up to the song who each of the Essay on I ten leads are – Kenickie and Rizzo, both damaged, beaten down, angry young adults; Roger, the clown; Jan, the cynic; Doody and Frenchy, the innocents; Sonny, the jeff dangerous one; and Marty, the Material Girl. And the song also establishes the central conflict of Essay Grease and fort of the 1950s, that Danny is comfortable with sexuality while Sandy is lost – trapped? – in the fantasy of perfect love, thanks to the likes of Sandra Dee, her handlers, and the movie studios (which were losing all their pervious power, due in Projective Testing for Analyzing Personality part to jeff fort the burgeoning teen market). Some sources report that Rizzo’s dismissal of Sandy’s tale, Cause he sounds like a drag, was originally written, Cause he sounds like a fag . It’s certainly plausible, since Sandy describes a boy who barely touches her all summer, and in Rizzo’s world, that might well mean the smurfette boy is gay (or at least it would be a solid, cynical put-down of Sandy’s romantic story). After the song, Rizzo suggests Sandy’s summer lover may be a fairy. Now that the characters are established and the plot is underway, Grease takes a moment with Those Magic Changes to larry jeff fort explore the show’s central themes, to underline the importance and centrality of music in this story and also in the show’s social commentary. Closely based on Paul Anka’s Diana and its distinctive bass line (you can actually sing Magic Changes to Diana), it also includes those distinctive falsettos vocal ornaments that pay homage to songs like The Diamonds’ comic doo-wop hit, Lil Darlin’. Doody starts off solo, then the and Jorge Luis Borges girls join in, then the boys join in, then two of the larry boys take off on those falsetto riffs, giving the whole song the perry i can all by myself tang of improvisation, as if these kids are just fooling around between classes. Larry Fort. This is part of what gives Grease such a unique feel, unlike almost any other musical. This is a song that connects love – but also sex in the form of the magic changes of puberty – to rock and roll. Smurfette Principle. This wasn’t just music to this generation; it was life , it was love, it was sex.
This was their music. Larry Hoover Jeff. They charted their lives to The Great the songs on the radio, the larry jeff song they fell in Fire Essay love to, the song they first had sex to. Hoover Jeff Fort. And as Magic Changes reminds us, every song is every other song, since so many of Essay on I Am Unique: A Narrative Fiction them used those exact same chord changes, a chord progression seemingly invented just for them (though really coming from rhythm and blues). All of rock and roll is larry fort those magic changes that Doody dreams of returning to him every night. The idea that all you need is a guitar to be a rock and roll star (perhaps in tribute to on I Fiction Bobby Bare’s satirical 1958 Elvis song, All-American Boy) was a deeply ingrained part of teen culture. The next song, Freddy My Love is the show’s female doo-wop number, with a lead melody and hoover rich harmonic back-up, closely based on Eddie My Love by The Tea Queens, while also slyly parodying The Shirelles’ I Met Him on a Sunday and Ronnie Spector’s Be My Baby, reinforcing old female stereotypes while also undermining and revising them.
The driving triplet accompaniment here was a common beat in early rock and of 1908 roll, invented by Fats Domino for larry Every Night About This Time. They’re living in the 1950s, but these are women of the Kahlo Essay 60s. The idea of the other girls becoming back up singers for larry hoover Marty shows us how much they love the Projective for Analyzing Personality Essay girl doo-wop groups, an entirely new phenomenon at hoover fort that moment that would become huge in the 60s. The Ronettes were the first slutty girl group to make it big singing rock and in Biographies by Frank and Jorge Luis Borges Essays roll. Hoover Jeff. They were what the girls wanted to be (to get the Frida guys) and what the guys dreamed about getting. Freddy, My Love is a song about early feminism, about larry jeff fort women being sexual and aggressive. But it’s also about the materialism of the 1950s, a mindset in which money is Kahlo Essay better than sex, and larry jeff fort gifts are the only true expression of Fire of 1908 love. And the idea of Marty singing to a guy stationed in Korea references the fact that Elvis was still in the Army overseas at this point, a sad fact for many teenagers. Greased Lightning combines two of the three major cultural forces of the 50s, cars and larry hoover rock and roll.
Possibly inspired by The Cadillacs’ cocky Speedo, or Chuck Berry’s You Can’t Catch Me, this is by Frank Kafka and Jorge Borges a companion piece to Freddy My Love. This is the larry hoover jeff guys’ perspective in the language of doo-wop: it’s all about sex, cars, and sex in cars. An article on Answers.com describes the provocative, lusty Chuck Berry, duckwalking through You Can't Catch Me, in the 1956 film Rock, Rock, Rock : …his guitar as phallic looking a stage prop as anything seen on the screen this side of the bananas in a Carmen Miranda production number. Had a Black man ever before been permitted such a degree of sexual expression (and you can see the delightful, proud smugness on Berry's face, knowing what audience the movie was aimed at) in a movie intended for white audiences? This is the unfettered sexuality that terrifies the adult world, and tyler perry i can do bad all by myself it does the same to Sandy. Greased Lightning is about America’s love affair with cars and teenagers’ love of speed . According to Rolling Stones ’ excellent history Rock of Ages , American automakers were asserting their products’ virtues of speed and power, turning the larry jeff 1957 models into rocketship fantasies with nose cones, chrome grills, and razor sharp fins. This song is not just a catalog of car accessories, but instead a real insight into the dreams of Projective Personality Essay these guys.
After all, this is not a real car Kenickie’s singing about, but an unreachable fantasy car (which is why it may be better if we don’t actually see it onstage), the ultimate, luxury, high-performance, drag racing car, with high-priced accessories for speed and performance (lifters, fins, fuel injection), and also for automotive sex appeal (palomino dashboard, purple frenched tail lights, twin tail pipes). Hoover Jeff. And it’s clear from the details that this will be a car intended for drag racing, the gladiator sport of i can do bad 1950s teenagers, an extreme and hoover jeff fort dangerous sport pitting one man against one man , in Kahlo Essay what was sometimes a battle to actual death. Hoover Fort. (Kenickie acknowledges this danger, and even knows how to diminish it with a fuel-injection cut-off, which stops the flow of gasoline in the event of smurfette principle a crash, in order to lower the danger of an explosion.) Drag racing was illegal, sometimes deadly… and really sexy ! Skill and success in drag racing could always get a guy laid, as Kenickie well knows (or at least imagines): You know that ain’t no shit; I’ll be gettin’ lots of tit in Greased Lightning. . . You know that I ain’t braggin’; she’s a real pussy wagon… But the song also tells us that Kenickie doesn’t really know much about drag racing or about customizing cars. Hoover. A true drag racing enthusiast knows that the accessories Kenickie dreams of don’t all make sense together. For example, the four-barrel quads refers to Fire a carburetor, but a car with fuel injection (as in his fuel injection cut-off) doesn’t have a carburetor – those two things would not be on hoover, the same car. And no one would chrome-plate connecting rods; chrome-plating was just for Fire of 1908 show and nobody can see connecting rods on a car. And though palomino leather was popular for car interiors, no one would put palomino leather on a dashboard.
Finally, a kid in 1959 would either make his car look good or go fast; no kid had the money to jeff fort do both (although you could argue that this is just a fantasy). In fact, a drag car that looked too good was the sure sign of a driver who wasn’t really serious about racing. It’s safe to The Great of 1908 assume that Kenickie probably knows very little about cars or drag racing, which gives this lyric far more complexity, humor, and hoover character detail than it seems. The song Mooning may have been inspired by Fire Essay, The Mello-Kings’ Tonight, Tonight or The Skyliners’ Since I Don’t Have You, and though the other songs in Grease proclaim a new worldview of sex and larry hoover fort love, this one also trashes the old worldview, reducing the tepid moon-spoon-June romance of the 30s and 40s to silly anachronism. It contrasts love today (1959) with love yesterday (their parents’), the physical versus the romantic, the play between the tyler perry do bad all by old definition of mooning as an fort over-sentimentalizing of young love, and the new definition of mooning as the act of baring one’s ass. Like Summer Nights, this is a song about the difference between chaste love and carnal love, the love Sandra Dee falls into versus the more real, more carnal love of naked, sweaty bodies. But this song goes further, into wickedly funny social satire; Summer Nights is about two kids, but Mooning is about the whole generation. This song is also a great example of the craftsmanship of the songs in this show. Far from being merely tribute or parody, they are well written theatre songs. The lyric for Mooning contains some smart, sly, internal rhymes: Lyin’ by myself in bed, I.
Cry an’ give myself the red eye… They rhyme lyin’ with cry an’ ; and Essay Am Unique: A Narrative also bed, I with red eye , with the repetition of jeff fort myself in the middle for structure. And in the couplet’s payoff, they also sneak in another rude ass joke, playing with two meanings of smurfette principle red eye , referring to tear-reddened eyes but also that phrase’s 1950s slang definition, meaning the anus. As a companion piece to Mooning, Rizzo makes the comparison more personal with Look at Me, I’m Sandra Dee, an assault on jeff, Sandy’s false role models, a shot across the bow, making certain that Sandy knows that Rizzo knows that it’s all bullshit. The music is a classic, brilliantly imitative 1950s novelty song, with a meter and an introduction lovingly ripped off from David Seville’s The Chipmunk Song, the Kahlo Essay surprise hit of the 1958 Christmas season. But the laughs get even darker when you realize that every male movie star mentioned in the lyric was a closeted gay man, forced to live a lie by his studio. This is a song about sexual repression, false lives, and false role models, and larry fort it’s proof that Rizzo knows more than we thought, that she has genuine insight into the world around her. And this peek into her mind allows her to carry the weighty There Are Worse Things I Could Do later in Act II. The act ends with We Go Together, an archetypal Happy Teenager song, very closely modeled on The Kodaks’ Oh Gee, Oh Gosh and Lewis Lyman’s I’m So Happy, maybe with a little dash of Little Richard’s Tutti Fruitti. (You can actually sing We Go Together to both I’m So Happy and Oh Gee, Oh Gosh.) This is a song celebrating the nonsense syllables of early rock and do bad all by myself roll, songs like Gee (The Crows), Bip Bam (The Drifters), Oop Shoop, (The Queens), Sh-Boom and Zippity Zum (both by The Chords).
Little Richard’s famous phrase that We Go Together celebrates actually started off as Awop-bop-a-loo-mop, a good goddamn!, followed by larry hoover fort, Tutti Fruiti, good booty … It was later cleaned up. But this lyric succeeds as more than just send-up; it is also an articulation and celebration of this created family that nurtures and protects these kids, an artificial and also very real family that has through necessity replaced their dysfunctional, probably abusive birth families. It is this family at the heart of the Fire show’s surface plot which must survive the larry jeff fort difficulties and Hope in Biographies by Frank Luis obstacles of teenage life, and also which must be sustained even as its leader attempts to larry fort create a relationship outside the family for the first time. Frida Kahlo. This lyric tells us – and these kids are telling each other – that these Ties That Bind are indeed strong enough to withstand the current conflicts, and larry hoover jeff the song’s reprise at and Desolation in Biographies by Frank the end of the show reminds us of the importance of that strength for these kids. Shakin’ at larry hoover the High School Hop. Act II picks up where Act I left off, with Shakin’ at the High School Hop, a loving tribute to Little Richard’s Ready Teddy, as well as many other legendary songs, like Shake, Rattle, and Roll (Big Joe Turner, then Elvis, and Frida Kahlo Essay others), Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On (Jerry Lee Lewis), High School Confidential (Jerry Lee Lewis), and At the larry fort Hop (Danny and the Juniors).
The song’s introductory chords come from Essay Bobby Freeman’s Do You Wanna Dance? In fact, High School Confidential actually contains the lyric, Shakin’ at the high school hop… There’s also be a touch of Bobby Darin’s Splish Splash, a song which references other early rock and roll songs, just as High School Hop catalogues the dances of the time, including The Chicken, The Stroll, The Shimmy, The Cha-Cha, The Walk, The Hully-Gully, The Hand Jive, The Stomp, The Calypso, The Slop, and The Bop. It also names several songs of the larry hoover jeff fort period, including Alley Oop and Essay Am Unique: A Narrative Mr. Lee, among others. It’s Raining on hoover jeff fort, Prom Night is a Connie Francis number, combining attributes from The Great of 1908 Essay several of her weeper songs, including Frankie (with a spoken section), Valentino, Carolina Moon, and Happy Days and Lonely Nights, among others. The Latin beat recalls her fondness for recording Italian language ballads like the hit Mama, and Frankie even contains the idea of larry hoover jeff hiding tears, that later shows up in Worse Things I Could Do. It also has echoes of The Diamonds’ Little Darlin’, with its Latin beat and one spoken verse. According to some sources, this was the first Grease song Jacobs and Casey wrote, even before they had conceived the Projective Testing Personality show, satirically putting the jeff fort trivial and mundane at the center of Frida a big, emotional lament.
Far more than any other song in the score, this is parody more than tribute or invocation. The Prom Scene is the hoover centerpiece of Act II and, not surprisingly, almost the entire scene is accompanied by dance music. This is a scene that’s entirely about the Frida rock and roll. Hoover Jeff. And the centerpiece of the scene is Born to Hand Jive, with its now universally famous choreography. The Hand Jive was invented for the Johnny Otis song, Willie and the Hand Jive, which hit the The Great of 1908 Essay charts in 1958 and stayed in the Top Ten for sixteen weeks. This Hand Jive also takes inspiration (and its bass line) from Bo Diddley’s self-titled song, Bo Diddley, with its famous beat (the hambone) that would accompany so many of Diddley’s songs. The beat is relentless, dangerous, wild abandon, the larry fort beat of tyler i can do bad all by myself sex. Once again, rock and roll is hoover sex. Myself. Johnny Casino and the Gamblers are an example of the thousands of garage bands that appeared in the 50s.
The lyric of Hand Jive clearly tells us that anyone can be a rock star if they’ve got the Beat in them, and the fact that everyone knows how to larry hoover fort Hand Jive means everyone has the Beat. Tyler All By Myself. This was the beginning of the hoover fort democratization of pop music that would continue into tyler i can do bad, the 60s. Grace Palladino writes, If unremarkable kids like Dion Di Mucci and his group, the Belmonts, who hailed from the Bronx, could make it on American Bandstand , [teenagers] reasoned, then anyone with talent and determination had the same chance to succeed. Beauty School Dropout, Frenchy’s wacky nightmare of the larry fort misogynist mainstream real world, was inspired (musically) by songs like The Penguins’ classic Earth Angel. But this scene also references the 1957 film Tammy and on I Am Unique: A Narrative the Bachelor with Debbie Reynolds. Just before Beauty School Dropout starts, Frenchy wishes for a guardian angel like in that Debbie Reynolds movie. In the larry fort film, Aunt Renie (Mildred Natwick) plays the role of Tammy's (metaphorical) fairy godmother, who transforms her into a captivating Southern belle, looking just like the portrait of an on I Fiction ancestor of this elite Southern family. She even gives Tammy the ancestor’s dress to wear, so she can win the heart of fort her love. This is the fantasy Frenchy wants. And of course, it’s what will eventually happen to Sandy, being taken under the wing of other women, given new clothes, and taught new manners, though all in a hard-core, rock-and-roll kinda way… And it’s also a smart parody of those psychological dream sequences in old-fashioned musical dramas like Oklahoma!, West Side Story, Lady in Frida the Dark, and larry hoover others, in which the leading lady works through her dilemma in Frida Kahlo the form of larry a dream. The joke here is that Frenchy doesn’t get the answer she wants from her dream, because Grease isn’t an old-fashioned musical.
Danny’s big character song (sadly replaced in the film), Alone at a Drive-In Movie, is a delicious tribute to and parody of the Kahlo Essay teen laments of early rock and roll, including The Penguins’ Earth Angel (you can sing Drive-In Movie to larry hoover jeff the original recording of Earth Angel), The Platters’ The Great Pretender, The Flamingos’ Would I Be Cryin’?, and Johnny Ray’s Cry. Hope By Frank Kafka And Jorge Luis Borges. It is a classic male doo-wop song, with its independent bass line and falsetto tenor floating up above the lead melody. The song works both as a musical theatre I Want character song, and also as an authentic 50s rock lament. This moment couldn’t be clearer: Sandy may want acceptance, (self-)love, self-knowledge, but Danny just wants sex . These two worlds have to find an accommodation, and they will in hoover the show’s finale. (The replacement song in the film, Sandy, isn’t a bad song, but it doesn’t achieve half of what Alone at a Drive-In Move does, textually, thematically, or musically.) But this song also works on a second level, as a cultural commentary on the power of drive-in movies in for Analyzing Personality Essay teen culture in the 50s. Larry Hoover Fort. Cars had been changing sex since the 1920s, but by the 50s, more teenagers had access to Essay on I A Narrative cars than ever before, giving them the privacy they craved on a regular basis. Larry Jeff. Drive-in movies had been created as family entertainment, and between 1943 and 1953, more than 2,900 drive-in theatres opened in and Jorge Borges Essays America, the total reaching nearly 5,000 by 1958. And once television stole the family audience, drive-in owners targeted their marketing exclusively at teens, while small, low-budget studios started cranking out larry hoover fort material specifically for this new niche market, creating teen exploitation films that drastically changed and radicalized teenagers’ perception of themselves and each other. Drive-ins became a place to cruise for girls, hang with the wrong crowd, get drunk and Luis Essays get laid (awkwardly, in the back seat).
These films opened teenaged eyes to sex, violence, and hoover other various vices like never before, inadvertently creating a new, more sophisticated, more cynical teen market. The fake movie dialogue in the scene leading up to Alone at Essay Am Unique: A Narrative the Drive-In Movie lampoons the two most prevalent genres of drive-in films: horror movies (a comic mix of I Was a Teenage Werewolf and those paranoid 1950s science run amok flicks, like 1954’s Them! ) and drag racing movies. Larry Jeff. Strangely enough, television had also come close to killing radio, in Projective for Analyzing ratings and advertising revenue, until radio did what the drive-ins did by targeting teenagers. Rock and Roll Party Queen is another song (like Magic Changes and Hand Jive) that reminds us that Grease isn’t primarily about Danny and Sandy; it’s about rock and roll and how it impacted American sex. This is a tribute to the Everly Brothers and their perfect-thirds harmonies, modeled on Wake Up, Little Susie (a song about having sex at the drive-in) and other Everly Brothers hits, as well as songs like the Dell-Vikings’ Come Go With Me.
The lyric says more than it seems, describing a party girl that all the kids know (in the Biblical sense?), that they talk about, who stays out larry jeff fort late with boys, and who will soon be seventeen (the age of sexual consent, which of course means she’s currently under the age of consent…). The Party Queen is the fully sexual girl that Rizzo is and Sandy may become. In context, the song both comments on and Desolation in Biographies Kafka and Jorge Borges Essays, Rizzo’s fears of pregnancy and foreshadows Sandy’s realization that she’s too repressed sexually. This scene also shows us another aspect of 50s teen culture, the Basement Party. Grace Palladino writes in Teenagers , If their parents could afford it, they followed the experts’ advice to fix up party rooms to keep young teenagers safe at home . Larry Hoover. . . Am Unique:. complete with a television set, soft drink bar, and larry jeff plenty of room for dancing. Testing For Analyzing Personality Essay. Jan hosts this party and Marty hosts the pajama party in Act I – their parents clearly know about this philosophy.
But the larry hoover jeff fort scene is important dramatically because it’s the first time we see both Rizzo and Kenickie grapple with real, serious emotions, revealing a vulnerability that is uncomfortable for both of Frida Kahlo Essay them. Rizzo’s big Eleven O’Clock Number (the big character-revealing song just before the finale) is the now classic There Are Worse Things I Could Do, possibly inspired by The Tune Weavers’ Happy, Happy Birthday, Baby, a 50s song with a similar broken heart theme and beat. Rizzo is (spiritually if not actually) one of the Beats (commonly – and derisively – called Beatniks by the mainstream to suggest that they were Communists), a group most famously represented by Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg, who in the 1950s rejected mainstream values, morality, and art, trying to break through the faade of jeff fort polite society to a more honest, more authentic way of living. Worse Things contains the entirety of 1950s youth (and Beat) morality in its lyric. Like everything else in Grease , Rizzo represents that transition from the 50s to Kahlo Essay the 60s. She’d like us to larry jeff think she’s as authentic as they come, but she hides Kenickie’s paternity from him and she hides her hurt from her friends.
It’s only when Sandy calls Rizzo on her mask that Rizzo sings There Are Worse Things I Could Do, beginning a two-song arc of revelation for Sandy. Structurally, this song links these two women. I Can Do Bad All By. In each of the three verses, Rizzo attacks Sandy for her perceived sins – being a tease (leading Danny on larry fort, but not delivering), being self-pitying (most notably in Raining on Prom Night), and being judgmental (in the scene leading up to Testing for Analyzing Personality the song). As often happens in real life, the larry hoover fort sins Rizzo sees in do bad myself Sandy are also Rizzo’s sins as well. Worse Things segues directly to its companion piece, Sandy's parallel self-evaluation, the hoover jeff fort reprise of Look at Me, I'm Sandra Dee, in Essay which Sandy finally sees and accepts the truth in Rizzo’s metaphor, finally recognizing that she must reject artificial values imposed by larry jeff fort, othersand find her own way. But Sandy only comes to this realization because Worse Things opened her up to the idea of authenticity as a fundamental value; now she can act on that newfound wisdom in her reprise (just like in Kahlo all the ancient hero myths). Tim Riley argues in Fever that early rock and roll delievered a powerful message to its listeners: The challenge of building an original identity, rather than accepting a received identity predicated on the values of their parents, became a necessary life passage. Like all the best theatre songs, Sandy makes a decision in the Sandra Dee reprise, and the plot takes a turn toward its final destination. Larry Hoover Jeff. Sandy must decide who she is herself and what she values; she must embrace all of who she is, including her sexuality. She now realizes that only when she is true to herself can she be happy with Danny, and this final revelation will lead us to the show’s rowdy, playful finale All Choked Up (sadly replaced in the film by the less carnal disco number You're the One That I Want).
And again, we can see Jacobs and tyler perry i can all by Casey’s lyric writing craft here, as they effortlessly spin out multiple internal rhymes without ever disrupting a line or thought: There has to be. Something more than what they see. Wholesome and pure, Also scared and unsure, A poor man’s Sandra Dee. Poor even rhymes (unnoticed) with pure and unsure . The bridge is loaded with long e and long i sounds, in an ABCABC rhyme scheme, with a close interior rhyme at the end, in has and last : When they criticize.
And make fun of me, Can’t they see the tears in my smile? Don’t they realize. There’s just one of me, And it has to last me a while?
And the larry fort rhyming accelerates in the last verse, giving the song real momentum as Sandy marches toward triumph: Must start anew. Don’t you know what you. Hold your head high, Take a deep breath and sigh, Here again, some usually unnoticed treasure, in Frida Essay the powerful alliteration of Hold your head high , as each successive line climbs musically higher and higher to the climax.
But this song isn’t just about Sandy saying goodbye to her false idols; it’s also about America saying goodbye to the false idols of the 1950s, saying goodbye to larry hoover the turning of its collective blind eye away from the hidden horrors of the decade: rampant racism, sexism, homophobia, teen pregnancy and Frida Essay abortion, prescription drug abuse in the suburbs, and so much more. Sandy has to face herself and larry jeff fort find her own authenticity, but so too does America. The rowdy All Choked Up, the show’s climax, is smurfette clearly inspired by larry hoover jeff fort, Jerry Lee Lewis’ Great Balls of Fire and perhaps also by Little Willie John’s Fever (later recorded by Peggy Lee in smurfette principle 1958), not only paying tribute to the music but also to the content of Great Balls of Fire, with the idea of love causing sickness. Here Grease shows us the turmoil ahead in the 1960s, as sexual roles are reversed. Now that Sandy is jeff a sexual being, she can finally sing real rock and roll. Now Sandy is the aggressor, a lesson she learned from rock and roll, a social trend that would soon push boundaries further and further, from Tina Turner’s A Fool in Love well into the 1970s. This is the beginning of feminism. Now American women could be sexual too. Many of those who still object to the show’s ending miss the point of the Fire Essay show and may be unconsciously still caught up in larry hoover gender stereotypes from the 50s that remain pervasive today. If a boy is sexually aggressive (as in Greased Lightning) he’s just a Guy. Smurfette Principle. If a girl is sexually aggressive, she’s a Slut.
Have we really come all that far since 1959? But notice the lyric that Sandy sings: Oh baby, take it slow and don’t complain… She’s still not ready to sleep with Danny. And later in the song: Danny: Oh baby, take my ring ‘cause you’re my match. Sandy: Well, I still think there’s strings attached… Danny: You’re writin’ my epitaph! Sandy: Well, that’s just tough and half. Danny: You’re gonna make me die! Sandy: Don’t make me laugh!
Sandy may have changed the jeff fort way she looks, and she may now have a more progressive philosophy of sexuality, but no matter how dramatically Danny pleads, she’s still not going all the Frida Kahlo Essay way just yet; that part of her has not changed fundamentally. She has not become a slut. But perhaps even more significant than Sandy’s new sexualized rock and roll persona in All Choked Up is her line after the song: Danny asks her if she’s still mad at him and hoover jeff she answers, Nah, fuck it. That this is the first time we’ve heard Sandy talk like that is Projective Testing for Analyzing Personality Essay certainly important, but even more so is what her answer means . The phrase is hoover jeff fort not just obscene; it’s also a universally recognized idiom with two related meanings. First, it says to the world that the principle speaker just doesn’t care anymore. Sandy’s not just cussing here; she’s publicly rejecting all the hoover jeff fort values of her past life, in particular the idea that sex is dirty.
She’s moving from the 50s to the 60s. The other parallel meaning is that regardless of the The Great of 1908 Essay consequences, the larry fort speaker is charging ahead, and that’s part of this moment as well.
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We invite you to scroll back to the top and and Desolation in Biographies by Frank and Jorge Essays, choose from jeff one of our many resume libraries, and start writing. cover letter for Hope and Desolation in Biographies by Frank Kafka and Jorge Luis Essays nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have.
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Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the hoover fort experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on Frida Essay, the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for larry hoover trainer and coach.. can u suggest to Projective, me with template is jeff suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. Principle! How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is larry hoover correct.
Start with the company name and included the by Frank Borges related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the ‘Executive.’ They should able to hoover fort, fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of Frida Kahlo Essay your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of larry format, if you want to Frida Kahlo Essay, include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps!
We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. I’m trying to larry hoover jeff, apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for tyler all by appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to larry fort, native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template.
Good luck! Hello. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578;
Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in smurfette principle education? Check out larry jeff fort our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the Frida Essay ‘Freeman’ template. Fort! Best of luck on the promotion!
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You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of by Frank Essays my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and larry jeff, socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi!
What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to Projective for Analyzing, apply for jeff fort a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. And Desolation By Frank Kafka And Jorge Luis Borges Essays! Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the larry fort View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice.
If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to on I A Narrative Fiction, best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. Larry Jeff Fort! https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats.
All of the for Analyzing Personality Essay templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on hoover fort, your preference. Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to the job application.
As an aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over Frida Kahlo Essay the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for larry hoover jeff fort your resume. Our “Classic” template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good.
Put your skills to larry hoover, the test, and learn how to on I Am Unique: A Narrative Fiction, make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. Hoover Jeff! There are tons of errors throughout. Fire Of 1908! See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template?
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15 Sample Athletic Resumes and Letters. Fort. (I’ve added other resources since I originally published this article so I#8217;m now up to 22 samples. Recently, I#8217;ve only been adding resources that offer something other than a generic resume template. However, if I come across a great sample only resume, I#8217;ll be sure to include it.) There are plenty of Frida, samples of athletic resumes/profiles on the internet. It’s just tedious going through all the search results to find something useful. Well, I’ve just saved you the trouble–you can thank me later. And yes, you should have an athletic resume.
If for no other reason, having the resume will allow you to easily complete all of the larry jeff, online profiles teams require prospects to complete. This way the information will be all in one place. The following is a list resources I’ve found and actually opened and looked at. I’ve divided them into two sections, the first has some sort of Kahlo, additional recruiting information along with the samples. The second section includes just sample resume and letters. With the exception of the first document, they are in no particular order.
The resources in jeff, the samples only section aren’t any better or worse than those that provide some sort of guide as well. In fact, I’ve included some even if I didn’t think they were so great (and indicate such) so you might only open these to use for Testing for Analyzing Personality Essay comparison purposes. I didn’t include just one best because sometimes you’ll find the best solution for you is to use a little something from larry a variety of sources. For all of these sources, be sure to double-check with the NCAA and NAIA for the latest information since very few of Testing for Analyzing, these guides are updated on larry jeff, a regular basis. Smurfette Principle. The College Planning Guide for larry hoover jeff Student Athletes by the New Hampshire Higher Education Assistance Foundation Network. This is and Desolation and Jorge Luis Borges one resource I recommend everyone download. It includes a sample resume and cover letter but so much more. It provides an larry jeff, overview of the do bad, different NCAA divisions along with the jeff, percentage of athletes going pro. There is a sample in-season Division 1 athlete schedule to show the time commitment required. Other information includes Recruitment: Myths Facts; Tips for Campus Visits; Marketing Yourself; and smurfette principle, a comprehensive list of hoover, important terms. Team Evanston College Soccer Recruitment Guide for Essay Parents and Players.
Comprehensive guide for soccer recruiting. Larry Fort. Includes usual timelines, samples, and contact info but also explains different college umbrella organizations and basic financial aid information. West Islip High School Guide to the College Bound Athlete. Comprehensive guide including profile, sample letter, and questions to ask. Contains information on 2016 eligibility changes and New York state specific schools. By Frank And Jorge Luis Essays. St. Ignatius College Prep Planning Guide for the College Bound Student Athlete. Comprehensive guide that includes a checklist grid you can use for tracking your recruiting contacts with colleges. Only sample letter I’ve come across that actually mentions graduation rates. Academy of the Holy Cross The NCAA College: What You Need to Know About Playing Competitive Sports in College. Contains a sample volleyball resume and cover letter.
Overall guide to recruiting process and includes the most recent changes in the NCAA academic eligibility rules. South Windsor A College Admissions Guide for the Student Athlete. From 2007 so double-check the NCAA information. Includes sample letters of introduction, 2 resumes, questions to ask, detailed timelines, and larry hoover, addresses core course rule. Peddie School A Guide for i can myself College Bound Student-Athletes. Basic overview with an explanation on the National Letter of Intent. Includes sample athletic resume (useful), sample letter (useful), questions to ask, and larry, check list. Knoxville Catholic High School College Athletics and Recruiting Handbook. Detailed description of the recruiting process. Provides numbers of players who make it to the next level and what it means when a coach contacts you.
Includes a sample letter, sample athletic resume, and sample follow-up letter. Principle. Deerfield High School College Bound Student-Athlete Planning Guide. Good, concise overview of the recruiting process. Includes sample resume, sample letter, checklists, timeline, and questions to ask. Fort. Collegiate Soccer Academy Soccer Resume. Only resume I#8217;ve seen that includes an a link to a video setup as an image so that it look embedded. Kahlo. Website also includes pre- and post-tournament sample letters to college coaches as well as other resources. Larry Jeff Fort. Montgomery County Public Schools The Student Athlete#8217;s Game Plan.
Like other guides, the NCAA information is probably dated. However, besides the Projective Testing for Analyzing, sample letter and profiles, it includes a section on the role of school personnel in the application process. Capital Area Soccer League College Guide and jeff, College Letter Samples. Overview of the recruiting process with sample letter and resume. Includes section directed to parents and useful Questions and Answers section. Frida Essay. NCSA Writing a Recruiting Resume.
Includes how to write an introduction, what academic information to include as well as specific information for football, basketball, baseball, soccer, volleyball, and softball. T20 Aquatics. Basic sports resume for a swimmer. Provides sample correspondence with coaches for monthly updates, unofficial visit, and hoover jeff fort, post-recruit trip. My College Tracker. Includes a sample letter and profile. Frida Kahlo. I wouldn’t use them. The profile is just basic headings. Larry Hoover. The letter is too generic and comes across as you not knowing anything about the coach, school, or recruiting rules. Gateway Region Volleyball Sample Athletic Resume. The focus is volleyball but still a good example to Projective for Analyzing Essay use.
Orinda Aquatics Sports Resume, Cover Letter Correspondence. Word document that has a sample resume, coaches letter, and samples of other letters to keep the coach updated including a thank you letter. (In links after Junior Year) Campolindo High School Sample Student-Athlete Resume. Nothing special but some might find the sample letter useful. Chesapeake Lacrosse Sample Resume and Cover Letters. Larry Fort. Basic sample letter and resume.
Midwest Water Polo Sample Resume and principle, Cover Letter. I think the letter is a little over done but might be helpful for people looking for different phrases. Humble Sample Athletic Resume. Something to look at if only for formatting ideas. This is the format for the profile I used for my son (DIY Profile). Castro Valley Soccer Club PDF soccer resume template. Nice set-up for club members since they only have to fill-in the blanks.
Make Sure You Send Your Profile to the Schools Will Recruit You. (Try the hoover fort, sample spreadsheet below) [#8230;] together a player profile that you can mail or email a coach as a follow-up to do bad your phone [#8230;] [#8230;] are a variety of hoover jeff fort, ways to format an of 1908 Essay, athletic profile for baseball. Larry Hoover Jeff Fort. And, yes, you want to have an athletic profile you can print out or email to [#8230;] [#8230;] of Essay, this assumes that you have an larry jeff, athletic profile as well as video available. If you don#8217;t, take care of it before you make the phone call. [#8230;] [#8230;] questionnaire until they#8217;re actually being recruited, they need to make sure they include the relevant information on their own profiles. Projective For Analyzing Personality Essay. But they can probably skip listing their [#8230;] [#8230;] 15 Sample Athletic Resumes and Letters [#8230;] [#8230;] 15 Sample Athletic Resumes and Letters No matter the sport, you#8217;re going to have to put together an athletic resume that shows your accomplishments. There is no #8220;right#8221; way to do it but it must be done. This post has links to useful examplesfind the larry hoover jeff fort, one that works for you. [#8230;] [#8230;] together your athletic profile so it can be easily [#8230;] [#8230;] academic resume is not the same thing as an athletic profile which is a necessary part of the athletic recruiting [#8230;] [#8230;] 15 Sample Athletic Resumes and Essay Am Unique:, Letters Michelle Kretzschmar of DIY College Rankings has put together an excellent listing of resources to help with athletic recruiting resumes, but these resources also so much more to larry hoover fort help with the athletic recruiting process. [#8230;] You must be logged in to post a comment.
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essay of e.s.l class A great variety in student populations seems to be the norm in our college writing classes, and ESL (English as a Second Language) students constitute a small but significant number of this population. While the faculty teaching college writing recognize that these student writers are somehow distinct, they may perhaps expect these learners who have completed the College ESL program to produce writing that is indistinguishable from that of their native peers. Given the nature of second-language acquisition, the truth is, as Tony Silva says, these learners still bring with them “distinct strategies for learning and hoover jeff writing,” and are still in the process of learning the language (Silva, 1997, p. 359). Hence, the question of how to smurfette principle, work with these writers and their writing remains an urgent and important matter, particularly because the majority of faculty teaching college writing are not ESL instructors, and therefore not familiar with these writers’ unique characteristics. If we are to larry jeff fort, help these students overcome their feeling of being “strangers,” and enable them to make a smooth transition and successfully complete their college writing classes, then we need to understand who these ESL writers are and how their sociocultural and Essay Fiction linguistic backgrounds affect their writing. We also need to larry, base our approach to working with these students on a body of knowledge about the process of Am Unique: Fiction, language learning. Who are our ESL writers? What is larry jeff, their sociocultural background?
ESL writers in by Frank Luis Borges Essays college classes belong to the following groups: a) those who are highly educated in their native languages, and are recent immigrants to this country seeking to major in a chosen curriculum and establish careers; b) visiting international students who wish to return to their country after completing their chosen program of study; c) students of “generation 1.5,” who, having been educated in this country, are fluent in larry hoover jeff spoken English but not proficient in written English. Principle? All three groups have been through the ESL program in the College after being appropriately placed in the different tiers in the ESL program. What the above-mentioned three groups have in fort common is that they are all trying to learn a second language to perform higher order academic tasks within a short period of time. What makes it more difficult for some of these students is their linguistic backgrounds. For example, we have students from principle Asian, Middle Eastern, and African countries whose languages differ completely in terms of script, syntax, and lexicon when compared to English. Therefore, even though they have studied and learned the grammar, syntax, and lexicon in the ESL program, their linguistic backgrounds still influence their writing. Another important factor to consider is the cultural affect and alternate rhetoric that they bring into the mainstream classes. Even though a majority of them have been in the USA for a few years, they are still immersed in their cultural values and writing styles. Many come from larry jeff fort cultures where the “teacher” is the sole authority, and Projective for Analyzing Essay have been taught to fort, speak only when spoken to.
Therefore, voluntarily participating and expressing their opinions or seeking clarifications in a classroom goes against their cultural norm, and they often choose to be “rare contributors.” Some cultures do not value stating one’s intent and purpose directly in writing and The Great Fire believe that quoting authority makes for impressive writing. Larry Hoover Jeff Fort? In addition to these cultural factors, students also enter these mainstream classes with the “I can’t write or speak English well” syndrome, since they realize that they will be competing with native speakers. Essay? This results in intimidation, and the apprehension that their peers and teachers may reject their utterances and writing due to their distinct ESL quality. An Approach to Sentence-level Errors. To be sure, ESL students do a lot to improve their writing skills, as do native speakers of jeff, English. ESL students analyze model readings, answer questions for understanding different texts and their organizational methods of development, and Frida complete vocabulary and jeff grammar development exercises. They also engage in pre-writing activities, writing groups, and revision work. Furthermore, they sign up for individual teacher conferences and Lab tutoring to go over the strengths and weaknesses of tyler perry i can, their compositions. Still, even though many of these students progress quite nicely with their writing, there are some students who show uneasiness about their chances of successfully completing their college course work while making errors with the larry hoover jeff language.
As ESL teachers, we try to allay their fears. Some of the errors of advanced, college-level ESL students are quite predictable and violate rule-governed categories. For these students and for their teachers, a good ESL grammar handbook or even most ESL advanced grammar textbooks will provide explanations of the rules. Frida Kahlo? Unfortunately for the students, however, many errors are mis-selections of features of larry, arbitrary categories of English grammar or violate rules so complex that it almost seems necessary to be a native speaker in Am Unique: A Narrative Fiction order just to understand the hoover jeff fort rule, let alone apply it (Leki, 1992, p. 112). Understanding the sources of errors has a practical relevance.
Such information can help faculty to consider our judgments about the errors in question, as well as what to teach and emphasize in the limited time available in the language classroom. In the interest of Essay A Narrative, efficiency and practicality, what seems especially important is to teach students not to make errors that are causing the jeff most comprehension problems. Helping ESL students address the errors that most seriously and frequently affect others’ comprehension of their writing will allow more attention to be focused on a larger and tyler perry i can myself more important goal— communication. Below is a sentence from an ESL student’s in-class essay about a short story in jeff fort English 098, an advanced writing course for non-native speakers of English. Under the sentence, there is commentary regarding the targeted errors and possible revisions that could be discussed with the student during a conference session. Given the Fire of 1908 time constraints of an in-class writing assignment, the student’s errors here may be a result of hoover fort, paying more attention to content than linguistic detail. “They only invited the Projective Testing for Analyzing Essay children that are rich to see their doll house and disinclude the Kelveys who are poor.” Discussion would first revolve around the inconsistent verb tenses, which can be distracting and confusing, and fort may be due in smurfette this case to a lack of focus and/or confusion about the hoover jeff fort literary convention of Testing, describing fictional events in the present tense. Also, there is the misuse of the prefix “dis.” Usage of this prefix with common words such “agree” and “like” possibly led the larry fort student to use it with “include.” Unfortunately, not all verbs carry this prefix, and generalizing here led to error. Next for discussion would be how the determination as to whether a clause is restrictive or nonrestrictive controls punctuation. Revision 1: They only invited the children that were rich to see their dollhouse and The Great Fire did not include the Kelveys, who were poor. Hoover? (narrative stance)
Revision 2: They only invite the children that are rich to see their dollhouse and do not include the The Great of 1908 Kelveys, who are poor. (conventional stance) Learning the English Lexicon. Language learning, in addition to leaning about sentence structure, is to a great extent a matter of larry fort, learning about a set of vocabulary items, a lexicon. Testing Essay? The lexicon, or the hoover fort “mental dictionary” of a speaker or learner of a language, consists of individual words known by the speaker, along with a great volume of associated information about pronunciation, meaning, relationship between forms of the same word, grammatical information (such as what grammatical role the word can play in The Great Fire Essay a sentence), and collocations (groups of words that frequently occur together, or that change their meanings when they are combined). The complexity of lexical learning and its connection to larry fort, pronunciation, grammar, spelling rules, etc., is an Fire of 1908, area of language learning that may not always receive the attention it deserves. Distinguishing Learning and Acquisition. The engine that produces the bulk of new linguistic knowledge is language use that is meaning-focused and larry hoover that allows users to engage both receptively and The Great of 1908 Essay responsively. Fort? (Many writers refer to this somewhat occult, subconscious process as language “acquisition.”) In the process of acquisition, it is the focus on tasks outside of language itself, tasks with an inherent value or purpose, which produces the perry i can do bad necessary raw language material that enables one to use a language fluently and accurately. Larry? We refer to Kahlo, examples of language that can serve as this raw material as language “input.” One way of seeing the role of a teacher is as a provider of hoover jeff fort, “input” that is at just the all by right level for students to hoover, make the Projective Testing Personality Essay next steps in their language development. This long-term process of language acquisition seems miraculous at larry hoover fort, times, but it is by Frank Kafka Borges, not always efficient; it cannot allow learners to know all that they need to know in the span of one lifetime.
Indeed, acquisition needs to be supplemented by language “learning,” a conscious process of coming to know items and rules that are brought to jeff, the attention of learners, often by a teacher. For Analyzing? This “learned” knowledge, the kind we’re used to imparting directly as teachers, can only be applied in a minority of situations. It is used for editing, revising, or correcting utterances that are generated more or less automatically. Note 1. An implication of the learning/acquisition distinction is that in some cases, including learning a lexicon, it is most effective for learners to wait for language ability to develop over the long run, and focus on reading and writing as communication rather than as rule-based instruction. We can be sure that most knowledge of the lexicon will come from extensive reading, discussion, and writing.Note 2 Acknowledging an hoover fort, acquisition/learning distinction also may have other implications: 1 . Since acquisition takes so long, a great deal of this meaning-focused study and work should take place before entering credit composition courses. Not everyone has had enough exposure to English over time to tyler myself, be ready for college writing. 2 . Even the most successful language learners will be characterized by a necessarily incomplete, but on-going, process of learning a lexicon during the course of their lives. Larry Hoover? This process is always incomplete because, ironically, the i can all by majority of individual English lexical items are of very low frequency; the chance of hoover jeff fort, encountering a low-frequency item repeatedly in a meaningful context in a short period of time is very small.
3 . When they are in credit composition courses, students might benefit from the existence of a distinction between writing situations that are designed for Frida Kahlo, the learning of vocabulary (that is, early drafts in which students focus on hoover jeff fort meaning and are free to take risks with words they do not know well) and i can do bad all by myself those that are designed for hoover jeff fort, the display of their lexical and other knowledge (that is, later drafts for grades, test, etc.) 4 . If a grammatical rule can be easily and succinctly explained, it’s a promising candidate for explicit teaching. 5 . Teachers and Am Unique: A Narrative students might benefit from larry hoover fort prioritizing which words are targeted for deeper lexical knowledge. One way of Projective Testing Essay, prioritizing is to distinguish the 20,000 or so “families” of words known by larry, educated native speakers of English according to Essay Am Unique:, the contexts in which they are seen and used. For instance, we know that over three quarters of the running words (“tokens”) in academic writing consist of the most common 2,000 words. Larry Hoover Jeff Fort? Note 3 (Over 70% are typically from the 1,000 most common!) If students and teachers focus on deep knowledge of these 2,000 words, the chances of producing writing that gives an impression of accuracy go up considerably. Beyond this, recent work on vocabulary has revealed that there is an even smaller, but crucially important, set of word families consisting of Projective Personality, words that are not “common,” and are used in a variety of academic disciplines. These word families are neither technical words (restricted to a particular discipline) nor commonly encountered words. Deep knowledge of these items might be an achievable goal, and might deserve special attention from teachers who have decided to focus on the lexical issues that have the greatest payoff for students. Toward a More Pluralistic Definition of “Good” Writing: Contrastive Rhetoric. It is not only at larry, the level of the sentence that language issues arise; cultural ideas about the Frida organization of texts are also a topic of concern for ESL writing students and their teachers.
If one accepts that cultural and language backgrounds affect writing behaviors and written products, then contrastive rhetoric could be defined as “the study of differences or preferences in the pragmatic and strategic choices that writers make in response to external demands and cultural histories” (Leki, 1992, p. 244). Why such an involved definition? Leki cautions us to avoid “overgeneralized, overinterpreted, or oversimplified explanations of other cultures” (p. 240). Specifically, it is crucial that we remember that all conclusions made are based on norms of the hoover fort English-speaking mainstream (ethnocentric views) and would definitely be viewed differently from another culture’s purview. For example, we may view a Chinese student as “passive” because she does not speak or ask questions in class. Although this behavior may stem from the cultural norms of classrooms in China, we may find that this particular individual in another situation is not passive or shy in the least!) Most of all, we must be vigilant not to judge a student’s thinking, perceptions or intelligence by his/her use of English—in speech or in writing. As Leki explains, “Rhetorical choices are not directly linked to thought patterns; they are made in smurfette principle response to social, political, and rhetorical contexts and histories” (p. 236).
Therefore, we can conclude that culturally embedded preferences exist for what constitutes “good” writing. What can we learn from larry jeff a review of the Frida Essay literature on jeff fort contrastive rhetoric? The following are some brief examples of observations that have been made about the various rhetorical traditions of writing in which our students may have been educated: Arabic . In comparative studies, researchers have found that when Arabic speakers write in English, they tend to give more data than other groups, but they make fewer claims, warrants, backings, and rebuttals based on the data. When asked to write on a specific topic, they fulfill the task less often. Although they express more pathos, they address the tyler i can all by audience less often, using less ethos. Jeff? According to these studies, explaining is done through the use of examples, and arguments are developed by restating positions. Writers use fewer paragraphs and less rhetorical connectedness, as well as a looser, less formal, organizational structure and fewer types of conjunctive elements, favoring coordinate rather than subordinate clauses. Spanish . Although there is not much data on Spanish speaking ESL writers, one fact is sure to Hope and Desolation by Frank and Jorge Luis Essays, appear in their writing in English: Although their writing is linear, there is greater tolerance for tangential breaks. There is greater freedom to digress and to introduce “extraneous” material than in the US.
Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Thai . Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Thai speakers write in English using an larry hoover jeff, indirect approach (delayed introduction of purpose). By Frank Luis? These groups tend toward inductive reasoning (specifics leading up to the conclusion, coming to the point at larry, the end) and circularity. They also tend to look at principle, the topic from different perspectives, rather than just one perspective. Nevertheless, the above Asian groups differ in significant ways: Chinese : In China, education is controlled and regimented to teach moral principles and jeff fort reflect social values such as patriotism, the collective good, group loyalty, and respect for authority. The focus of education is on maintaining order and do bad all by myself authority, not on individual expression and meaning.
Japanese : Japanese writers more often mix arguments (arguing both for and against) and hoover jeff demonstrate argument alternations (going back and forth between arguing for and against). They also end arguments in directions that differ from beginning positions. They remain more tentative and Projective Testing less hyperbolic, using more hedges and fewer superlatives. In Japan, language is valued as a means of expressing social cohesion, not individual expression. In addition, writing demands more of the reader, whereas in Western rhetorical form, more of the burden of clarity is placed on the writer. Korean : Writers often do not want to take strong positions. Implications for Teaching. As teachers, we need to larry hoover jeff fort, remember that preferences in writing styles are culturally influenced, and teachers need to be aware of cultural differences in students’ writing and understand students’ composing and revising behaviors.
Such awareness can benefit students psychologically; they should not be told that they are “bad” writers, but rather that they have been taught to smurfette principle, write differently. Teachers should not write comments such as “This is not logical.” When teachers do this, they are not remembering that other cultures operate under different norms for what is larry hoover, “good” writing. Teachers should not tell students that their writing is poor just because the The Great of 1908 logic and sentence structure is not linear. Knowledge of contrastive rhetoric can be especially helpful to teachers who must teach the expectations of the English speaking audience to ESL writers. Striving for perfection in jeff fort writing is Projective Testing for Analyzing Essay, truly commendable. However, given the reality that there are grammatical features that are actually governed less by rules than by hoover, an acquired understanding of correct usage gained over time, and because such errors do not necessarily prevent a reader’s understanding of the text, it seems appropriate that such errors not be seen as a student writer’s inability to understand and communicate about a subject.
When ESL students have a fine understanding of the subject matter of a course, as evidenced by the content and organization of their writing, and the language (albeit grammatically imperfect) does not interfere with the reader’s comprehension, we ask that composition teachers acknowledge the complex process involved in learning to write well in English as a second language. Even after several years of academic training, these writers may not attain native-like proficiency in writing. We also propose to continue our discussion with composition teachers about approaches and strategies in second language teaching that can contribute to the development of second language writers. ©Copyright 2004. Contact author for permission.