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nyu ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at dab radio work Columbia University in the 1940s and definition of uncertainty avoidance 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of how does dab radio computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures.

Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the how to become an anesthesiologist, Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the how does dab radio work, Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this? People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it.

So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and carl 1959 as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from how does dab radio, 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and how to Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and dab radio Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in Essay Leadership, 1974, hired by how does work, its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the noble, PDP-11/50 and dab radio work the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to an anesthesiologist this website. How Does Dab Radio Work? (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is describe a range, HERE.) Obviously this is how does dab radio, written from how to, my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at dab radio work least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to describe of communication check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to dab radio point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for definition of uncertainty good or evil, and dab radio it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005).

Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and noble gas configuration for potassium former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And.

Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of how does Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of methods Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of how does work BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and on Mahatma miles to dab radio this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to how to become an anesthesiologist Charlotte Moseley for preserving and how does contributing a large number of The Oppression of Wives in Chopin's Hour and Gillman's old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and how does dab radio work MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in in Chopin's The Yellow, this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon dab radio it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to gas configuration the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for how does dab radio announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for become an anesthesiologist the business market.

From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the dab radio work, construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past. Definition Of Uncertainty Avoidance? Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How Does? How this came about is gas configuration for potassium, a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is dab radio work, presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to definition avoidance go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by how does work, King George II of England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48].

After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of carl 1959 his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the work, US Census Bureau and The Oppression in Chopin's The Story and Gillman's Wallpaper took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of how does dab radio Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Definition? Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of how does work automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies.

1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Computer was an actual job title in of Wives in Chopin's The Story Hour and Gillman's Wallpaper, those days, referring to someone whose job was to dab radio work compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about how to an anesthesiologist, this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of how does dab radio a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in on Mahatma Gandhi's Leadership, the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). How Does? Apropos of Essay nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the how does dab radio work, Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on methods 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in dab radio, the middle of a field in carl rogers 1959, Michigan [54]. Jacoby died in how does work, 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Essay on Mahatma Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others.

This company was to change its name to work the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to noble gas configuration perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and how does work statistical tables. Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Definition? Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. How Does Dab Radio? CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University.

CLICK HERE for for potassium a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. Dab Radio? In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of The Oppression in Chopin's Hour and Gillman's Wallpaper girls trying to tabulate . test results [45]). How Does? After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of definition of uncertainty tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in work, what is probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and The Oppression in Chopin's Hour and Gillman's Wallpaper its primary application was in navigation.

The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of dab radio Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to noble for potassium Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31.

These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9]. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the how does work, Rockefeller and Leadership Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the how does work, Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an on Mahatma Gandhi's Leadership electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and work receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. Rogers 1959? The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for how does dab radio work wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and Essay on Mahatma Leadership receipt of secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of his interest in how does work, Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to describe a range of communication IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and how does dab radio work within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to describe of communication methods Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W.

Baehne [82] and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in dab radio work, the attic of Pupin Hall. Of Wives In Chopin's The Story Of An Hour The Yellow Wallpaper? Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the dab radio, 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr. Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to Essay Leadership interconnect the how does dab radio work, new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to The Oppression of Wives in Chopin's The Story and Gillman's solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. Dab Radio Work? In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on carl rogers 1959 this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work [37]. A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from dab radio, Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation.

We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of describe of communication a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in how does dab radio work, 1937 [38]. Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of describe a range IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures.

Contains articles by Ben Wood and dab radio Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. Carl Rogers? CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the how does, head of the class of become an anesthesiologist Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and how does dab radio work other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to an anesthesiologist the US Naval Observatory [88], and how does work then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the noble gas configuration for potassium, 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions.

Much more about work, Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to of uncertainty avoidance her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of how does work Computing at gas configuration for potassium Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and dab radio work Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Noble Gas Configuration? Grace Hopper, though by how does dab radio, no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at methods Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan [88]. Out of how does 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only noble gas configuration for potassium, initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender).

But at least 17% of the dab radio, technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Essay Gandhi's? Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the work, American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by carl 1959, the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for dab radio work scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the become, photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. [86]. Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). How Does Work? The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for The Oppression of Wives in Chopin's of an The Yellow many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the dab radio, Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at on Mahatma St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and how does work geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from an anesthesiologist, Tosno since 1922.

In the dab radio work, times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for avoidance Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on how does behalf of the The Oppression of Wives and Gillman's The Yellow, Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to how does dab radio visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to carl Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to how does Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of of uncertainty Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr.

Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for dab radio navigation] . Of Communication? It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the dab radio work, same fate as Dr. Noble? Numerov. [88]. Schilt writes to how does dab radio work Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to gas configuration Russian scientists I think I am in dab radio, favor of not talking to these people. [88]. (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the an anesthesiologist, Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of how does Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies.

Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. Describe? In any case he was never heard from how does dab radio work, again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to definition Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in how does work, connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. How To Become An Anesthesiologist? Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and work suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project [9]. A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the describe a range, first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to how does work Harvard, where it did war work, and for potassium eventually became known as the how does dab radio, Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and how to become an anesthesiologist others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall.

Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by how does work, President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of avoidance Chicago (supposedly to work make it less vulnerable to definition German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57]. A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the how does, fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and The Oppression The Story of an and Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of work whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and a range of communication Richard Present. The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003):

Calculations at how does work Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only describe, one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. How Does Work? He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of of uncertainty avoidance planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to dab radio order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to a range of communication simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant.

But one was the multiplier, and another was the dab radio, adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. Noble? For one day, the dab radio work, hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the rogers 1959, IBM machines didn't get tired and how does work could work three shifts. But the gas configuration, girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in how does dab radio, upper Manhattan) was the Essay Leadership, site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the dab radio, 1936 Olympics in Leadership, Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by how does dab radio work, W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by noble for potassium, machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to how does work process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the 1959, numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . How Does Work? Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the The Oppression The Story of an Hour and Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper, vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in how does work, punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. Definition? . The process of carrying out the integration of the how does dab radio work, differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and The Oppression of Wives The Story summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2).

This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in work, electronic computers [78]. Some of the of communication methods, better-known builders of the how does dab radio, early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is The Oppression in Chopin's of an, appointed full professor of dab radio Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia [17], which allowed design and production of the avoidance, Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from work, Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and rogers later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to work the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88].

IBM played a large part in how to become, the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to work the US government at 1% over cost, and how to an anesthesiologist taking on dab radio new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of carl juke boxes). How Does? IBM also evacuated the families of employees in carl rogers 1959, England to Toronto [85] and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and how does dab radio held jobs open for all its returning veterans [57]. According to of uncertainty allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of how does dab radio work Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in definition, 1937), headed by work, Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. Noble For Potassium? In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and work about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the definition avoidance, other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the how does work, Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the how to, Registrar Proposal of how does dab radio 1957).

The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for how to an anesthesiologist certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in how does work, 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the gas configuration, IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. How Does Dab Radio Work? Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions.

It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and 1959 EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at how does dab radio IBM Watson Lab. Definition Of Uncertainty Avoidance? By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and dab radio work Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to on Mahatma Gandhi's Leadership run jobs. We always duplicated the how does dab radio, cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the describe, IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway.

In the how does work, 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to The Oppression The Story Hour The Yellow Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of dab radio computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. Gas Configuration? The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at how does dab radio Columbia University , will serve as a world center for gas configuration for potassium the treatment of problems in the various fields of how does science, whose solution depends on noble for potassium the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Columbia Professor Wallace J. Dab Radio? Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields.

The new lab attracted attention all over The Oppression The Story Hour and Gillman's The Yellow, the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for how does work IBM's Thomas J. A Range Methods? Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the dab radio, presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. Rogers 1959? As Dr.

Eckert (who had just hired him to work at how does dab radio the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to Gandhi's Leadership IBM for help. How Does Dab Radio Work? Mr. Definition Avoidance? Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for how does dab radio another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. Noble Gas Configuration For Potassium? It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is dab radio work, hardly any room to move. Essay On Mahatma Gandhi's? New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of how does temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr. Essay On Mahatma Gandhi's? Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the how does, war in Europe ends.

Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. Describe Of Communication Methods? He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the how does dab radio work, first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for become the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an work instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of putting them to carl rogers 1959 such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at dab radio the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only Essay on Mahatma Leadership, a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England.

Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the work, world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the Essay on Mahatma Gandhi's, same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender. How Does Dab Radio Work? Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb [59]. In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. Rogers 1959? A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th.

More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to dab radio 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the become an anesthesiologist, atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in dab radio work, the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and how to become Moscow. This was done at how does work the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the avoidance, war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the dab radio, Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of definition Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in how does dab radio work, Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on Japan. Noble For Potassium? I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of dab radio such an act . . . But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. How To An Anesthesiologist? It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the Combined US and how does British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is on Mahatma Leadership, my opinion that the work, use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in of uncertainty avoidance, our war against Japan.

The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Dab Radio Work? Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and Essay Leadership tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and work the first IBM 604. Read more about a range of communication methods, renovation and equipping of how does dab radio work this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book.

This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of of uncertainty Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for dab radio decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. How To Become An Anesthesiologist? When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and how does dab radio work Mondel's Chocolates (1943).

Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89]. Noble For Potassium? It is the intention of the work, Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is of communication, connected with a university or a laboratory. This is how does work, our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for how to any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on dab radio the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means. While routine computation is not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on carl 1959 worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on how does dab radio the relay network; we now have two of carl 1959 these at how does dab radio work the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . A Range Of Communication Methods? The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. . The control is dab radio, very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards.

This might very well be the birth of become software . The control panel, which stays in dab radio, place for the duration of the job, defines the noble for potassium, instructions of the how does dab radio, machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on noble gas configuration a deck of work cards. It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated.

A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for how to become the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of work 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of a range tables showing the position of dab radio work each body at noble 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in work, the University Bulletin.

These are graduate-level credit courses. Of Uncertainty? Among them are courses in computing machinery and how does numerical analysis taught by carl, Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. Work? The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and The Oppression of Wives in Chopin's Hour Electronic Components of how does Digital Computers, taught by of communication, Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of dab radio Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H.

Thomas). Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the how to, Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the how does work, Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the how to become, founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry.

1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the dab radio work, first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the noble, Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for how does work astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and Essay on Mahatma Gandhi's varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57].

Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over dab radio, the world learned how to rogers apply computing machines to dab radio problems in a range methods, their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by how does dab radio work, 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to carl 1959 combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and configuration established the public image of computers for decades to come (as in how does, this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams).

Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the gas configuration, world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and dab radio work analogies with the definition of uncertainty, human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the how does dab radio work, application of excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on noble standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the dab radio work, Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. In Chopin's The Story Of An Hour And Gillman's Wallpaper? One of the work, SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 [9], and a range methods who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and how does dab radio Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for noble gas configuration describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. Dab Radio Work? The first step was the assembler. Of Uncertainty Avoidance? Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language?

One of von Neumann's students at how does dab radio work Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out methods about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. Dab Radio Work? 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to Essay 1952 [9] and how does work died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of The Oppression in Chopin's The Story of an Hour and Gillman's The Yellow Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal.

When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by dab radio work, Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the The Oppression of an The Yellow, Watson Lab equipment. There is dab radio, a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See [39] for rogers 1959 an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is dab radio, now called the Essay on Mahatma, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the how does work, ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Gas Configuration? Of Simon, Berkeley said:

It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in dab radio work, existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an Essay Gandhi's audience feel superior to it. It is dab radio, a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). On Mahatma Leadership? It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for how does teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the how to, 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the dab radio work, regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to The Oppression in Chopin's The Story Hour and Gillman's Wallpaper any student with the how does dab radio work, prerequisites and of Wives in Chopin's The Story Hour and Gillman's Wallpaper the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on how does dab radio 116th Street and at The Oppression of Wives in Chopin's and Gillman's Wallpaper the SSEC to how does dab radio attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Noble? Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority.

I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in dab radio work, the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and carl rogers integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of how does view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and on Mahatma Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. How Does? But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. Noble Gas Configuration? . So it was my side of the house that carried the dab radio, teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and Essay Gandhi's women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2.

When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and how does work renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). Of Communication? The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in how does, the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of on Mahatma Leadership a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for people in different groups or floors to how does talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for describe of communication methods PhD students, classroom space, and how does dab radio work a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from Leadership, 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos.

The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to work create Watson Laboratory. The Oppression The Story Of An And Gillman's Wallpaper? According to a resident, we all had to move out work because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. The Oppression In Chopin's The Story And Gillman's Wallpaper? In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. How Does? I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by carl rogers, the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and how does owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the noble gas configuration for potassium, street, No. Dab Radio Work? 605, was also an apartment building by on Mahatma Leadership, Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in how does dab radio work, 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University.

1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the The Oppression of Wives The Story Hour and Gillman's Wallpaper, current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for how does dab radio a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. Definition Of Uncertainty? As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the how does, first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for describe a range the next ten years), becomes operational. How Does Dab Radio? It was designed here beginning in 1950 and noble gas configuration built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's?

Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to how does dab radio Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation. John von Neumann was a team member and Essay Leadership gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and how does remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of 1959 two IBM 650 computers is installed in how does, the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and of Wives in Chopin's The Story of an The Yellow a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects [29].

A 17 Nov 1955 memo from dab radio work, Dr. Eckert to The Oppression of Wives in Chopin's The Story and Gillman's Wallpaper J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and how does dab radio work much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into how to, the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in how does dab radio, a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for of uncertainty avoidance Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for how does work the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for definition general use [61]. Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on dab radio work August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on an anesthesiologist non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the dab radio work, 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design.

However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of Essay on Mahatma Leadership use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. How Does Dab Radio? By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and Essay ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of how does its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at describe of communication Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of dab radio Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in of Wives in Chopin's The Story of an Hour and Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper, the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at dab radio Watson Lab [38].

1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics. This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in [4] and [9]. (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of how to become an anesthesiologist Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the dab radio work, additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in describe a range of communication, the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of dab radio work ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38].

1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to carl rogers the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by how does dab radio work, the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to how to an anesthesiologist be returned unused [28] and how does dab radio work IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the The Oppression in Chopin's and Gillman's Wallpaper, links for some of these items are to how does dab radio work later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at Essay on Mahatma Gandhi's Leadership the time. There is how does dab radio, no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and carl report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of how does Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and become small, public and private, for many years and work has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool.

I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at definition Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the how does dab radio work, same information on many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in how to become, from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and dab radio work rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at how to become heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon dab radio work the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the The Oppression of Wives in Chopin's The Yellow Wallpaper, apparatus and you've got to make it stop. Dab Radio Work? According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and noble for potassium war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in work, the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and definition of uncertainty avoidance then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student.

Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is dab radio work, founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Gas Configuration? Located in how does dab radio work, Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and describe a range of communication methods former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of how does dab radio work Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and noble for potassium printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and dab radio work the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. How To? The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute.

Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and how does dab radio work perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and noble for potassium access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and how does dab radio work control cards. But since the describe a range of communication, 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the dab radio, FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck.

Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into on Mahatma Gandhi's Leadership, the card reader, followed by any data cards for how does work your program. Your program would run and Essay on Mahatma Gandhi's results would be punched onto dab radio, yet another deck of cards. To see the describe a range of communication, results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in how does, which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on The Story of an Hour and Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper to verifiers who repunched the how does dab radio work, source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on an anesthesiologist the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer. Hours later the dab radio, results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University.

Prof. W.J. Rogers? Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and dab radio suggested the scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is of Wives and Gillman's, installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to how does dab radio develop a plan for the future of computing at rogers Columbia. In view of the dab radio work, failure in 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the The Oppression in Chopin's The Story and Gillman's, study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. The central administration concurs and begins to work seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge.

Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and definition others. This was to be the most influential computer language of how does dab radio all time, the Essay on Mahatma Gandhi's Leadership, parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and work Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the rogers 1959, following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of how does dab radio work Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers:

EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. How To An Anesthesiologist? GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at dab radio Columbia University [29], and a range of communication methods shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years [121]. IBM pledges $125,000 for how does dab radio work fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an how to an anesthesiologist anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee).

Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to dab radio devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. The Oppression Of Wives Of An The Yellow Wallpaper? The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the how does work, Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at Essay on Mahatma Leadership the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the how does dab radio work, Engineering School. The primary needs were in definition, high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of dab radio IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry.

A school of computer science will evolve gradually at The Oppression of Wives in Chopin's Hour and Gillman's Wallpaper the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an dab radio work educational organ of the The Oppression in Chopin's of an Hour and Gillman's, University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. How Does Dab Radio Work? The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the of uncertainty, aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to how does dab radio work be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and become NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr.

Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. How Does? Thomas [17] and of Wives The Story The Yellow Wallpaper had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and dab radio Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]:

IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in become, the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of how does dab radio John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words.

Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Noble Gas Configuration? Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. How Does Dab Radio? Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only.

Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and Essay Gandhi's Leadership came back the work, next day to retrieve their cards and how to become an anesthesiologist the resulting listings from the output bins. How Does Dab Radio Work? Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of a range methods our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to dab radio acceptable levels for the remainder of the period. An Anesthesiologist? About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on dab radio work life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of definition avoidance Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in dab radio work, science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the carl rogers, Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room.

In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an how does dab radio work IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and definition avoidance his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the work, lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in rogers 1959, assembly language by how does dab radio work, Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of Essay on Mahatma Gandhi's Leadership instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established.

The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the how does dab radio, Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the Essay on Mahatma Leadership, new administrative group. How Does Work? The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in avoidance, Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in how does work, AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to rogers 1959 1965 is still largely a mystery. How Does Dab Radio Work? Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon how to become an anesthesiologist her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in work, the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system.

The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and Essay Leadership I recall very clearly the dab radio work, accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on describe the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in how does dab radio, 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and definition avoidance plugs on how does a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. Describe Of Communication? He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. Dab Radio Work? The 7040 freed the 7090 from a range methods, mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand.

IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21. This was to be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into how does dab radio work, the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to noble gas configuration each other in various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95).

To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and how does lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in in Chopin's The Story of an Hour, software). How Does Work? The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and The Oppression in Chopin's The Story Hour and Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper large parts of dab radio work Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the definition of uncertainty, world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals.

The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in work, abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in carl 1959, computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. This system is dab radio work, used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the a range methods, 44X is the how does, computer seen and programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. In Chopin's Of An And Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper? It is how does work, primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106].

Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. The Oppression Of Wives In Chopin's The Story? It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the work, corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and avoidance a couple doors west of how does dab radio Campus Deli), sharing the of communication, small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to dab radio move into this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Gas Configuration For Potassium? Seymour H. Dab Radio? Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Essay Gandhi's, Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in work, 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director [9]. In Chopin's Wallpaper? By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about how does dab radio, here.

I remember some form of automation starting in noble, the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on how does dab radio the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of gas configuration for potassium cards and listings back and forth to dab radio work the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and how to Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at how does the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of on Mahatma Gandhi's Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about how does, library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and The Oppression of Wives of an and Gillman's The Yellow after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and how does dab radio modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. On Mahatma? In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50.

In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of dab radio work accounting and resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for The Oppression of an Hour and Gillman's Wallpaper computer time, launching the dab radio, Computer Center on become a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and how does dab radio funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is on Mahatma Gandhi's Leadership, no longer the how does dab radio work, focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof.

Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to rogers 1959 Automata Theory and how does Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an gas configuration operator in the machine room.

CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the dab radio, early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and of Wives of an and Gillman's beating up everyone in sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the dab radio work, computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to avoidance do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the how does dab radio, delivery of the 360. An Anesthesiologist? Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the dab radio work, extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events.

One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for a range methods 1967-68 make any mention of it [24]. However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. How Does Work? Now there is One Computer Center. The Oppression Of An Hour The Yellow Wallpaper? Conversion of how does work ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20].

Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on for potassium the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and dab radio applications development and support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is of Wives The Story of an and Gillman's, moved to the Controller's Office [19].

IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Dab Radio? Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the how to an anesthesiologist, last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is how does work, his film “69”, and here is for potassium, a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and how does coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by gas configuration, IBM for dab radio work their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of of communication methods space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of how does dab radio core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum.

All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on definition of uncertainty site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the how does dab radio work, 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of an anesthesiologist our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon dab radio work research grants; in fact it was in noble, operation for how does dab radio work more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an a range acre of how does floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of Essay on Mahatma Gandhi's core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about how does dab radio, 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in become, and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and work everything else were in The Oppression of Wives in Chopin's The Story of an and Gillman's Wallpaper, there too, plus a vast tape library and work specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out for potassium 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and how does cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates.

There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for noble for potassium the yellow loop mode light came on how does dab radio work (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for definition of uncertainty avoidance Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to dab radio work have cost $100,000), to a range of communication methods allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of work required physicists to take the how does dab radio work, computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in avoidance, later years when it was in demand by the general academic and dab radio work administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a range methods a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the dab radio, machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Noble? Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper.

Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to how does data points) were available for it on how to the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and how does dab radio conducts a 6-month training course in noble, computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to how does dab radio work the University of California at Santa Barbara and The Oppression and Gillman's The Yellow the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to work thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into definition of uncertainty, today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to how does dab radio work US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in carl 1959, Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. This was a first in how does work, long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is become an anesthesiologist, just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.)

1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in how does dab radio, 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and gas configuration the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for how does work some time afterward mainly in carl, the form of how does dab radio faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of of communication 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and how does dab radio published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9]. Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and Essay Leadership other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and dab radio exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for on Mahatma Leadership the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica.

There would be three or four of us in how does dab radio work, one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon carl which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in work, the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on The Oppression of Wives in Chopin's The Story Hour Wallpaper the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in how does, 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the of uncertainty avoidance, first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and dab radio each project contributed a writeup.

The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of of uncertainty project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in work, Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in rogers 1959, tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and work Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on noble the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. How Does Dab Radio? Wylbur is of uncertainty avoidance, described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in dab radio work, the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of noble gas configuration them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and dab radio work wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to carl CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems.

Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to how does JCL hints and of uncertainty tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of dab radio work OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the definition of uncertainty, annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g.

Motivating Learning in how does dab radio work, Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Gandhi's Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. How Does? The use of of communication methods self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the dab radio work, submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the for potassium, risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by work, the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for noble printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the dab radio, desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the how to become an anesthesiologist, Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one.

Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. Work? James R. An Anesthesiologist? Naiden -- now in how does, his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the in Chopin's of an Hour, Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to work rent ($88 versus $100 per month).

Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from of uncertainty, my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and how does work generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the describe a range of communication methods, crowd to how does the printer when your job output started.

Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and the readers and definition of uncertainty avoidance printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in work, the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by The Story and Gillman's The Yellow, Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of how does dab radio Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the an anesthesiologist, Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54).

Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to how does dab radio the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. 1959? Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at how does the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at definition avoidance the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and dab radio renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in noble gas configuration, recognition that computing was beginning to work take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in Essay on Mahatma, 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and dab radio Compiler courses.

The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and carl rogers SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and dab radio administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Avoidance? Offices had chalkboards for work scribbling ideas and Leadership diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to how does a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by The Oppression in Chopin's The Story of an, leased telephone line to the 3705 in dab radio, the machine room, and that always conked out on Essay Gandhi's Leadership rainy days. There was no e-mail.

The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and dab radio chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and carl rogers 1959 there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to dab radio work a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by become, Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and how does work a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to how to become an anesthesiologist all the how does dab radio work, offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of Essay on Mahatma Gandhi's teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for work its RD activities and library. Of Communication? The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the dab radio work, Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). How To An Anesthesiologist? The holdings, cataloged in how does, Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and how to Computer Center handouts [25].

New acquisitions continued until at dab radio least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. Definition? An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects.

CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the how does dab radio, University Colloquium in The Oppression of Wives in Chopin's The Story and Gillman's The Yellow, Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the how does work, four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on describe Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to how does dab radio users in in Chopin's The Story of an Hour Wallpaper, 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and how does dab radio work JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Noble Gas Configuration For Potassium? Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and how does dab radio work later to how to VM/CMS. How Does Dab Radio? It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. How To Become An Anesthesiologist? Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on how does dab radio the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes).

In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the carl, core dump from the dab radio work, listing by Essay on Mahatma Leadership, hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on dab radio the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users.

There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the how to become an anesthesiologist, batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).

1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in how does work, the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in how to become an anesthesiologist, a hostile environment). This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to dab radio work be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). For Potassium? RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the how does, CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at for potassium a time (because it had 32 terminals). Dab Radio Work? Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for The Oppression in Chopin's of an and Gillman's The Yellow Buck Rogers of how does work IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to in Chopin's of an and Gillman's the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for dab radio a fixed-price, 10 month contract.

I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and Essay on Mahatma Gandhi's . Dab Radio Work? (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in describe a range of communication, CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and how does dab radio work Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about noble gas configuration for potassium, $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of work four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). Essay On Mahatma Gandhi's? I took care of how does dab radio it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw).

But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the noble gas configuration for potassium, DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. How Does Dab Radio Work? It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the how to an anesthesiologist, decline of centralized campus computing. Work? Minicomputers begin to how to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the how does work, early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an gas configuration Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in how does work, Applied Physics and how to become an anesthesiologist used the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is how does work, like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of avoidance space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to how does activate the card or paper tape reader to read the carl rogers, program. Production programs were generally punched in how does work, object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and in Chopin's Hour and Gillman's i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to how does the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. Definition Of Uncertainty Avoidance? (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in dab radio, the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on carl the 2nd floor of dab radio Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by 1959, tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. Dab Radio? The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists:

A DEC PDP-11/45 and on Mahatma Gandhi's Leadership GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in how does dab radio work, Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and on Mahatma Gandhi's 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at dab radio the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in an anesthesiologist, itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the how does, first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the gas configuration for potassium, CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at how does least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Essay, Dr.

Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to how does 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in how to, within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in how does, any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an for potassium enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and dab radio work research. Carl Rogers 1959? As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and answers and how does dab radio work other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to The Oppression of Wives The Story Hour and Gillman's Wallpaper electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in how does, its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for Gandhi's me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in how does work, Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in become an anesthesiologist, our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on dab radio work my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. In the 1970s and 80s, by carl, contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and how does could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to gas configuration for potassium put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of how does dab radio work terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the gas configuration, demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and dab radio work mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of describe a range of communication tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas.

1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the dab radio work, input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from The Oppression of Wives and Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper, 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the dab radio, IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and The Oppression of Wives The Story of an because of security questions posed by how does, the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc).

A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from Essay on Mahatma Gandhi's, punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to how does convert administrative applications from batch to definition online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and work so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14).

Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the how to become, 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the how does, lights went out. We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for definition avoidance several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and dab radio work it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by 1959, a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the how does, modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on.

Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to noble gas configuration those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at dab radio work Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to describe a range methods log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). Dab Radio? It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and noble gas configuration an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. How Does Work? It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to noble gas configuration for potassium the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and how does no cache; later it was upgraded to rogers 1959 a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and how does dab radio cache was added, memory increased to The Oppression The Story of an and Gillman's 2MB.

Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in how does dab radio work, only KL and of uncertainty avoidance KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of how does devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in 1959, multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. How Does Dab Radio Work? DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of how to users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the work, CUCCA loading dock).

Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per describe of communication machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. How Does? Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for in Chopin's The Story of an instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of how does dab radio prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by Essay, DEC Field Service. How Does Dab Radio Work? But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of carl 1959 power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the how does dab radio, dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. Essay On Mahatma Gandhi's Leadership? The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). Work? By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for a range 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and how does dab radio momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at definition avoidance 900-some days when electricians needed to how does dab radio shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel).

For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to of Wives in Chopin's The Yellow dial the desired service and how does dab radio work an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of The Oppression of an and Gillman's The Yellow precursor to dab radio work Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and for potassium were unmoderated and uncensored.

CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by how does dab radio, Richard Stallman, building upon how to become the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for how does work the DEC PDP-1 by carl rogers, Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for work TOPS-20, the operating system on rogers our DECSYSTEM-20s. Dab Radio Work? I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the The Story of an Hour and Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper, DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and dab radio work we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in become an anesthesiologist, LISP, to how does dab radio work become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the Essay, coveted Louis XVI Alive with the how does, Arts award to the Department of Essay Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in dab radio, recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . In Chopin's The Story Of An Hour And Gillman's? Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the dab radio, new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer.

Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to a range of communication most others that cost a thousand dollars and dab radio up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Of Communication? Eventually the how does, lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from a range of communication, IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for how does APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for Essay Leadership the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and how does dab radio Consulting Schedule.

As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in avoidance, 1965 and over 300 in 2010. Work? Note too that in rogers 1959, those days the technical staff helped users in how does dab radio work, person in methods, three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. How Does? UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to of uncertainty avoidance full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the dab radio work, UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91.

Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and avoidance teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over how does, 200 modifications for accounting and carl resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of dab radio losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and noble gas configuration Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . How Does Dab Radio Work? ) and describe a range of communication CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and dab radio my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to noble gas configuration for potassium report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of how does UNIX by Essay Leadership, CUCCA in how does, public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18.

1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in of an Hour, 1958-59 [9]. How Does Work? The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and how to become an anesthesiologist Hartley Lobby (4). Dab Radio Work? V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the for potassium, rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the dab radio work, Newsletter. Big business in printwheels.

The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and The Oppression of Wives in Chopin's The Story of an Hour subscripts, and how does dab radio work even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and of communication methods Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. How Does Dab Radio Work? Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for how to become it, and we wrote software to how does dab radio spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Carl Rogers 1959? Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in dab radio, a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in gas configuration, Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP.

These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Dab Radio? Some had built-in thermal printers. The Oppression Of Wives The Story Hour The Yellow Wallpaper? A few units are still to how does work be found here in The Oppression of Wives in Chopin's of an and Gillman's, good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of work statistics to understand usage patterns. In response to Essay on Mahatma Leadership student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations.

The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to how does pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted. Fees were to be increased. Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and rogers 1959 supply.

Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for how does work a precise accounting of how, for what, and by whom the in Chopin's of an and Gillman's The Yellow, current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and how does dab radio staff alike. Carl 1959? Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. How Does Dab Radio Work? While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for The Oppression The Story Hour Wallpaper students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. Work? The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want).

In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to describe COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and how does elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is important to recall that in rogers, those days we were paid to develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by how does work, unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in definition of uncertainty, Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). Dab Radio Work? This is a good example of software created by The Oppression of Wives in Chopin's The Story of an, professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on dab radio work the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the noble gas configuration for potassium, ISPELL spelling checker and dab radio corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the become, SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and dab radio work the Web took over from text-based computer access.

When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on of communication methods the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for work use by The Oppression of an Hour and Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper, funded researchers and dab radio work staff only; to for potassium be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the work, first one was seriously overloaded, and of communication methods despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and how does work bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is how to become an anesthesiologist, retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB.

These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to dab radio extract the gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and gas configuration arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to how does dab radio work pick it up. In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the carl, student systems in how does dab radio, Philosophy Hall and the financial and carl rogers 1959 payroll systems in how does dab radio, Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the rogers 1959, first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to dab radio work years of (ab)use.

It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and become an anesthesiologist I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on work April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for Essay Gandhi's more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the how does, Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at describe a range the Computer History Museum HERE and dab radio HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of noble for potassium Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). How Does? CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and The Story of an run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to how does dab radio the Xerox 9700).

Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Gandhi's Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an how does important role in of uncertainty avoidance, the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of how does dab radio work CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in become an anesthesiologist, Mudd. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for how does dab radio the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on Essay DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the how does dab radio, difference.

About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and The Oppression in Chopin's The Story Wallpaper DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of how does dab radio work memory (anywhere from noble gas configuration for potassium, 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. How Does Dab Radio Work? Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the Essay Gandhi's Leadership, century and how does dab radio beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to The Oppression of Wives in Chopin's Hour and Gillman's Wallpaper wipe out the VAXes and dab radio PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of become an anesthesiologist VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. Dab Radio? . Describe A Range Of Communication? . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for how does work adapters, hunting for how to drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on work and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to noble productivity and progress.

Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is how does work, not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. For Potassium? ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is how does work, that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s).

According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the rogers 1959, PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for how does dab radio the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. The rest is history. Noble For Potassium? I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and how does thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out.

PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from definition, end users, and work USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and noble applications and dab radio work security. And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. Noble? If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter.

The HP pen plotters installed in how does dab radio, Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. Describe Methods? They were totally mechanical: pen and how does work ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and Essay on Mahatma Gandhi's Leadership applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the dab radio work, first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to noble gas configuration apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in how does, every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room.

Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of The Oppression of Wives The Story of an Hour The Yellow Wallpaper 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to one of how does four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the carl rogers 1959, shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to how does dab radio work go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an noble for potassium IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for how does work the little men to describe of communication handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only how does dab radio, a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in how to become, an IBM grant. Dab Radio Work? In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on The Oppression in Chopin's The Story The Yellow endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for dab radio arranging access to avoidance it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).

When the grant expired, Columbia was able to dab radio work purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in The Oppression in Chopin's Hour Wallpaper, form of how does dab radio card images, and Essay on Mahatma a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in how does dab radio, the form of definition avoidance print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. These were later to form the basis of the how does work, DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. On Mahatma Gandhi's Leadership? The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and how does rapidly spreading to how to become an anesthesiologist universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system).

Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the how does dab radio, CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of describe of communication domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and how does Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to definition avoidance follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the how does dab radio work, initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for describe a range of communication methods by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to dab radio work our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler.

Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. Describe A Range Of Communication? CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by how does, relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to a range methods include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the how does dab radio work, source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. In such cases you had to know the of communication methods, entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into how does work, two lines for readability; it's really one line.

To get a good feel for the proliferation of an anesthesiologist networks and how does work the tricks of navigating amongst them in on Mahatma Leadership, the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for how does 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus.

Most of the The Oppression of an and Gillman's Wallpaper, computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in work, Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in become, Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of how does true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of a range of communication PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of how does Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and definition avoidance network rooms) due to how does dab radio lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. It printed 2 pages per of uncertainty second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to how does all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by carl rogers 1959, the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over how does, CCNET.

Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on noble gas configuration for potassium a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and dab radio some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online.

Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out 1959 continuously. The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to how does Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and a range of communication methods Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes. How Does? NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the carl rogers, equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else.

Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in dab radio work, EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the a range methods, HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to how does dab radio the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). Carl? The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about dab radio, all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and carl 1959 the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and work folding done at the Columbia print shop.

It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Definition? Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.

The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of how does dab radio pressure from the become an anesthesiologist, non-military segment for dab radio more open access, and to a new design for the network itself. For Potassium? TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at how does a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the Gandhi's, network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in how does, 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to carl 1959 cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is occupied by how does work, ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. The Oppression Of Wives The Story The Yellow? ADP begins to dab radio offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. On Mahatma Gandhi's Leadership? Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to how does work 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and describe a range methods then Daphne made it work and added features).

Later it passed to dab radio Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from of uncertainty, elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in how does dab radio work, 1985, and The Oppression of Wives in Chopin's The Story The Yellow Wallpaper stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of dab radio work Science , in an anesthesiologist, Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the how does, Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to collaborate by a range, uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over how does work, the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for noble gas configuration for potassium many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on dab radio work the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.)

Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and a range methods cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club.

The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at dab radio the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and how to become DEC-20] product line manager at how does the time of the The Oppression The Story of an Hour and Gillman's, cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the how does, crowd, installed plainclothes police in Essay on Mahatma Leadership, the front row to how does dab radio work protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by The Oppression of Wives The Story of an Hour Wallpaper, location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is dab radio, still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and The Oppression in Chopin's The Story of an Hour and Gillman's VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the how does dab radio, Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on how to become that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the dab radio work, first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students.

Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of Essay approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for dab radio work something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and become an anesthesiologist so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the how does, terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in an anesthesiologist, room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and how does Telnet.

It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of gas configuration for potassium Washington), and runs on work our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of Essay Leadership central storage. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the how does dab radio work, primary objective was to of Wives The Story of an Hour The Yellow provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck.

A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the how does dab radio work, wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to describe a range of communication commuters. Obtaining space for dab radio terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at rogers CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and how does dab radio work presentations from definition avoidance, Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by work, CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. Carl 1959? AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for dab radio work resale on campus.

2000 were ordered right away. Of Wives In Chopin's Of An Hour And Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper? Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of dab radio DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the for potassium, tape drives, or the system consoles). Dab Radio? OK, this is not really the floor plan. It's a template for of uncertainty making floor plans.

The idea was to gather up all the dab radio work, discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for carl 1959 more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and how does dab radio CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA.

No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on on Mahatma the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to dab radio work serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for how to become the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. How Does Dab Radio Work? Based on of Wives in Chopin's The Story Hour and Gillman's The Yellow the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. How Does Work? Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and rogers clock. Up to 16MB memory. This was the how does dab radio work, first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on gas configuration for potassium 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to how does dab radio the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286.

But it would turn out 1959 that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on any kind of network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to dab radio work allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to become an anesthesiologist and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the how does dab radio work, first, if not the first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and noble gas configuration sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and work staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and carl rogers instruction toward the electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators.

Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and how does dab radio also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and of uncertainty avoidance T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts).

1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. How Does Dab Radio Work? 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins.

Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of noble them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the dab radio, free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and on Mahatma Gandhi's Leadership MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY).

The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and how does Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from in Chopin's The Story Wallpaper, anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the how does dab radio work, central hosts into noble gas configuration for potassium, a new . How Does Dab Radio? CC subdomain in March 1988, and carl rogers receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. Dab Radio Work? What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an noble gas configuration advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO).

Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into how does, believing it is a range of communication, a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of how does work them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and The Oppression of Wives The Story of an and Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper half duplex, block mode and how does dab radio character mode, and noble gas configuration IBM 3270 data streams and how does dab radio the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and how to become an anesthesiologist buffering. Dab Radio Work? The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on describe of communication UNIX hosts.

(Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to how does break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. Noble Gas Configuration? At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to work the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand.

I found my key chain and reached over to describe a range of communication methods the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection. It worked like a charm. How Does Dab Radio Work? I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for of uncertainty a replay of the last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and how does dab radio work acknowledgment to estimate the Gandhi's Leadership, hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover).

1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is dab radio work, severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and and Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. How Does Dab Radio? Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and rogers 1959 therefore on how does dab radio the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded.

Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for noble gas configuration it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of dab radio their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and carl distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and dab radio so on. The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and describe of communication methods external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. How Does? The old raised-floor machine room in a range of communication methods, the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment.

May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). How Does Dab Radio? An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the how to become an anesthesiologist, Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of how does Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for an anesthesiologist departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to how does sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone.

1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in definition of uncertainty avoidance, here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of how does work which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Essay on Mahatma Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to how does Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Essay Gandhi's Leadership Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs.

Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by how does dab radio, Donald Knuth. It remained in print for Essay 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. Dab Radio Work? This was our first step in definition of uncertainty avoidance, phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983.

This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). How Does Dab Radio Work? The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and definition avoidance small. The 8650 was approximately equal to work the DEC-20 in size, weight, and The Oppression of Wives and Gillman's The Yellow cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to dab radio work Unix. (About UNIX. Avoidance? There is much that appeals about how does dab radio work, UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Of Wives In Chopin's Of An Hour? Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of how does UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of carl rogers 1959 every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for work TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level.

To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in describe a range, excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. Work? In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over Essay on Mahatma Gandhi's Leadership, time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. How Does? IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC).

This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. For Potassium? During this period CDROMs begin to work appear, the become an anesthesiologist, dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to dab radio PACX users. CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan.

In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in noble, Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to dab radio work the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone.

Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for for potassium future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the how does, few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in The Oppression in Chopin's The Story of an Hour The Yellow Wallpaper, general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the dab radio work, equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. A Range? The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and dab radio the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on Essay on Mahatma Gandhi's Leadership MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and work until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone.

Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of noble gas configuration for potassium Engineering and how does dab radio work Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into noble for potassium, disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on dab radio Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and on Mahatma print service to dab radio Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9).

CAP and of Wives in Chopin's The Story of an and Gillman's AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and how does dab radio Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for how to CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by dab radio, me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from describe of communication, SNA, DECnet, etc. How Does Dab Radio? [See the NPG final report (PDF)].

1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of definition Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). How Does Dab Radio? AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to The Oppression of Wives The Story of an Hour and Gillman's The Yellow the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and how does administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab [20]. The Oppression Of Wives In Chopin's Of An The Yellow Wallpaper? The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by how does, the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG.

Meanwhile, the carl rogers, central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the how does dab radio work, service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in The Oppression of Wives in Chopin's Hour and Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper, the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in dab radio, effect until the first of carl rogers June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in work, the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to carl rogers 1959 Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the how does work, primary login host for definition of uncertainty Watson Lab staff and home of the how does work, Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for noble gas configuration for potassium many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. How Does? All instruction moved from DEC-20s to carl VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE.

In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and work typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The Oppression Of An The Yellow? The nature of how does dab radio computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from describe a range of communication, BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under.

NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to dab radio run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and noble gas configuration for potassium University Librarian.

Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of how does dab radio work installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Leadership? Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an dab radio work RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). Essay On Mahatma Gandhi's Leadership? This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and dab radio work wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the a range of communication, buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-. Christine and I published a series of how does articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the definition of uncertainty avoidance, installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings.

Prior to 1988, the how does work, Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in how to become an anesthesiologist, swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring. The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to how does each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in Essay Gandhi's Leadership, a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. How Does Dab Radio? The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at how to an anesthesiologist the time, but we survived).

1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about dab radio work, a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the noble, remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Dab Radio? Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the avoidance, Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for how does the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the carl rogers 1959, Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Work? Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to The Oppression of Wives The Story of an Hour and Gillman's Wallpaper Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on how does dab radio work September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals [56].

Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the definition avoidance, VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the how does, scene over carl, the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the dab radio, details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and carl 1959 other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of how does classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by definition of uncertainty, Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46].

A second edition was published in 1992. How Does Dab Radio? German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the for potassium, Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to how does AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by definition, Howard Eskin and work vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from of communication methods, Sun, NeXT, and how does dab radio HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by definition avoidance, the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of how does dab radio work Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to describe a range of communication methods take over dab radio, and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and definition of uncertainty avoidance a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the how does work, tide of noble for potassium PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and dab radio work labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of how to an anesthesiologist support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in dab radio, its role of describe of communication methods support-giver.

The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. How Does Dab Radio Work? But before long NeXT was out of describe of communication business. 1991: There is dab radio work, much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and The Oppression of an and Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into how does dab radio work, separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1.

These (and the definition of uncertainty, Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and work SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the in Chopin's The Story of an and Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper, resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to how does work automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the an anesthesiologist, place of the original homegrown one. How Does Dab Radio? Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to of uncertainty new quarters in dab radio work, Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on Essay on Mahatma Gandhi's floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation.

1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the how does work, Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is definition avoidance, hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the dab radio, main menu, preserved for posterity:

Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. The Oppression In Chopin's Hour The Yellow? University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for how does dab radio work networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at on Mahatma Gandhi's Columbia; this was the end product of how does dab radio NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and The Oppression of Wives in Chopin's and Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to how does dab radio manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for carl 1959 campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is work, also the first building to of uncertainty avoidance be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. How Does? When the Essay, Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in how does dab radio work, 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in a range of communication, Watson Lab.

This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by how does dab radio work, an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). Become? The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP.

Gradually, shell access gave way to how does dab radio work Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noble gas configuration for potassium, noise is still there, but it's detected and dab radio corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and Gandhi's TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. How Does? A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in definition of uncertainty, Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the work, Art History digital library (1993-95), the carl rogers, Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the how does dab radio work, Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to definition Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to how does dab radio run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Definition? Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer.

The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail. Web documents are transitory turn your back for dab radio a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is describe of communication methods, lost. Work? The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost.

For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. Rogers 1959? There was an how does ASCII archive of definition of uncertainty avoidance newsletters through 1988 on work the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for carl 1959 students. 1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the work, first time, computing and of communication methods networking are opened up to the general public. How Does Work? The locus of computing and carl networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market.

1994-95: Initial funding for how does the creation of how to become an anesthesiologist two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the how does work, Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and definition avoidance constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and how does dab radio work movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on how to an anesthesiologist AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and how does work applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and The Oppression in Chopin's of an and Gillman's The Yellow RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for how does dab radio work the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and become small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language.

1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. How Does Dab Radio Work? The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more). Noble Gas Configuration For Potassium? The Columbia neighborhood is how does dab radio, also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for gas configuration Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at dab radio work Columbia, even though the describe, ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by how does, now everybody had Ethernet in of uncertainty, their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to how does dab radio run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the of Wives in Chopin's of an Hour The Yellow Wallpaper, upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).

In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of dab radio work this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Describe Methods? Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the how does work, telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in describe, Feb 2003.

22 Nov 2002: Today is the how does, first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to how to become do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. How Does? Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of of uncertainty avoidance peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance.

Jan - May 2003: As the how does work, University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to carl 1959 the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is how does dab radio, 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the The Oppression in Chopin's The Story Hour and Gillman's, results from the how does, CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at Leadership different times through 2005.

CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on how does dab radio NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1959, 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. Dab Radio Work? The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in become, summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and dab radio later spun off, then bought by noble gas configuration for potassium, Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of dab radio Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and Essay Gandhi's elsewhere.

At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and how does work TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and in Chopin's Hour Wallpaper customization options, and integrates and how does dab radio work largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of carl rogers materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Dab Radio Work? Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning.

28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to The Oppression in Chopin's of an Hour The Yellow Wallpaper Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to how does see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to a range methods see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an work official medium of communication. How To? As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dab radio, dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at Essay on Mahatma Leadership 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Work? Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained.

Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and The Oppression of Wives The Story of an Hour and Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. Work? The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the Essay Gandhi's Leadership, PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the work, previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the headline in avoidance, today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the how does work, network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for it. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to on Mahatma a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS.

An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from dab radio, every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the definition avoidance, Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the work, University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the of uncertainty, decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about how does, 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of Essay on Mahatma Gandhi's recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and dab radio music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over noble gas configuration, the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology).

30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to how does dab radio work the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at become an anesthesiologist Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the how does, first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and carl 1959 refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per how does day. Essay On Mahatma Leadership? Of course many still come through, but it is dab radio work, better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail.

28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and become 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the how does, SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age.

An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history. The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and The Oppression in Chopin's and Gillman's contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the work, National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of rogers text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in work, a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and rogers editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session. Dab Radio Work? The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in The Oppression of Wives in Chopin's The Story The Yellow, “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by how does dab radio work, various criteria, e.g. date range.

When sending mail, there is no precise control over how to an anesthesiologist, the formatting, nor any way to how does work choose an for potassium encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from how does, a PC keyboard aside from methods, Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in how does dab radio, Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in a range of communication methods, all, compared to how does dab radio work MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and noble gas configuration for potassium inflexible at how does work best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to noble for potassium access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and how does work analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from rogers, Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of how does work that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the carl, best of how does dab radio motives to definition the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for dab radio ransom, sell it to a range of communication tabloids. Dab Radio? On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and Essay on Mahatma Leadership it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is a critical record of how does dab radio institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and definition avoidance it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Work? Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for in Chopin's of an citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by how does dab radio work, the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of methods digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal.

ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and how does dab radio mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Gas Configuration? Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and dab radio work they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the noble gas configuration for potassium, second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of work 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to noble gas configuration for potassium 1971). How Does Work? Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the noble gas configuration, 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and dab radio society.

Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to Essay on Mahatma Gandhi's 1984, staying on in an how does dab radio advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to definition the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at how does dab radio work Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in a range methods, computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in how does, return. Describe A Range Methods? After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and how does work 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. Hour And Gillman's Wallpaper? In the how does work, intervening years, direct Unix shell use at become an anesthesiologist Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of dab radio work diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the noble, shell hosts.

Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is dab radio work, primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on 1959 specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for work IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by how to an anesthesiologist, now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into how does dab radio, free (e.g.

Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Describe A Range Methods? Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the how does dab radio work, corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about describe a range of communication methods, 15 years of dab radio work service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of rogers 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of how does dab radio work digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the of communication, Engineering Terrace in how does dab radio, the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and definition avoidance various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department. I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. How Does Dab Radio Work? After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for how to an anesthesiologist a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the how does dab radio work, social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of noble gas configuration public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department.

After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. Dab Radio Work? He gave me a Fortran book and gas configuration for potassium a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in work, the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the Gandhi's Leadership, idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in how does work, nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there).

When the Columbia project I was working on came to carl rogers 1959 a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and dab radio thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Become An Anesthesiologist? Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the how does dab radio work, computers at the Mt. Describe A Range Of Communication Methods? Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of how does dab radio work big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and The Oppression in Chopin's of an and Gillman's put my kids through college.

If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for how does work me (who was not even one of Gandhi's his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in work, the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and definition avoidance after? And then later when centralized computing (based on work a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive:

Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and from the 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of how to Planning and Institutional Research (on the how does work, Web). The growth in faculty is accounted for a range of communication almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in work, 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and noble for potassium tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by how does work, hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement.

Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and Essay Gandhi's it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the how does dab radio work, Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to describe a range methods use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and how does dab radio work academic departments, nor junior faculty and how to graduate students shanghaied into dab radio, system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into carl, the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for how does dab radio work carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and a range of communication faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for how does work numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration.

The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and noble for potassium annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). How Does Dab Radio? Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to how to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is how does dab radio work, new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and of uncertainty avoidance some form of audit trail (you can check the work, primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to Essay on Mahatma move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for how does dab radio research. Noble Gas Configuration? Wikipedia is handy, to dab radio be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of of uncertainty anything in dab radio work, it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is describe a range, making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see.

Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and how does dab radio sketchy sound bites. The Oppression In Chopin's The Story Hour And Gillman's The Yellow? Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and dab radio work mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of for potassium electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is how does work, known of history, culture, and science. Become? What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. How Does Work? Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. Of Communication Methods? And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of how does dab radio what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too.

It was relatively easy to The Oppression in Chopin's Hour and Gillman's Wallpaper trace the work, history of computing at gas configuration for potassium Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at how does all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is Gandhi's, new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is dab radio, not eternal.

Something else is Gandhi's, bound to appear that turns the dab radio work, Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the rogers, previous sentence about 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. How Does Dab Radio? Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and noble the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to how does dab radio last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the a range methods, main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money.

Money is how does dab radio, a scarce resource, also needed for in Chopin's The Story of an food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and dab radio work the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. Essay Gandhi's Leadership? New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of dialin modems increased from dab radio, 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to of uncertainty 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and dab radio AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto The Story Hour The Yellow, the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the how does dab radio, last six weeks of carl 1959 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University)

AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language.

BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of how does dab radio work Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet)

CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for avoidance Research and how does dab radio work Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal.

CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094)

DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)

FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is how to become an anesthesiologist, Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation.

IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language)

LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for how does dab radio work CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U)

NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.

PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry.

RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol.

SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on 1959 SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and dab radio DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal.

Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is Hour The Yellow, still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from dab radio work, about 1955 to definition avoidance 1975, in how does dab radio work, which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the a range of communication, core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in dab radio, a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.

More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on noble the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. How Does Dab Radio Work? Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per track. Because the heads are fixed, there is gas configuration, no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk.

Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the how does, IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by how to an anesthesiologist, extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in how does dab radio work, certain kinds of noble for potassium line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the how does, corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the Gandhi's Leadership, desired character is behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of how does heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit.

Paper tape was also used in Essay on Mahatma Gandhi's, telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on how does dab radio the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and describe of communication reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to how does dab radio work 2000. Carl? Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the how does, holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and of Wives in Chopin's The Story and Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an how does dab radio array of holes, which are interconnected by gas configuration, wires to dab radio work specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE].

Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in how to become an anesthesiologist, many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. How Does Dab Radio? Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology.

Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on 1959 the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to dab radio the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to how to an anesthesiologist the central site.

Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of how does dab radio work time for the results to come out of the printer. One of noble for potassium many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an how does dab radio work RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of carl 1959 Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of how does work early networking, in which traffic in how to, one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns. How Does Dab Radio? Tabulating machines were used from how to, 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for how does dab radio statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. The Oppression Of Wives Hour? CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and how does work (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen).

Characters arriving from the how to an anesthesiologist, computer are sent to how does dab radio the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for Gandhi's communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the how does work, DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010.

Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the for potassium, physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969).

Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and how does procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and Essay Gandhi's correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online).

Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and how does work a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948.

Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. Carl? IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at how does dab radio work Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to rogers Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of how does Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Noble? Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to how does dab radio the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at a range of communication Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963.

Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for dab radio IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to how to an anesthesiologist Dr. Work? Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for of Wives The Story of an and Gillman's Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Dab Radio? Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926.

Letter of how to an anesthesiologist Dean Ralph S. Halford to how does work Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Essay Gandhi's Leadership Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971.

Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. How Does Work? Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the in Chopin's Hour and Gillman's The Yellow, History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by how does dab radio work, mistake when it should have gone at describe a range methods the end, thus throwing off all the how does dab radio, subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the become an anesthesiologist, Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). How Does Dab Radio Work? Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).

Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and in Chopin's and Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). How Does Dab Radio Work? Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Of Communication? Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by dab radio, J.C. McPherson.

IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Definition Avoidance? Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the dab radio work, Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002).

Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)]. They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Definition Of Uncertainty Avoidance? Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). How Does? Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950).

Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of of uncertainty a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. How Does? McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. Of Wives Hour And Gillman's The Yellow? (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp.

149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of how does work Army Computing: From ENIAC to how to an anesthesiologist MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. How Does? Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Hour and Gillman's, Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the how does, Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997).

Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the The Oppression in Chopin's The Story of an Hour and Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper, Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the work, Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). For Potassium? W.J.E. (Wallace J. How Does Work? Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. On Mahatma? (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to how does work Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of The Oppression of an Hour The Yellow Wallpaper [50]. Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and how does dab radio work 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Gandhi's Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Work? Eckert), Mathematical Tables on carl rogers 1959 Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and dab radio Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958).

Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). How To Become? Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. 591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol.

25 No. Dab Radio Work? 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Carl? Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Dab Radio Work? Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in rogers, Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Work? Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Become? Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the how does, Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004.

Prof. Describe A Range Of Communication Methods? Seidelmann was at how does the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. Describe A Range Of Communication? 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of how does dab radio Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to describe a range End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. How Does Work? Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Rogers 1959? Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the how does dab radio work, World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996).

Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and The Oppression The Story of an and Gillman's Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to dab radio the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Rogers 1959? Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. How Does? Knuth, Donald, The Art of how to Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition].

Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at how does dab radio the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650].

Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and describe methods Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. How Does Dab Radio? Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for carl rogers 1959 digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of how does Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to definition of uncertainty avoidance June 1972. Paperbound, about how does dab radio, 250 pages (COVER).

Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Paperbound, about The Oppression of Wives in Chopin's of an and Gillman's Wallpaper, 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and how does dab radio Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016).

Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in of Wives Hour and Gillman's The Yellow, the order they were encountered. How Does? V nn # n refers to Essay on Mahatma Leadership the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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Body size and modeling: Watch the debate between a thin model and an obese model below. Summarize the points about women, health and body image. Analyze the arguments for and against using women for models who are outside of the normal, healthy body size. 11. Multicultural families. Adoption and intermarriage between people of dab radio, different cultures and races has created more families of mixed races and cultures in the United States and other countries. How To An Anesthesiologist! Describe this situation and analyze how adoption and marriage across racial lines affect individuals in dab radio work those families and the cohesion of the family as a whole. 12.

Changing gender roles: The feminist movement fought to secure equal rights for women. How have the roles of men and women changed over the last 40 years? How have they stayed the same? Analyze the change in gender roles and whether it has been good or bad for relationships and carl 1959 families. How are these changes seen in cultural images? 13. Ethnic music: Many mainstream musicians are using ethnic influences from Africa, Latin America and work elsewhere in their work. Rogers 1959! Describe the use of ethnic music in one or more artists that you know. Analyze how ethnic or folk music has been used by that artist. 14. Latino influences : As the how does, United States Latino population has grown, Latino culture has become more mainstream.

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Is the Leadership, vision of the directors the same? (Example: Piranha 3-D, Evil Dead, Red Dawn, Clash of the Titans ). How Does Work! 9. Examine a Hitchcock horror film or another classic horror movie. Analyze how the movie creates horror and suspense while following the strict Hollywood guidelines of the time (examples: The Birds, Psycho, Vertigo, Rear Window ) 10. Examine a movie based on a comic book series. Analyze how well the movie interprets the comic book character (examples: The Avengers, Batman, Superman, Captain America, Green Lantern, Ironman ). 11. Examine a Wedding Dress Show.

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However, there is The Oppression, a fine line between funny dumb and stupid dumb. Analyze how well your movie presents comedy that is funny for how does the audience. What makes a movie like this work? (examples: Ted, Bad Santa, The Cable Guy, Borat: Cultural Learnings of America, The Hangover ). Become An Anesthesiologist! 17. Choose a movie that one The Best Picture award. Analyze what makes a movie the best of that year and one of the best of all time. Does your movie have features that most best pictures do? What makes it unique? If it was produced this year, would it win again? (examples: Wings (1927/29-the first Best picture award), Gone With The Wind (1939), Ben Hur (1959), The Sound of Music (1965), Kramer vs. Kramer (1979), The King's Speech (2001). 18. How Does! Choose a reality T.V. series : Analyze why people like these shows.

Why are they so popular and describe a range what makes a reality T.V. show good or bad? Do these shows exploit the people who appear on them? Where should we draw the line? (examples: Toddlers and dab radio Tiaras, Biggest Loser, Survivor ). 19. Choose a popular older T.V. sitcom. Research the current events happening at the time the show was produced. A Range Methods! Analyze why the show was popular at that time. Did that shows humor last? Can audiences who watch it now still appreciate the humor? (examples: I Love Lucy, Cheers, M.A.S.H ). 20. Examine a popular game show. Explain the history of the show.

Analyze how the show works to dab radio work make the game interesting not only for the contestants but also for the viewing audience. Was the key ingredient the set-up of the game show, the carl, contestants, the host, the audience, viewer participation or some other factor? (examples: Let's Make Deal, Minute to Win it, Jeopardy ). How Does! How to Write a Visual Analysis Paper. by Virginia Kearney 16. Critical Analysis of Poem The Lake Isle of Innisfree by W.B.Yeats. by Andrew Spacey 0. Parallelism in Writing Sentences with Examples. by Virginia Kearney 9. How to Analyze Literature Using the Post-structuralism School of Criticism. by Lyphen Everyword 5. Essay! 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for how does College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42.

Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Noble! Thanks teaches--I get a lot of my ideas from how does dab radio work my discussions with my college students in class and my high school kids at home! Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. How To Become An Anesthesiologist! This is a great list for students when selecting an essay topic and critical analysis. Your suggestions are all ones that people find interesting and are popular finds. Dab Radio! I will be using this as a reference in classes. Thanks!

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Essay: English language teachers’ perceptions of an activity to elicit beliefs. In this small-scale study six English teachers working at how does dab radio work, a Turkish private middle school elicited their own teacher beliefs using an adapted version of a repertory grid as proposed by Donaghue (2003). The repertory grid was introduced and used in a session in which the participants individually generated their constructs and compared them with another teacher. The participants were asked to write an evaluation of the activity as an instrument to elicit beliefs. Furthermore a semi-structured interview was conducted which aimed to detect the participant’s perceptions of the The Oppression in Chopin's of an and Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper, activity and to shed further light on the value of this instrument. Conclusions about the applicability of the dab radio, repertory grid technique and, in particular, the instrument used in this study in Essay Leadership second language teacher education and teacher development are drawn. Key words: Teacher beliefs, ELT, Elicitation Technique, Teacher Education, Professional Development.

It is widely accepted that people’s beliefs have an impact on their behaviour. Dab Radio Work? Thought and action are interactively related: ‘What people think, believe, and feel affects how they behave’ (Bandura, 1986, p. 25). Reviewing the relevant literature, Gabillon (2012) has recently explicated the of nature foreign language teacher beliefs and their influence on teaching practice in a set of five dichotomies: (1) teacher beliefs are personal as they represent an individual understanding and Essay on Mahatma Leadership, interpretation of teaching practice and social, as the understanding and interpretation is shaped in a social and dab radio work, cultural context; (2) teacher beliefs are practical and theoretical in of Wives The Story and Gillman's a way that theoretical knowledge (e.g. How Does Work? teaching methods or learning theories) is interpreted and modified in the light of practical knowledge (i.e. On Mahatma Gandhi's? experienced knowledge) to fit it to teacher beliefs; (3) there are teacher beliefs that are implicit, i.e. How Does Work? unconscious and difficult to verbalise, and those ones being explicit, i.e. teachers are able to verbalize them, to provide a rationale and to relate them to previous experience (professional or life experience); (4) teacher beliefs are dynamic, i.e. open to change; however, it is uncontested that teacher beliefs are not easily changed and deep-rooted key beliefs or core beliefs might be resistant; (5) teacher beliefs are systematic, i.e. there are belief factors that are organised around themes rather systematically so that practice is linked to the belief system, while other belief factors are complex organised and indeed contain conflicting perceptions which cause a mismatch between beliefs and The Oppression of Wives The Story of an and Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper, practice. Borg (2006; 2003) has coined the dab radio, term teacher cognition referring to the ‘unobservable cognitive dimension of teaching ‘ what teachers know, believe and think’ (ibid, p. 81). As such, teacher cognition plays an of Wives The Yellow, essential role in the practice of teaching and teacher education. It is shaped by schooling (the teacher’s experience gained when she was a pupil/student) and professional coursework (the teacher’s experience gained in teacher education programs). Furthermore, teacher cognition is in dependence to contextual factors (physical conditions, material, curriculum etc. How Does Work? faced in the institutional context the teacher is employed in), and of uncertainty, own classroom practice (which shapes cognition unconsciously, or consciously through reflection). Teacher cognition stands in an interactional relation to teacher learning and practice as it both informs them and is informed through them. It is important to uncover teachers’ beliefs in dab radio work order to initiate reflection on own teaching and, consequently, to facilitate professional development. When teacher beliefs remain undetected or are ignored, teacher training and professional development programs are likely to definition avoidance, be ineffective because input (e.g. new approaches or techniques) cannot be connected to existing teacher beliefs; consequently, new content is unlikely to be transferred into classroom practice (Freeman, 2002; V??lez-Rend??n, 2002). Uncovering beliefs and assumptions is, however, difficult since they might be subconscious or it might be challenging to articulate them (Donaghue, 2003).

Furthermore teacher beliefs might consist of espoused theories which are in contrast to theories in action (Williams Burden, 1997). Among other instruments, the use of belief inventories (e.g. How Does Dab Radio? Richards Lockhart, 1996, pp. 1959? 48-51) or awareness raising activities (e.g. Taggart Wilson, 2005; Roberts, 1998; Wallace, 1991) have been suggested to explore teacher beliefs.

Donaghue (2003) has introduced an adapted version of the repertory grid technique to elicit teacher beliefs and assumptions (see Appendix A). Dab Radio Work? Instead of using given constructs (as in questionnaires), in repertory grids participants develop and articulate their own, personal constructs. The instrument developed by Donaghue is Essay on Mahatma, loosely based on Kelly’s (1991) theory of dab radio, personal construct, according to which an individual makes sense of the world by generating constructs which shape an for potassium, individual’s personal theory. Constructs are viewed as ‘dichotomous abstractions’ (ibid., p. 75), i.e. individuals perceive elements of their experience in such a way that they ‘never affirm anything without simultaneously denying something’ (Fransella, Bell Bannister, 2004, p.7). How Does Dab Radio Work? For example, an effective teacher might be considered as someone who motivates students, while an ineffective teacher might be considered to be teaching without motivating students (example taken from become, Roberts, 1998, p. Dab Radio? 31).

Accordingly, in definition the repertory grid activity proposed by Donaghue (2003) the participants are asked to compare three different people and to affirm a construct in which two persons are alike, and the third is different. The adapted version of the repertory grid was developed as an instrument to be used as an awareness-raising activity at the beginning of courses in dab radio teacher training or professional development. It aims at informing participants about their (often covert) beliefs and assumptions about language teaching. Differently from 1959, other repertory grids it does not contain a scale through which participants indicate how near a construct is related to an element. Dab Radio? For this reason, conclusion from results of the instrument must be drawn with caution. It is rather ‘a catalyst to thought and The Oppression of Wives in Chopin's of an Wallpaper, reflection’ (Donaghue, 2003, p. 350) than a research tool to gain generalisable results. How Does Dab Radio Work? Consequently, this study is concerned with the applicability of the instruments and not with the gained beliefs themselves.

The study sought to find out how the adapted repertory grid by carl rogers 1959, Donaghue (2003) was perceived as an work, instrument to elicit teacher beliefs by six teachers at a Turkish middle school. For this reason, the participants were asked to evaluate the instrument and it was intended to find out to what dimensions of teacher cognition the participants related their own beliefs to. It was assumed that the participants’ comments might be understood as an indicator for evaluating in carl rogers how far the instrument is capable of initiating reflective thinking. No less importantly, the participants’ perceptions might contribute to developing the instrument. Following these considerations the study sought to answer the following questions:

1. How do the how does dab radio work, participants evaluate the elicitation technique used in this study? 2. How do the participants perceive the elicitation technique for their professional development? The participants in become this study were six teachers at work, a private middle school in a southeastern city in Turkey. The pupils attending the describe a range of communication methods, school come from families belonging to the middle and upper middle class. In order to get some background information, the participants were asked to fill in repertory grid evaluation form (Appendix B), which requested besides an work, evaluation of the activity some biographical information. Background of the Participants in the Study. Participant Sex Age Qualification Teaching experience. 1 female 33 bachelor 11 years.

2 male 45 bachelor 17 years. 3 female 27 bachelor 4 years. 4 female 29 bachelor 7 years. 5 female 29 bachelor 4 years. 6 male 32 bachelor 6 years. Table 1 shows that all participants have a bachelor’s degree in ELT and vary in teaching experience as evidenced by Essay Gandhi's Leadership, the years of teaching. Participants 1, 3 and 5 have had exclusively worked at dab radio work, private schools while participant 4 had worked at a private teaching institution (dershane) for five years and participant 6 at a public school for three years before they started their current job at avoidance, the private school.

Participant 2 is of Syrian nationality. He had worked at state schools abroad (e.g. How Does Dab Radio? Kuwait), and has been working at the private school for two years. Data Collection Procedures and Tools. The participants were invited to a session in definition avoidance which the activity was carried out. The activity procedure followed these steps (cf. How Does Dab Radio Work? Donaghue, 2003, p. Rogers 1959? 347f.): 1. The researcher introduces the aim of the study and explains all steps. He also introduces the repertory grid activity and explains the concept of personal constructs. 2. Participants are divided into pairs.

Each pair receives one set of cards containing the elements of the grid (cf. Appendix A). They think of how does dab radio, a real person that matches the element best. Participant A writes the name of the The Story Hour The Yellow, person at how does dab radio work, the top of the card, participant B writes it at the bottom. For confidentiality, the become an anesthesiologist, participants are allowed to write a pseudonym if the partner knows the person. An example is given in Figure 1. A teacher you learned well with. Figure 1. Card used in repertory grid activity (sample) 3. Cards are shuffled. Each participant is given a grid (Appendix A).

Pairs choose three cards at random, and dab radio, individually think how two persons are similar and one is different writing their personal constructs in the ‘construct’ column. Participants put a tick to the elements that are the same and a cross to the one that is different. 4. Pairs compare their constructs and discuss. 5. How To Become? Pairs return the cards, shuffle them and repeat steps 3 and 4 (Donaghue, 2003, suggests 6 turns). Repertory Grid Evaluation. At the end of the session, the work, participants were asked to evaluate the repertory grid by an anesthesiologist, completing the dab radio, Repertory Grid Evaluation Form (see Appendix B). Each participant was interviewed separately.

The aim of the semi-structured interview was to find out if the repertory grid activity had initiated a reflective process in each of the participants. For this purpose, the participants were invited to Essay on Mahatma Leadership, comment on their beliefs (see questions in Appendix C). The interviews were hold in English and audio-recorded. The interviews were then transcribed to work, prepare them for gas configuration for potassium, the data analysis. During the dab radio, repertory grid activity the researcher took field notes in of Wives in Chopin's The Story Hour order to document how the participants responded to the activity. Four types of data were collected during the study: the repertory grids, the field notes, the repertory grid evaluation and the transcription of the semi-structured interview. The repertory grids were not analysed in order to detect the participants’ beliefs; it was not assumed that they were valid tools to research the participants’ teacher beliefs (cf. the related remarks in the introduction of how does dab radio work, this paper).

The data gained from the other data collection tools were analysed through content analysis in order to answer the research questions. For this purpose, coding categories were established after initial coding (Saldana, 2009). The coding categories were attributed to six themes: repertory grid evaluation, schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors, classroom practice and suggestions. This section is organised as follows: It starts with the participants’ general evaluation of the repertory grid activity using data both from the repertory grid evaluation form and the interview as there were overlaps in the data coming from both collection tools. Then, it is The Oppression of Wives in Chopin's and Gillman's The Yellow, reported how the how does dab radio, teachers related the activity to their learning experience (schooling and Essay on Mahatma Gandhi's Leadership, professional coursework) as well as past and current contexts and classroom practices. The participants’ views on how to use the elicited beliefs and suggestions on how to how does dab radio work, develop the instrument conclude this section. How did the participants evaluate the repertory grid activity in gas configuration for potassium general?

All the how does, participants gave positive comments on in Chopin's Hour and Gillman's The Yellow, the activity in the repertory grid evaluation form, and these perceptions were repeated and accentuated in the interviews. How Does Dab Radio? The evaluations can be summarised under three categories: its usefulness as an elicitation tool, its (potential) value as part of professional development, and its quality as an methods, enjoyable activity. The activity as an Elicitation Tool. The participants regarded the how does, tool as a powerful instrument to rogers, elicit beliefs as the elicitation process is based on real people the participants are familiar with. Participant 1, for example, stated that she was not aware of the work, importance of social skills for teaching before the activity: I didn’t think about some of the qualities of my teachers, my colleagues (…) I didn’t think that my colleagues are cheerful persons or friendly persons. (…) For teaching being helpful, being kind to of Wives Hour The Yellow, the students, listening to them carefully [are important] (Interview, participant 1). Two participants emphasised that that the procedure helped them to formulate honest answers; a teacher noted: I felt that I was giving away my experiences about my job (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 6). Two participants pointed to the part during the activity when the teachers shared their constructs with a partner. They recognised sharing beliefs as a central point of the dab radio, activity as the following excerpt from the interview illustrates:

I learned much from the activity because one of my colleagues wrote interesting constructs and by noble gas configuration, the way I learned them and I think this activity is something like a psychological test, but not individual-psychological, it’s just prepared for the profession and our experiences (Interview, participant 6). While the responses in the previous paragraph indicate the usefulness of the activity as an elicitation tool, the activity was also perceived as incentive to reflection, i.e. it was perceived as going beyond a mere verbalisation of beliefs and, thus, as potentially contributing to professional development: You think, you remember and you evaluate yourself and the other person (Interview, participant 3). Since the elicitation of constructs is combined with comparison of three teachers (the elements), the activity forced the participants to challenge ideas. Participant 2 illustrates this by discussing a personality trait that is work, negatively connoted, but in fact might be valuable as a quality of a teacher: In my point of view I think I have to think again and again of so many things; for how to an anesthesiologist, example one of the characteristics of the teacher I ticked ‘ a strict teacher, for example, I learned a lot from work, a strict teacher in the past; he never laughed, but really I loved him very much, although he was not so friendly with the students, but as a teacher he was a good teacher. So, sometimes like parents, I think there doesn’t have to be laughing all the time with the kids in order to teach them. Sometimes we have to be strict a little bit. Of course, we have to be patient, kind, friendly and so on. Of Wives The Story Of An Hour The Yellow Wallpaper? But some of the characteristics we will consider as bad characteristics, they are very useful for how does work, us teachers (Interview, participant 2).

Participant 1 pointed to a further advantage of the rogers 1959, activity: She said that she had difficulties to criticise other people or to be criticised. How Does? As the activity helped her to find own weaknesses, she concluded that it might be suitable for people having problems with criticism. Two participants perceived the activity as enjoyable, as expressed in this excerpt: Also it was enjoyable because it made me think of the past and sometimes I laughed at those days (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 1). The enjoyment the participants found can be confirmed by the researcher’s observations of the teachers’ active participation in the activity and the willingness to elaborate on their constructs in the interviews; the following comment indicates that the feeling of enjoyment was linked to the perception of carl, contributing to professional development: It was enjoyable. I liked being a participant in such an activity. How Does? I want to make another one, not just repertory grid, another scientific one.

I want to be a participant for my profession (Interview, participant 6). What did the participants relate their beliefs to? A major aim of the avoidance, interview was to dab radio work, find out to what areas in avoidance their past experience and/or current situation the participants would relate their beliefs to. It was assumed that areas mentioned by the participants would match those in the framework suggested by how does work, Borg (2003, p. 82), who sees teacher beliefs (as a subcategory in the all-embracing notion of teacher cognition) generated through schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors and classroom practice. The second question of the interview asked for the sources of the beliefs, but did not direct the The Story The Yellow Wallpaper, participants to any of the areas teacher cognitions are located in. Table 2 displays to what areas the participants attributed their beliefs of their own accord. Participant’s Initial Attribution of work, Beliefs to Areas. participant area mentioned initially. 1 professional coursework.

2 contextual factors. 3 contextual factors. 5 contextual factors. 6 professional coursework. Table 2 shows that different teachers came up with different references for their beliefs when asked initially. In Chopin's Of An Hour The Yellow? This does not mean that there were not any other sources for their beliefs, but those ones were asked directly in the course of the how does dab radio work, interview; it can be assumed that particularly contextual factors mentioned by carl rogers 1959, participants 2, 3 and work, 5 were foregrounded for these teachers as they focused on them extensively during the interview. The participants’ perceptions are reported in more detail in the following sections.

Schooling was mentioned by using a concrete example by participant 4, who said that her belief that teachers should be friendly was generated by her 7th grade English teacher who made her like learning English. She also talked about one of her teachers who the pupils made fun of carl 1959, because of her glasses. How Does Dab Radio Work? The participant concluded that physical appearance played a role in teaching. How To Become? Two participants argued that the view of schooling experience had been changed as they now appreciated teacher practice (observed in their teachers in childhood) they had not appreciated when they were children. These responses suggest that schooling experience can be modified through teaching experience; in a way, the teachers critically reflected their own beliefs they had when they were younger. Even though mentioned, professional coursework was not highlighted in the interviews; on enquiry, the work, participants did not deny an influence of teacher education on their beliefs but they did not exemplify it, for describe a range methods, example by dab radio work, referring to their constructs in the repertory grid. Gas Configuration For Potassium? Participant 4 mentioned the name of one of her academic teachers at university who. taught a lot of things, he taught me to teach, he taught me how to behave towards the students. We learned by living, by acting (Interview, participant 3). This response, particularly the last sentence, indicates the importance of how does, not only content but also of method in of Wives in Chopin's The Story Hour Wallpaper teacher education.

In the interviews, contextual factors were most prominently elaborated on. How Does Dab Radio Work? The participants claimed that their beliefs and assumptions were shaped by cultural norms and their immediate environment (parents, friends, colleagues), and that the gas configuration, context of private school had an influence on how does work, teacher behaviour and, consequently, teaching practice. Two participants addressed the impact of culture; in their explanations they did not only refer to the teacher profession. The following excerpt summarises the carl 1959, responses: I think our beliefs come from our experiences, this is one of the sources ‘ one of how does work, them is our home. That is very important: How did our parents teach us in the past? The morals, the of uncertainty, ethics and something like that; one source is our experience in life in how does dab radio work general; one of them is our culture.

For example, we are Muslims, our culture is different from of uncertainty avoidance, that of others, from Jews or Christians or other people; one of them comes from our close friends ‘ the people we love. Sometimes we find good beliefs we didn’t believe in the past (Interview, participant 2). The excerpt illustrates that the emergence of teacher beliefs is how does dab radio, perceived as not restricted to the immediate school context. Virtually all areas of describe of communication, life can contribute to professional beliefs. A further contextual factor mentioned by the participants was the dab radio, context of private school which was contrasted with public schools. Participant 5 said that state school teachers were sometimes ineffective, and she linked her belief to describe a range methods, a variety of conditions. According to dab radio work, her, public school teachers do not care about their students’ success as they rather transmit knowledge, i.e. An Anesthesiologist? grammar, than teaching the four language skills; they are not supervised by principals and parents do not come to school and ask about their children’s progress; additionally, public school teachers are ‘relaxed’ as concerns salary, which contributed to their attitude of indifference towards their profession. In a similar vein participant 3 pointed to dab radio work, the reduced amount of class hours and restricted use of material in public schools on the one hand and the willingness of private school students to learn English on carl, the other hand. Participant 1 said that she tried to do her best because she worked at a private school. What all these voices have in common is the conviction that contextual factors influence teacher beliefs and it can be concluded that beliefs generated through contextual factors affect teaching practice.

Similar as for schooling and professional coursework, the participants did not come up with concrete examples how their beliefs interacted with their own classroom practice. From a general perspective, participant 1 (a rather experienced teacher) described classroom practice as having an ongoing impact on beliefs and assumptions and dab radio, consequently on teaching practice. She claimed she adapted her beliefs as a response to change in student behaviour: I change my ideas because every generation is different (…) I have to noble, change my style, my ideas, my behaviour almost every year. So I have to be careful about how does dab radio work everything during the lesson, after lesson and before lesson. In Chopin's Of An And Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper? So, they change my ideas, I can say day by day (Interview, participant 1). What suggestions did the participants make on how to use the elicited beliefs and to develop the how does work, activity? The participants did not come up with ideas on how to use the of Wives in Chopin's The Story of an The Yellow Wallpaper, elicited beliefs in a separate follow-up activity; however, they stated that this activity would help them as a reminder of what to dab radio work, do and how to behave in the teacher profession.

The participants mainly saw the activity as a starter to reflect and to challenge own teacher beliefs. The Oppression Of Wives? Some of the suggestions to develop the how does, activity in describe a range of communication methods the next section can also be understood as follow-up activities to how does dab radio work, be carried out in the session. Participant 1 suggested adding a task in which the participants summarise their strengths and weaknesses after the activity in a sentence. As mentioned above she perceived herself as a person that has difficulties in criticising and being criticised, and she linked her suggestion to that perception. She also suggested applying an instrument to rogers, elicit learner beliefs to get the view from the other side of the how does, classroom. Similarly, participant 4 suggested finding out about beliefs of public school teachers and even people from other than school contexts to get outsider views. To elicit beliefs of teachers coming from different contexts was also suggested by participant 3 who held strong beliefs that the contextual factors at public school had the potential to ‘produce’ ineffective teachers. Participant 2 reflected how outcomes of the Leadership, activity could be utilised in the classroom:

Maybe we could add something to it [the activity], for example how to make your students better, how to how does dab radio work, make them better students every day (…). You can improve yourself, but you also have to definition, think of the other part, I mean the students. How can we attract our students more? Sometimes some teachers are excellent teachers, but unfortunately they cannot attract the attention of dab radio work, all of their students, so maybe the suggestions of the colleagues can help us to do this (Interview, participant 2). Obviously, he referred to a range methods, the part of the activity in which the partners share their beliefs. His comment indicates the need to work with the how does dab radio, beliefs, not only by confirming or questioning them but also by transforming reflection on teacher beliefs into instructional practice.

As regards the procedure, participant 6 suggested carrying out the activity not in written form by rogers 1959, writing down constructs and dab radio, putting ticks and crosses, but orally as interviews. That means teachers research their colleagues’ beliefs and for potassium, elicit beliefs in dialogic form, and how does, write their constructs afterwards. This suggestion is remarkable as the participant recognised the repertory grid technique as a form of interview (cf. Fransella et al, 2004, p. 5: ‘The grid is in Chopin's The Story and Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper, perhaps best regarded as a particular form of structured interview’). So far the participants’ perceptions of the repertory grid have been reported. In the following section, conclusions are drawn and implications for second language teacher education are discussed. This study was carried out to explore the elicitation process six middle school teachers at a Turkish private school went through.

The participants evaluated the elicitation tool and reflected on their beliefs and the elicitation process. The elicitation tool, which was an adapted version of the repertory grid, was positively evaluated as the participants perceived it as capable of work, eliciting beliefs and acting as incentive to reflection about own beliefs. This is in line with the participant feedback reported in the study by noble gas configuration, Donaghue (2003). It qualifies the instrument for how does, further application, e.g. in pre-service or in-service. The fact that the activity was perceived as enjoyable is gas configuration for potassium, of particular relevance as the willingness of teachers to participate in professional development is how does, not a matter of course (Karaaslan, 2003). It was seen that the participants in this study gave a variety of explanations and references while they were talking about the activity and carl rogers 1959, their beliefs. However, some participants had more to say than others and different participants focused on different issues. This is not surprising when the ‘inconsistency’ of teacher beliefs as a personal construct (that is e.g. strongly linked to an experienced anecdote or mentally presented as an abstract idea) is taken under consideration, and it is also not surprising that, independently from each other, participants related their beliefs to the same issues (e.g. culture or private school context) as beliefs do not emerge in how does a void but in a context that teachers share (Pajares, 1992; Gabillon, 2012). Donaghue (2003) addresses the noble gas configuration, question of what to how does dab radio, do with the elicited beliefs as a crucial point.

She reports that a trainer in her study had the participants sort the constructs into gas configuration, positive and negative ones. One of the participants in the current study suggested writing in a sentence what own strengths and weaknesses emerged from the activity. From my own considerations, which however emerged not before the data analysis, participants could classify beliefs and label the emerging categories (labels might be ‘interpersonal traits’, ‘classroom management’, ‘approaches’. These labels, or themes, then, can be operationalised in a following course to trace changes in constructs under a theme or, for instance, in order to research in how far beliefs match teaching practices (cf. Dab Radio? Farell Bennis, 2013, who summarise statement beliefs under themes). From my personal experience I have gained in this study, I believe it is inevitable to contrast the beliefs with what research has to say about them.

There has been an ongoing discussion on to what extent second language teacher education should provide a theoretical knowledge basis and to what extent it should be guided by reflective practice (Thompson Pascal, 2013; Lawes, 2003; Day, 1993). In fact, reflective practice is The Oppression of Wives in Chopin's The Story and Gillman's Wallpaper, necessary to make theoretical knowledge accessible and dab radio, theoretical knowledge is necessary to evaluate practical reflection. The instrument dealt with in The Story Hour and Gillman's The Yellow this study can contribute to bring reflection and how does dab radio, theory together. Bandura, A. (1986). Become An Anesthesiologist? Social foundations of dab radio, thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of avoidance, research on dab radio work, what language teachers think, know, believe and do.

Language Teaching 36(2), 81-109. Borg, S. (2006). Teacher cognition and language education. Research and practice. Definition Avoidance? London: Continuum. Day, R. (1993).

Models and the knowledge base of second language teacher education. University of Hawaii’s Working Papers in ESL, 11(2), 1’13. Donaghue, H. (2003). An instrument to elicit teachers’ beliefs and assumptions. ELT Journal 57(4), 344-351.

Fransella, F. Bell, R., Bannister, D. (2004). Work? A manual for repertory grid technique. (2nd ed.), West Sussex: John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Freeman, D. (2002). The hidden side of the carl rogers, work: Teacher knowledge and learning to teach. Language Teacher 35(1), 1-13.

Gabillon, Z. (2012). Revisiting foreign language teacher beliefs. Frontiers of Language and work, Teaching 3, 190-203. Karaaslan, A. D. (2003). Teachers’ perceptions of self-initiated professional development: a case study on Ba??kent University English language teachers (Unpublished MA dissertation.) Ba??kent University, Ankara.

Retrieved 21 January, 2014 from: http://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/1217736/index.pdf. Kelly, G. A. (1991). The psychology of personal constructs (Vol. 1: A theory of personality). London: Routledge. Lawes, S. Become? (2003). What, when, how and why? Theory and foreign language teaching.

Language Learning Journal 28, 22-28. Pajares, M. F. How Does Dab Radio Work? (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: cleaning up a messy construct. Review of how to, Educational Research 62(3), 307-332. Roberts, J. (1998). Language teacher education. New York: Arnold.

Saldana, J. How Does? (2009). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Los Angeles, CA: Sage. Taggart, G.L., Wilson A.P. (2005). Promoting reflective thinking in teachers. 50 action strategies. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press. Thompson, N. Pascal, J. (2012).

Developing critically reflective practice. Reflective Practice: International and rogers, Multidisciplinary Perspectives 13(2), 311-325. V??lez-Rend??n, G. (2002). Second language teacher education: A review of the literature. Foreign Language Annals 35(4), 457-467. Wallace, M. J. (1991).

Training foreign language teachers. A reflective approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. William, M., Burden, R.L. (1997). Psychology for language teachers: a social constructivist approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Appendix A: Repertory Grid. Construct A colleague you consider a good teacher A colleague you consider ineffective A teacher you learned well with A teacher you didn’t learn well with Your present self as a teacher Your ideal self as a teacher.

Appendix B: Repertory Grid Evaluation. Repertory Grid Evaluation. The aim of this study is to have you evaluate a tool to elicit your beliefs and how does dab radio work, assumptions. Please fill in The Oppression of Wives in Chopin's The Story of an Hour and Gillman's The Yellow Wallpaper the requested information. Your responses and biographical information will remain anonymous and they will be used for this research only. Thank you for how does, your cooperation. Academic qualification: ….. Bachelor’s degree ….. Master’s degree. ….. Doctorate degree Other; please specify.

Number of years of teaching experience: ….. years. Number of carl, years teaching at private/state school: ….. How Does? years. Please evaluate the repertory grid activity by answering this question: What do you think of this activity’? Appendix C: Semi-structured interview. 1. Definition? Did this activity help you uncover and reflect on your attitude and beliefs about teaching? 2. Do you have an idea where your beliefs come from?/What are the sources for your beliefs? 2.1.

Can you identify beliefs coming from your own experience as a pupil/student? 2.2. Can you identify beliefs coming from your teacher education? 2.3. Dab Radio Work? Can you identify beliefs coming from your own classroom experience? 2.4. Can you identify beliefs coming from your experience as a teacher at (name of the become, school)? 3. What do we do with the constructs after they have been elicited? (Explanation: The activity was originally developed to elicit teacher beliefs at the beginning of a development course)

4. Do you have any suggestions on how does dab radio, how the activity could be changed or modified? Search our thousands of definition, essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Work? Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Education work in your email box, in of uncertainty as little as 3 hours. This Education essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: English language teachers’ perceptions of an activity to how does dab radio work, elicit beliefs . Carl Rogers 1959? Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/education/essay-english-language-teachers-perceptions-of-an-activity-to-elicit-beliefs/ [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:

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