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Salman Rushdie. An Anthology of Critical Essays in New Millennium. The Novels of Salman Rushdie: A Postcolonial Reading. Section-A Midnights Children: Fiction, History and the Nation. 1. Presentation of a Wounded Civilization: A Cosmopolitan Perspective of Midnights Children. 2. The Dichotomous Nature of Decolonisation of of educational India in Salman Rushdies Midnights Children. Sutanuka Ghosh Roy.

3. Interfacing Myth vs. History: A Postcolonial Study of Salman Rushdies Midnights Children. Ram Bhawan Yadav. 4. Salman Rushdies Midnights Children: A Kaleidoscopic View. T. Sasikanth Reddy.

5. In Time of Narrating the Nation: Rushdies Transcendence of National History in Midnights Children. Section-B Diasporic Identity, Intertextuality, Treatment of History and Autobiography. 6. Diasporic Identity in Salman Rushdie's Shalimar the Clown. 7. Indianness and Satire of History in Salman Rushdies The Moors Last Sigh. 8. Journey towards New World in the selected Novels of Essay Salman Rushdie. 9. Globalization and Cosmopolitanism: Major Themes in of educational research the Works of Salman Rushdie. Hetal K. Kachhia. 10. Theological Aspects and Diasporic Sensibilities in Rushdies Satanic Verses.

11. Salman Rushdies Shame: A Study of Narrative Strategies. Nesha Sabar and Pramod Kumar Das. 12. Role. Salman Rushdie: A Self-Proclaimed Controversialist. 13.

Chutneys, Pickles, Palimpsests and Collages: Lived and Imagined Temporalities in the Works of Salman Rushdie. 14. Nation and Non-narration: Multiplicity, Hybridity and Heterogeneity in Salman Rushdies The Moors Last Sigh. Manjeet Kumar Kashyap. 15. Metautobigraphicity: Some Observations on Salman Rushdies Enchantress of Florence-165. A Note on Contributors Profile.

The Novels of Salman Rushdie: A Postcolonial Reading. Salman Rushdies novels launch a scathing critique of intellectuals and politicians whose endorsement of pluralism is purely rhetorical. Rushdie shows that people who claim to promote unity are actually complicit in importance of educational research creating ethnic strife Rushdie wants a productive, inclusive cosmopolitanismcan have serious unintended consequences. (Trousdale 91) Rushdie may epitomize the migrant writer par excellence with all its potential for reinventing the world and the subject of frankenstein shelley human identity, but the Rushdie affair also places him in a position in which he seems to personify the flip side of globalizationthat is, the importance research, clash of civilizations, the increasing gap between cultures, and the proliferation of fundamentalism. (Frank 132) The winner of the Booker Prize (1981), the mary torrent, Booker of Bookers (1993) and the Best of the Bookers (2008) and, of late, the PEN Pinter (2014), the name that has dominated the literary world since establishing himself as a leading exemplum of postcolonial, postmodern and diaspora writings, is the renegade, Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie. Famous for multifarious writing, he himself is a multifaceted personality, often emerges as an unpredictable figure with an unfathomable depth of importance research creativity and criticism. Being an mary torrent iconoclast, Rushdie never chooses the trodden road: he rather plunges headstrong into the unexplored territories of literature, not yet attempted. For the Booker, he never ran the race rather he reached the zenith of the success by bagging the importance of educational, same for Midnights Children in 1981. This monumental novel has carved niche not only in the history of the Indian English literature but also in the multilingual Literature/s written across the world.

Rushdie played a ground-breaking role in new beginnings the blending of history with fiction and magic realism. With him begins the era of new writings, new experiments giving him a new identity the postmodern figure and a progenitor of new generation - the feminists, midnights children. Not only his works but he himself also is a postmodern product - a blend of a god for literary aestheticians and a Satan for religious aestheticians. He has therefore generated enormous interest in intellectual circles as a vibrant writer for analysis and interpretation of his writings. He is a recipient of the Booker from the judges of of educational literary art, hooker from political commercials and Fatwa from the the interesting life of olaudah summary, self-declared custodians of Islam, of Allah. He is importance of educational research, a fighter combating with his two selvesthe inner and life of olaudah equiano summary the outer, and also at of educational research, the same time with the stereotyping feminists, external world for his The Satanic Verses. His literary dictatorship entangles him into controversies, and arrows of of educational research words penetrating his heart and mind compelling him for introspection.

However, Rushdie defends himself at an appearance at bullying and peer pressure, 92nd Street Y, expressing his views on copyright while answering a question whether he had considered copyright law barriers (impediments) to importance research, free speech: No but thats because I write for a living, (laughs) and have no other source of pictures portraying bullying income, and I naively believe that stuff that I create belongs to me, and research that if you want it you might have to give me some cash. [] My view is I do this for a living. The thing wouldn't exist if I didn't make it and pictures portraying pressure so it belongs to me and don't steal it. You know. It's my stuff. 1.

He advocates the application of higher criticism, pioneered during the of educational research, late 19th century. In a guest opinion piece printed in The Washington Post and The Times in mid-August 2005, Rushdie called for a reform in Islam: What is needed is a move beyond tradition, nothing less than a reform movement to bring the core concepts of Islam into the modern age. A Muslim Reformation to combat not only the jihadist ideologues but also the dusty, stifling seminaries of the traditionalists, throwing open windows to let in much-needed fresh air . Frankenstein Shelley. . . It is high time, for starters, that Muslims were able to study the revelation of their religion as an event inside history, not supernaturally above it, . . . Broad- mindedness is related to tolerance; open-mindedness is the sibling of piece. Research. 2. Call him a defector or a Satan or an antireligious rabble but he seeks Gods blessings by asking for an apology through his Luka and the Fire of life Life. The apology is not for having been blasphemous but for having shaken the faith of Muslims before preparing a suitable environment for developing humanist and rational thinking in them that could save them from being blind traditionalist and religious fundamentalists. The heterogeneous journeys of his writing transform him into a sage of literary art and devotee of the God, the research, Allah. He admits, Man is the storytelling Animal, and that in stories are his identity, his meaning, and his lifeblood (Luka 34).

It is for this reason, perhaps, the Allah saved Rushdie from Hezbollahs bomb attack to assassinate him. Moreover, despite all controversial condemnations, he was knighted for portraying bullying and peer pressure his services to literature in the Queens Birthday Honours on 16th of June, 2007. He remarked, I am thrilled and humbled to receive this great honour, and I am very grateful that my work has been recognized in this way. 3 Rushdies emergence with his creative bulk has dazzled and amazed for being unconventional rather than becoming conundrum for importance of educational both, the contemporary authors and the readers. He began writing as an anti-colonial and postcolonial reactionary to the West; he switched to incorporate diasporic experiences of his own and of other migrants as well. He, thus, pioneered himself in Diaspora writing and world literatures which are over-ripe fruits of postcolonialism. He pioneered himself as a major voice of and peer pressure decolonization, multiculturalism, diasporic experiences and also of new humanism. His works embody the stamp of concurrent Indian conventions and Indo-Anglian interests which lead him to interface with the of educational research, worldwide readership, especially to the Western audience. The publication of The Satanic Verses landed him in the labyrinth of controversy worldwide and Life post-9/11: Without Essay resulted decreed death sentence (Fatwa) on him. It epitomizes the postcolonialists flimsy and constant battle to balance the demands of importance of educational conflicting cultures. Struggling with his inner conflicts and colonial identity, living as a permanent outsider, he searches for personal authenticity in one or many cultures.

He is the spokesperson for the people of the subcontinent who are presently residing in the alien lands. Staying within the domains of the mainstream ideologues such as Britain and the US, he mimics and comments on role of the samurai, all Western ideologies and proves himself to importance of educational research, be a representative of the East. Religious and cultural diversity of both India and Britain offers Rushdie a wealth of the experience of unnumbered issues and themes that consistently refract throughout his oeuvre. It is his multilevel experience that becomes valuable materials for the variety of his following novels. Every novel of Salman Rushdie deals with the thoughts of national and International theses keeping in of the samurai mind his primary focus on his India and its subcontinents i.e. Pakistan and Bangladesh. The very opening pages of his novels evoke the themes of migration, exile, diasporic consciousness, nationalism, multiculturalism, dualism etc. His writings have become the focus of a certain kind of struggle for cultural identity in Britain and research other Western states. Midnights Children, his magnum opus, is an agenda of postcolonial and postmodern reactions.

The novel is a conglomeration of an assortment of themes occurred in postcolonial India. The Interesting Of Olaudah Equiano Summary. It is a fantasized version of the historical reality of India that spans from the Jallianwala Massacre of 1919 to the period of Emergency imposed by importance of educational research Indira Gandhi in 1977. Rushdies new venture of blending history with fiction and fiction with history employing the technique of magic realism and supernatural elements make the novel characteristically more different than what many other authors had already attempted. Midnights Children is superficially the biography of Saleem Sinai and potentially autobiography of Salman Rushdie but allegorically the feminists, history of India. The same has recently been adapted to a movie with eponymous title by Deepa Mehta in which Rushdie has given his voice over. Employing the narrative techniques of Gabriel Garcia Marquez and of educational research Gunter Grass, Rushdie amalgamates facts with fiction so artistically that sometimes it becomes a Herculean task to differentiate between truth (history) and fiction (literary invention). Midnights Children, thus, has become a trend-setter since its publication in 1981. As Rajeshwar Mittapalli and role of the Pier Paulo Piciucco put it:

The imaginative re-working of Indian history in importance of educational a culturally hybrid environment, the innovative use of literary techniques. together with a supreme command of the English language and a genius for story telling modeled on the hoary Indian narrative traditions and the conclusion research essay be debatable cultural practices, had established Midnight's Children as a trend setter and classic for all times. (Preface) The novel deals with displacement and rootlessness which are the main factors of importance of educational identity crisis. Almost all the major characters whether it is Life Children Essay, Saleem Sinai or Shiva or Padma or Parvati suffer from this psychological disease of alienation and identity crisis. Sinai is a true portrait of importance research Rushdie for he himself is the victim of same ailment. The hero Saleem, like his creator, wanders from Life post-9/11: Without Parents place to place, from Bombay to Karachi and from Karachi to Bangladesh finally comes back to Bombay. Rushdie himself returns to India again by the time, not to the geographical India but to the India of the mind (Rushdie, 1991). In view of Klaus Boerner, Midnights Children is a Copernican turning-point in the history of literature and of ideas (23) that paves the path for other novels of Rushdie. The effect of this Booker winner substantive text has worked as guiding force behind writing other novels.

Thus, the of educational research, next novel Shame was found to post-9/11: Parents Essay, be a shorter version of its predecessor Midnights Children dealing with the research, history of Pakistan- an insufficiently imagined country, with a blend of feminists diasporic discourse than of fiction. Overtly it is a novel about political turmoil of Pakistan presenting the themes, issues and conflicts of the then conditions but covertly it deals with many major and minor political and social issues. The novel marks the condition of Pakistani women in the light of postcolonial theory. Research. The condition of diasporic women is worse; they are doubly marginalized, and are the life of olaudah equiano, victims of patriarchal dominance. In both of of educational these novels, Rushdies representation of frankenstein mary textualized history displays his multiple aspects that replace the uni-linear version of importance of educational research official history.

Rushdies history is the pictures, version of his memory rather than the of educational research, officially written one. He never describes the past but remakes the past to suit his present purpose using memory as his tool. Midnights Children and Shame are to some extent, the mary shelley torrent, history of India and Pakistan respectively. But his novels move beyond the bounds of importance research history for Life post-9/11: Without Essay the purpose of of educational research finding universal significance of historical forces that are operating at a particular phase of time. He manipulates the truth to fictionalize it and samurai thus, makes the real unreal and vice versa. The third novel of Rushdie, The Moors Last Sigh is of educational, more a postmodern than a postcolonial one. The protagonist and narrator Moor inherits the blend of torrent races and creeds of India. His mother Aurora has the blood of Portuguese invaders as well as Catholicism in her veins whereas his father is one of the last Jews of Cochin and a descendant of Boabdil, the last Moorish ruler of Spain.

The entire family mimics the chaotic diversity of South India. Throughout the narrative Rushdie celebrates multiculturalism and hybrid ethnicity. This novel presents a family that splits on the views of nationalism and anti-nationalism and the division of the family symbolizes the divisions in research the country in stereotyping feminists the name of of educational pro-Empire and freedom loving people. The Moors Last Sigh is Life post-9/11: Children Essay, also an attack on the parochial Hinduism led by Shiv Sena in Maharashtra. The people of Shiv Sena have led India towards its unwanted destination, towards a religious country instead of a secularist one. India is known for of educational its unity in diversity-- its multi- ethnicity, its multi-religions and its multi-culturalism. But the fundamentalist Hindus and Muslims have led it astray.

This India is against the India that was dreamt of by its freedom fighters, namely Nehru, Gandhi, Subhash and Azad. Though the role, novel delineates the post- colonial history of India, its metaphoric and linguistic divisions yet it attack India for becoming a pseudo-secularist nation. The publication of The Satanic Verses, in importance research which Rushdie treats Quran as a literary text, open for frankenstein mary shelley individual perceptions dared to attempt higher criticism but its aftermath created turmoil in research his mind. However, Hindu Fundamentalists banned The Moors Last Sigh also in some parts of India due to its attack on Shiv Senas supremo, Late Bal Thackeray. But after his colonial and postcolonial narration, Rushdie moves towards global, pop and jazz music. His next novel The Ground beneath Her Feet, fictionalizes the fact of Ayatollah Khomeini decreed Fatwa on him. Of Olaudah Equiano Summary. Rushdie begins the novel with the death of the female protagonist Vina Apsara on the fourteenth of February 1989, the very date of of educational Fatwa.

The novel raises many global issues incorporating Greek myths and applying postmodern technique. The Ground beneath Her Feet proposes the concept of a new world, a world free from the conclusion research be debatable communal, religious and national boundaries. In The Ground beneath Her Feet all the pains of Diasporas such as alienation, trauma and longing for homeland have faded out for representative migrants Ormus and importance of educational Rais love Teenage Vina Apsara, of this novel are valueless because music is beyond restraint. Because of globalization and liberalization all the conflicts arising from border crossing have washed away. Therefore, diasporic consciousness has also become abstract rather than geographical or psychological. Hybridity and multiculturalism fused in the characters point out Rushdies view towards a future in which the world, demolishing all boundaries, will be united to face any threat. Pictures And Peer. However, Rushdies personality differs from his theory. He himself is importance, unable to step across the frontiers and stereotyping feminists it seems that he is still lingering within his parochial world from which he is destined not to come out.

The collision between the reactions of Islamic countries against him and his instinct for research critiquing the religious fundamentalism produced a writhing fury within him. The novel Fury is a concrete and material form of his own abstract fury. It is his first 3-D, full volume American novel, finger snapping, wildly mind-boggling, often slyly funny, red- blooded and red toothed 4 (Miami Herald). Malik Solanka, the hero of the novel, is a new version of and peer Buddha who leaves his home for New York without informing anyone. Rushdie once again appears in the disguise of Solanka. Like his creator, Solanka also first flees from his academic life, then from his family and immersed into a world of miniatures. He creates a puppet called Little Brain and later seeing its popularity he himself becomes furious. The novel accurately deals with the research, darkest side of human nature. The novel Shalimar the Clown is his return to the Indian sub-continent that he left in The Ground beneath Her Feet and Fury. This novel demystifies the political upheaval of Kashmir that resulted due to the interference of America. The novelist delineates the story of samurai post-colonial Kashmir and explains the reasons why the paradise became hell, how the importance research, Hindu-Muslim unity came under suspicion, why and Life Children Without how the citizens of paradise started becoming terrorists and what role India and importance of educational Pakistan played in creating the chaos and commotion.

Through the pictures and peer, story of Shalimar and Boonyi, Rushdie displays the Hindu-Muslim harmony that existed before independence. The central theme of the novel is the making of a terrorist as terror becomes a global phenomenon and research a cause of concern worldwide. The effort to look into the mind and get under the skin of why would research a terrorist becomes an artistic challenge that the novelist has dealt competently in Shalimar the Clown. In fact, the novel narrates the story of postcolonial and post-independence Kashmir. Since Rushdie is a political novelist, Shalimar the Clown is a blending of realism and magic realism.

Like The Moors Last Sigh, Rushdie again imagines a composite culture where race, religion and identity do not matter as in importance the idea of equiano Kashmir. The novelist shows in how gradually the composite culture is destroyed by research both military and militancy. Before 1947, there was no point of dispute between Hindu and Muslim. They used to celebrate each others festivals. But the independence of India and Pakistan transformed this paradise into a battle field where ignorant armies and citizens are being killed by their own citizens.

In his last venture, The Enchantress of Florence, Rushdie presents adventures of colonizers. The novel is set in the conclusion to a be debatable medieval India, at the time of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, the Great, at the time when colonizers began to importance of educational, arrive and establish their trade which is customary with Salman Rushdie who never adheres to a single theme in his fictions. So is the case with The Enchantress of Florence. Salman Rushdie makes the presence of the bullying pressure, beaten past to create future better. The novel is set in the sixteenth century India. It delineates the colonial situations and conditions in importance research which Magor dell Amore is the representative of white colonialists, who lands on the shore of India and makes his way to Sikri to the court of Akbar and succeeds in stereotyping befooling the wisest king. Importance Of Educational Research. The female protagonist of the fiction Qara Koz seems to represent the counter discourse to the colonialism.

The colonial enterprise was a product of stereotyping western androcentric imperialist desire. Qara Koz, on the other hand is a woman of Asian blood who manages to bring the whole of Florence, the epitome of western civilization of that period under her influence. She represents the subversion of the colonial enterprise. Importance Of Educational Research. The novel has a helical structure and intertwines two stories going in diverse directions that present a beautiful picture of how Mogor comes to India and becomes closer to Emperor than his nine jewels. In the same way Qara Koz goes, from feminists central Asia to Europe and importance of educational becomes the heartthrob of Europeans. But in the end Mogor is exposed as liar and has to leave India. Mogor is why would essay be debatable, a symbolic representation of the importance of educational, British colonizers and Koz is symbolic of and peer pressure Indian beauty and innocence. Rushdies texts are built upon the themes and issues like- identity crisis, multiculturalism, humanism, feminism, postcolonialism and decolonialism.

In this novel Rushdie attacks Western Empire with the same tool that the British has used against the eastern countries. As a staunch de-colonialist, Rushdie takes each and every step for the decolonization of the mind. He advocates psychological freedom what Ngugi calls, Decolonizing the Mind along with the geographical and political freedom. Joseph Anton: A Memoir (2012), the latest production is an of educational research autobiography, written in third person narrative, of Life post-9/11: Children Without this Britney Spears of literature, (13) says Meenakshi Bharat. Joseph Anton is the importance of educational, pseudonym adopted by Rushdie after the Fatwa was issued against him in 1989. Joseph is Joseph Conrad and Anton is Anton Chekhov of real life. The plight of Rushdie post- Fatwa and his persistent attempt at making writing successful have been portrayed very excellently in this work. Mimicry of Language is the interesting of olaudah equiano, one of the tools of decolonization.

The west, through Macaulays Minute, started teaching English to acculturate the Asian mind to British patterns while Rushdie and his generation started conditioning the same language to suit Asians and to respond to importance of educational, the Empire. For this, he mixes the words of Hindi, Urdu and other regional languages in English and englishsizes them without any reference or notes. The Conclusion Research. He, in his first major novel Midnights Children, exhibits the complexities and quandaries that the project of Indianising the resources of English language entails. In each of his novels, he amalgamates words from several origins and tries to make them perfect. To quote Thiara: Rushdies novels emphasize Indias exuberant multiplicity and multi-vocality (2009: 172). Thus, he becomes the leader of postcolonial authors who have taken the oath to of educational research, provincialize English, and is determined to subvert the masters tool in order to make it their own. Apart from fictionalizing the truth of India Rushdie has a number of critical writings in the form of articles and papers and two critical treatises namely Imaginary Homelands: Essays and Criticism 1981-1991(1991) and pictures portraying bullying Step Across This Line: Collected Non-Fiction 1992-2002; two collections of story books Harun and the Sea of Stories and importance research Luka and the Fire of Life and an autobiography, Joseph Anton: A Memoir.

Rushdie has been followed, researched, read and criticized worldwide post-Midnights Children. He has been the literary pedigree of the budding authors especially from India. He is very virtuoso and full of ideas, says Cyrus Mistry in mary Jaipur Literature Festival in 2014. Thus, a critical virtuoso is imperative in the new millennium! Salman Rushdie, one of the pioneering voices of the new Diaspora, progenitor of series of controversies, what we call Rushdie affair in importance research postmodern literary politics, has been superseding and has intrepid influence in literary sphere. He has written history in fiction and fiction in history by presenting the pictures pressure, national allegory of the nation right from 1947 till date. His literary journeyfrom Grimus (1975) to Joseph Anton (2012)has been conspicuously rewarding via Midnights Children (1981). The present volume strives to seek to find how Rushdie is germane in the twenty first century politics of globalization, literary schema, and cosmopolitanism. The book has been divided into two broad headsthe first section intrinsically deals with the most popular book of Rushdie, Midnights Children while the second section contains Rushdies latter fictions which have been researched and presented in the light of importance of educational research intertextuality, hybridity, diaspora and, of late, autobiography. The younger and the unheard voices, budding scholars from India and abroad, candidly put forth their views on Rushdies various works in the present volume in the following ways: Suhaina Bi, in role of the her paper, Presentation of a Wounded Civilization: A Cosmopolitan Perspective of Midnights Children, critically analyses cosmopolitanism with that of diaspora and postcolonialism. She presents Cosmopolitanism as an ethos that is deduced from Enlightenment theories and values. It advocates a mode of humane thinking about the relationship between human beings without taking into research consideration the geographical boundaries and a moral concern for different communities and further holds the view that in his real life, Rushdie is struggling for his liberal ideals and freedom of the interesting of olaudah expression and importance research through his novels; he has raised his voice not only for a cosmopolitan but also for the whole humanity.

Rushdie retells the tragedy of the minority, which usually occurs at the time of socio-political chaos in most of the nations. The essay entitled The Dichotomous Nature of Decolonisation of India in Salman Rushdies Midnights Children by of olaudah equiano summary Sutanuka Ghosh Roy aims to look at history in a new way. This need for a new way of looking at older historical form makes Midnights Children a unique novel. The paper further explores how Rushdie discovers an alternative to the typical historical traditions of historical truth as merely recorded facts. Importance Research. He fuses memory and feminists the process of recalling memories. In the process he produces individual histories that sometimes overlap some aspects of recorded history. The paper is concluded with an observation that his (Rushdies) novels differ from the other Raj novels written by various authors, in so far as his vision of an Indian internationalism and multiculturalism embraces the politics of of educational research pluralism, whereas the Raj novels are more particular in the exploration of a British India. Rushdie has shown us the Children Essay, dichotomous nature of Indias decolonisation, even in the use of language he has dislocated the English and let others into it. Ram Bhavan Yadavs critique of Midnights Children has been put in different way in his research paper Interfacing Myth vs. History: A Postcolonial Study of Salman Rushdies Midnights Children. Yadav attempts to capture theoretical functioning of the myths in postcolonial English literature, in general, and Indian English novels, in particular, which plays a vital role in the reformulation of natives self and identity.

In this context, his attempt is to read and examine Rushdies said novel that blends myths with history by using postcolonial theoretical approaches. Research. Rushdie has credited the stereotyping feminists, genre of myth as a strategy of liberation and as an importance of educational ideological notion that denies historical petrification. The way Rushdie treats the complex issues of identity and liberty makes him a central figure in Postcolonial Literature, he writes. Midnights Children, in the present volume, has occupied a coveted place for the study through multiple tools. But none other than T. Sasikanth Reddys article entitled Salman Rushdies Midnights Children: A Kaleidoscopic View surveys that Rushdies novels are complex, multi-layered with episodic causality, bearing strong influence of post-modernist novels as well as principles of the frankenstein shelley torrent, Indian art forms. His exalted diction, elevated word usage and felicitous word phrases leave strong impinge on the readers. The novel Midnights Children does not have a continuous forward narration rather it is complex and interrelated, based on structure repetitions and episodic casualties, which is in fact one of the importance of educational research, strong points of the novel, as it is the perfect hitching of the content to the form. The paper ends with the conclusion that Rushdie presents history through the metaphor of chutnification, which gives way to his narrative. In other words, Saleem is actually preserving the facts of history as chutnification, a method of perpetuation of each of the thirty one chapters in the novel which stand for a pickle jar. The first section, Midnights Children: Fiction, History and the Nation, ends with Asis Des paper entitled In Time of Narrating the Nation: Rushdies Transcendence of National History in Midnights Children. De attempts an portraying bullying argument that challenges the historiographical dimension as the sole point of the narrative's charm. Alternately, he endeavours to importance research, establish the point that a Nation could never be understood in full from any personal and perspectival version of historical reality.

De clearly opines that a writer is usually affected by the historical milieu in which s/he lives and the periods of an earlier time with which s/he associates his/her identity. The second section entitled Diasporic Identity, Intertextuality, Treatment of History and Autobiography is inaugurated with Vikrant Sehgals article Diasporic Identity in Salman Rushdie's Shalimar the the interesting life, Clown outlines some of the main theories behind the post-colonial discourse, and he argues, from a diasporic perspective specifically thematic element in importance Rushdies Shalimar the Clown. It is his attempt, despite the influence of his emigration to pictures and peer pressure, England, to undermine how Rushdie constructs diasporic identity and culture by specific postcolonial literary techniques such as fragmentation, plurality and language. Indah Lestaris paper entitled Indianness and Satire of History in Salman Rushdies The Moors Last Sigh observes that Rushdies novel focuses on the themes of Indian history and of educational the search for identity. Why Would The Conclusion Research Be Debatable. These are narrated by being entwined with a family story, in the way similar to Midnights Children. National history, like family history, is passed on from generation to the next one. It is of educational, told from mary torrent subjective point of view, and thus is subject to alteration.

Through her palimpsest painting, Aurora suggests this alteration. National history is also built by foreign interference. Thus, Indian identity is complex in racial aspect. Moreover, India is importance of educational research, also plural in terms of language, religion, and pictures portraying and peer pressure political orientation. The paper further aims to of educational, analyze the complexity of Life Children India as a nation-state from the aspect of its history as depicted in the novel and importance how Rushdie satirizes Indian history intertwining the protagonists personal life and historical events. Ajit Kumars critical venture on Journey towards the New World in bullying and peer the Selected Novels of Salman Rushdie presents the array of diasporic authors and compares with the importance research, theme, technique, matter and manner with that of Rushdies novels and also the content and context of the postcolonial world that is adroitly presented by the author. Kumar concludes that in the history of life of olaudah equiano Indian Literature of English, Salman Rushdies efforts are well visible to the readers.

Right from his first novel Grimus to of educational, Midnights Children, Shame and The Enchantress of Florence, he seems to be an explorer of the the conclusion research essay, of the human psychology being in the modern world where people long for identity and peace but they all seem wandering for it. The effect of Diaspora is seen not only in the life of individuals but also in communities. Hetal K. Kachhia in her article Globalization and Cosmopolitanism: Major Themes in the Works of Salman Rushdie studies the major novels of Rushdie. She beautifully relocates the importance research, globalization and cosmopolitanism in the novels of Rushdie. She writes that (I)f we look at the terms globalization and cosmopolitanism as the Children, intermingling of different cultures and its different aspects and phenomena into one another, we can say that the of educational, works of Salman Rushdie compose a global and intermingled fictional world by including the element of intertextuality, from Life Parents Essay his own works to importance of educational, the different allusions from others works, which makes the recurrences of characters and why would the conclusion research essay places possible from one text to importance of educational research, another. The next chapter in the volume is slightly different from the above mentioned papers. Hetal M Doshi in her paper titled Theological Aspects and Diasporic Sensibilities in frankenstein Rushdies Satanic Verses: An Analysis offers Rushdies attempt to importance of educational, fearlessly question some of the religious tenets which he finds devoid of Life Without Parents logic. But at the same time, the paper also recognizes that the author has to be cautious in his presentation and execution, when his work deals with the religious sentiments of billions. Freedom of speech does not provide the license to be blasphemous. She brings the article to a close that the role of an art should be reflection, not action. It is the duty of an artist, more so of a writer to renew the perceptions about history, society and religion; not to shatter them.

History has always surprised us with its various meanings. Salmon Rushdie writes at the crucial historical moment when new theories of history undermine recorded historical facts. Starting from Collingwood to Foucaultall have evinced history as the individuals sole link to it. Nesha Sabar and Pramod Kumar Das also refurbish their evaluation of of educational research Rushdies narrative technique. But they chose a different novel, Shame, to deal with. In the paper titled Salman Rushdies Shame: A Study of Narrative Strategies, they focus on the various narrative strategies used in role of the samurai the text. In doing so, they zero in on a range of strategies such as mimicry, history, fairytale, magical-realism, metafiction and intertextuality employed by Rushdie to knit the narrative and these devices, in turn, help us to understand the importance, text in better and improved way. They conclude their observation that Rushdies narrative style can be viewed as a tongue- in-cheek use and abuse of numerous literary narrative conventions and theoretical perspectives that include exaggerated reflections of colonial mimicry, unreliable narrators fairytale motifs and intertextuality. The anthology does not end with Ramesh Tibiles Salman Rushdie: A Self-Proclaimed Controversialist. Tibile puts forth speckled rationale on Rushdies controversy which is his favourite legion. He observes that the political significance of Rushdies writing does not change from text to why would the conclusion research, text not because his subject matter changes but also because his political location changes.

In his work, Rushdie proposes only one rather tentative answer to the question of how a decentred being can work meaningfully, and that is by writing history of the particular country. Temporality and history in the works of Salman Rushdie are unfinalizable and importance of educational plural. Rushdies vindication of the imaginative variety of truth and allegoric representations of nations, events and people challenge the established notions about writing history into fiction. In his novels, borderlines between the feminists, public and private spheres of experience; memory and imagination; and reality and fantasy are deliberately blurred. Many metaphors suggestive of the nature of research time, history and historiography are deployed in Rushdies novels and he uses the techniques of anachronism and flashback while turning history into fantabulous fictional narratives.

Rushdie justifies the artistic freedom an author may exercise while transforming the raw material of history into fictional narratives. In her critical essay entitled Chutneys, Pickles, Palimpsests and Collages: Lived and Imagined Temporalities in the Works of frankenstein shelley torrent Salman Rushdie, Bini B. S explores Rushdies multiple fiction in the light of Foucaults criticism of the conventional historiography. She further holds the view that History in Rushdies works takes the form of a polyphonic narrative which is dappled with hues of hilarity, violence, shame, pain and research caustic satire. She concludes her paper with a notion that (I)t is not necessary to tell apart lived experiences and mary torrent a life lived in imagination. History thus blurs into a realm of ambivalence, indeterminacy and inconclusiveness. The next paper is complementary to Binis paper.

The objective of the paper entitled Nation and Non-narration: Multiplicity, Hybridity and Heterogeneity in Salman Rushdies The Moors Last Sigh by Manjeet Kumar Kashyap is how to importance research, understand the fiction of Salman Rushdie. In his view, the pictures bullying pressure, fiction of Rushdie is importance, marked by modern historiography of India. Therefore, it becomes necessary to provide contextual knowledge for understanding his fiction. Rushdie does not depict the history and of olaudah equiano narrates the nation in their conceptualisation of glorious past. Thus, he contests and radically re-interprets the meta-narratives of history and nation.

The ideas of nation and research narration in his fiction are created through amalgamation of the conclusion to a research essay be debatable ethnic essence and speculative narration technique. He conceives even the very concept of of educational home as a scattered, damaged, concept in our present travails. Such views refer to a shift from homogeneous nation-states based on the ideology of assimilation to pictures portraying bullying, a much more fluid and contradictory definition of nations as a multiplicity of diasporic identities. Vali Rahamans well-researched critical essay Metautobiographicity: Some Observations on Salman Rushdies Enchantress of Florence observes the hypothesis that everything - concerning with / referring to writer, reader, the presence of the importance of educational research, writer, the absence of the author, and implicit, explicit images of why would research authors intensions - is required at the time of reading a text. And whatever lies in the themes of the research, text or whatever remains after culling from the themes of the text, belongs only to the author. Rahman holds his view that the text cannot exist without aspects of the author. The text without aspects of its author is a glitch.

Thus, the anthology offers varied perspectives on Rushdies writings. The volume includes the researchers not only from India but also from abroad who are not well-known as critics but have more potential for stereotyping becoming meticulous critics. They have ardently participated in the present volume to make this book worth reading. The multiplicity of subject matter, plurality of cultural edifice, subjectivity of identity discourse and nostalgic diversity and of course multiculturalism make Rushdies vast corpus of literature discursive and digressive. Of Educational. The present volume offers the synchronic reality of the texts on the same. The fifteen critical essays included in the volume closely harmonize each other. 1. Radio show Medierna broadcast on Sveriges Radio P1 on 31 January 2009. Accessed on December 13, 2014. 2. dyn/content/article/2005/08/05/AR2005080501483.html (Para 5). The Interesting Life Of Olaudah Equiano Summary. Accessed on importance of educational research, December 14, 2014. 3. Life Post-9/11:.

Accessed on importance, December 15, 2014. 4. Accessed on December 15, 2014. Bharat, Meenakshi. First Words. Rushdie the Novelist: From Grimus to The Enchantress of Florence. Ed. Meenakshi Bharat. New Delhi: Pencraft International, 2009. 11-17. Print. Boerner, Klaus.

The Reception of life summary Midnight's Children in West Germany. The Novels of importance of educational Salman Rushdie. Eds. G. Feminists. R. Taneja, R. K. Dhawan. New Delhi: Prestige, 1992. Importance Research. 23-32. Print. Role Of The Samurai. Frank, Soren. Migration and Literature. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. Print.

Mistry, Cyrus. I Dont Aspire to Rushdie Writing. Times of India. January 22, 2014. Print. Mittapalli, Rajeshwar, Pier Paolo Piciucco, eds. Preface. Studies in Indian Writing in English. Vol. Of Educational Research. 2. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers, 2001.

1-10. Print. Rushdie, Salman. Imaginary Homelands: Essays and Criticism 1981-1991. Samurai. London: Granta Books, 1991. Print. - Luka and the Fire of Life. London: Jonathan Kape, 2010. Print.

- The Right Time for an Islamic Reformation. Web. Importance Research. 15 Dec. 2014. Thiara, Nicole Weickgenannt. The Interesting Of Olaudah Equiano Summary. Salman Rushdie and of educational research Indian Historiography. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Print. Trousdale, Rachel. Nabokov, Rushdie, and the Transnational Imagination.

New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. Frankenstein Mary Shelley. Print. Section-A Midnights Children: Fiction, History and the Nation. CHAPTER-1 Suhaina Bi Presentation of a Wounded Civilization: A Cosmopolitan Perspective of Midnights Children. Salman Rushdie has helped the Indian Writing in English to gain a reputation in World Literature in importance of educational research addition to and peer, win the prestigious prize of Booker of the Bookers for himself in of educational 2008. He is the foremost writer who presented the Sub-continental Diaspora with all its geographical and psychological pros and cons both in role of the real and virtual sense. Most of the characters of his novels suffer from the disease of alienation and rootlessness because of importance their frequent and forced displacements. This is perhaps the reflection of his own personality for he had to leave his home, not once but several times; sometimes at will and at other occasions by force. Hence, he finds himself as a homeless individual in search of his imaginary homeland. Role Of The. He exploits his experiences both with critical and creative perspective. He has repeatedly confronted the socio- political disasters and experienced many contemporary communal crises emerging in the Indian Subcontinent.

And it is these primary experiences of Rushdie which provide him with unique themes which he skillfully exploits to their utmost level in his fiction. Such experiences enable him to present moral values beyond geographical and sociological borders and make him an advocate of a universal humanity. His novels present themselves through the eyes of a cosmopolitan or a rootless individual; because it is the cosmopolitan individual who can best analyze the civilization which gets continuously wounded in the name of patriotism and nationalism or because of the loyalty concerned only to a specific community, doubtlessly happening on importance of educational research, the cost of ones own conscience in this age of multiculturalism and globalization. Cosmopolitanism as an ethos is deduced from Enlightenment theories and values. It advocates a mode of the conclusion research be debatable humane thinking about the relationship between human beings without taking into research consideration the geographical boundaries and a moral concern for different communities. It supports the idea of weltburgerlich (Qtd. in Niesen 1) or the concept of the world citizenship. Life Post-9/11: Without Parents. Cosmopolitanism is globalist understandings of universal citizenship (Niesen 2) and an intellectual and aesthetic stance towards divergent cultural experiences and it requires an ability to see oneself from the importance research, perspective of others that is often developed through psychological disposition and is a structure of feelings evaluated through the geographical changes of an individual.

According to the anthropologist Ulf Hannerz, cosmopolitanism is a willingness to become involved with the Others, and the concern with achieving competence in cultures which are initially alien (239-40). Cosmopolitanism is developed among ordinary individuals because of the changes of their practices of everyday life that leads traversing emotional ties with strangers beyond geographical and sociological borders. Cosmopolitanism results in the loss of accidental identities which are generally acquired only by taking birth in a specific nation and community. According to Bentham, cosmopolitanism claims an individual perspective and autonomy of every human being. He says that cosmopolitanism refers to the moral universalism i.e. the idea that every person, no matter who and why would the conclusion to a research essay no matter where located, has a claim to equal moral concern and respect (qtd. in Niesen 5). Cosmopolitanism seeks to pluralize human attachments, enrich our solidarities with other groups. It claims a universal citizenship with the perspective of assimilation of a multicultural society in of educational which others can be seen on post-9/11: Children Essay, par with the self. A cosmopolitan is, according to Robert Merton, a stranger in any local group but equipped with special knowledge and abilities which s/he takes with her/him to any other locality without devaluing it.

This knowledge and ability enables her/him to importance research, be accepted in any locality. S/he has a social status that is acquired in another society. Though there is lack of the life of olaudah equiano summary, knowledge of acquaintance which makes her/him rootless, but s/he possesses an ability to make her/himself at importance research, home in stereotyping every new locality while moving throughout the importance, world (qtd. in the interesting life equiano Hannerz 5). Cosmopolitan relies on creative thinking and every change in society seems to her/him normal and provides opportunities to reinvent her/his identity. S/he easily learns the new ways of an alien society. Her/ his life story has never a fixed centre of shared wisdom but a prism like global perspective to analyze her/his life story. The approach of Cosmopolitanism is very often applied and importance of educational research presented in Indian writing in English for the negotiation of English language has provided the authors of Indian literature a large cosmopolitan English speaking audiencewhether Indian or non-Indian.

Cosmopolitan characters have been presented by the Indian English writers repeatedly in their postcolonial fiction. Sahgals A Time to Be Happy (1958) and The Day in Shadow (1971), Kamala Markandayas The Coffer Dams (1969), Khushwant Singhs Train to role samurai, Pakistan (1956), and Bhabani Bhattacharyas Shadow from Ladakh (1966) may be presented as some of the examples of importance such works. According to Pranav Jani, the cosmopolitan characters in the early postcolonial cosmopolitan novels were namak halaal (true to its salt) cosmopolitans and were associated with their traumatic experiences and the sufferings of other cosmopolitans in another locality. There was a revolt against unequal gender relations and the continuing hold of traditional values. Early postcolonial cosmopolitan writers who presented the nation and its history through their narratives could not be read as the native informants (16). But the novelists of the 1980s and 1990s, such as Amitav Ghosh in The Shadow Lines (1988), Shashi Tharoor in The Great Indian Novel (1988), Vikram Chandra (in Red Earth and Pouring Rain (1995), Rushdie in bullying pressure Midnights Children (1981) and The Moors Last Sigh (1995), and importance of educational Rohinton Mistry in role of the samurai A Fine Balance (1995) are regarded as native informants and they attempted to speak for the hierarchical problems of socio-political subversion and oppression of all Indians. There is the shift from namak-halaal to post-national visions of postcolonial cosmopolitanism in importance of educational India (Jani 237).

Rushdie is the most distinguished postcolonial cosmopolitan writer. In almost all of his novels he presents a cosmopolitan individual as the narrator of the pictures and peer pressure, story, e.g. in Grimus (1975) the narrator Flapping Eagle is alienated and marginalized in his own tribe because of his auspicious birth, in importance research Midnights Children there is post-9/11: Children Without Parents, a search for importance research imaginary homeland by its narrator Saleem Sinai and to a essay be debatable The Ground Beneath her Feet (1999) is preoccupied with the issues of globalization. Rushdies Midnights Children is the most distinguished novel in this range because of its presentation of radical and overt cosmopolitanism. He presents the psychological aspect of the enforced cosmopolitanism, the abrupt change of place and the resultant displacement of the individuals in his cosmopolitan fiction. His narrators are consciously narrating their own stories and protagonists seem to importance research, be without any essential national identity.

The present paper attempts to life equiano summary, present the cosmopolitan experiences of the repeatedly displaced narrator Saleem Sinai of Midnights Children (MC) and his direct as well as indirect confrontation with the socio-cultural crisis and political conflicts of research his age. The paper also deals with the pictures portraying, similar experiences of some other characters around the narrator. The narrator Saleem Sinai is the illegitimate son of Vanita and William Methwold and is brought up by a Muslim family. Born at the midnight of 15 Aug, 1947, when the importance research, nation (India) also gets a new lease of life from the shackles of the foreign rule, his birth is celebrated because he is born with the nation and frankenstein mary torrent he is greeted by the first Prime Minister of the nation Pt. J. L. Nehru and also by the Time itself: Clock-hands joined palms in respectful greeting as I came (MC 3). He is the most celebrated child of the 1001 midnights children because he belonged to an elite family of research a minority community. His birth was publicly announced by his mother. He finds himself handcuffed to history (MC 3) because of his birth with the nation itself that was also the starting of the new chapter in the history of the nation. This novel is an Life Without autobiography of its narrator for his infant son, Adam Sinai. Saleem blends personal historya history of the three generations of a Kashmiri Muslim familywith the history of his nation. He is self-consciously narrating the story in importance research which he, sometimes, addresses directly to his readers as he says: I should speak plainly, without the research be debatable, clock of a question mark (MC 206).

His story starts from the year 1915 when his grandfather Aadam Aziz comes to India after completing his higher studies in Germany. At that time, Kashmir was an independent state. Aadam Aziz is rootless because he is of educational research, born and brought up in one nation (Kashmir) and gets his education in another (Germany). Role Of The Samurai. When he comes back he realizes that he does neither belong to the nation where he was born nor to the nation in importance of educational research which he got his education. He finds a sharp rift of cultural difference between the nations, which he is not able to comprehend. When he moves to Amritsar with his newly married wife, Naseem Ghani, Jallianwala Bagh massacre of 1919 takes place in front of Children his own eyes and he witnesses the importance of educational research, spill of the blood flowing on the ground like the red medicine, mercurochrome. This incident shakes his faith in God that he is not able to regain throughout his life. He could not stay there and role of the samurai moved to importance research, Agra with his family. The above incident makes him staunch secular and an anti-colonialist. He has three daughters and two sons. Being influenced of Quit India Movement of Children Parents Essay 1942, Aadam marries his second daughter Mumtaz with the rhymeless, verbless poet (MC 55) Nadir Khana companion of secular leader, Skaikh Abdullah.

Mumtaz gets divorced from Nadir Khan in 1945 and remarries in 1946 with Ahmed Sinai. It is her second husband who names her as Amina Sinai. Ahmed and Amina move to Delhi where they have to confront the communal crisis. These are the days of turbulence when the well off minority people, especially Muslims, is of educational research, threatened by anti-Muslim groups like a group called Ravana. Ahmeds business was burnt and frankenstein mary shelley he is compelled to move to Bombay with his wife. Of Educational Research. He gets a home in Buckingham Villa. The owner of the torrent, Villa William Methwold restricts the new residents from bringing any kind of change in the Villa until the political power of the nation is formally transferred into the hands of the indigenous political leadership. After independence Saleems father, Ahmed Sinai has to go through a financial crisis because his assets are frozen for some time as it happens with the other well off Indian Muslims.

This is importance, a very tough time for Indian Muslims who are seen as the advocates of Pakistan in spite of their decision of not migrating to Pakistan. They are considered as if they are the disloyal citizens of India. In some cases, it was thought that the Indian Muslims were hostages to be held in security for the treatment of Hindus in Pakistan (Hasan 52). When Mahatama Ghandhi was assassinated on 30th of January, 1948, it was doubtful whether a Muslim was the shelley, assassinator or a Hindu. This suspense created an importance of educational research atmosphere of mary utter confusion and horror especially for Muslims for if a Muslim did this thing there will be hell to pay (MC 196). Such horrible circumstances compelled every Muslim to of educational, be conscious for her/his life even at the place where s/he has passed all her/his life. The narrators family was terrified and they remained [confined] within the walls of Buckingham Villa (put furniture against the doors (MC 197). Frankenstein Mary Shelley Torrent. At the age of nine, Saleem gets the gift of importance telepathy, which enabled him to listen to the subconscious voices of the frankenstein mary, people around him. He is research, now capable of observing what the people have in their subconscious mind. Through the Life Children Parents, introduction of the gift of telepathy, Rushdie enabled Saleem Sinai to present the cosmopolitans traumatic experiences which remain neglected for a long time. With the help of this gift Saleem is able to record and latter on narrate the simultaneous events in a heteroglossiaial manner.

Various voices intermingle with each other at of educational research, a single time and became a sort of All India Radio, which could observe heterogeneous experiences of the other cosmopolitan individuals in heterogeneous societies and give voice to life of olaudah summary, such experience. When Saleem Sinai is ten years old, his ayah, Mary Pareira discloses the secret that he is not the importance, son of his present parents but of Hindu parents. After the discovery of of the his birth he never finds himself at home while he is at of educational research, his own home and amidst of his own people. He gets his early education in the interesting equiano a convent school where he is repeatedly humiliated because of his physical deformity e.g. the scares on importance, his face, a big nose and a bald patch on his scalp. But the gift of telepathy enables him to organize Midnights Childrens Conference behind his eyebrows (MC 287) which makes him realize himself that as a special child. In 1958, he and equiano summary his family leave India to go to importance of educational research, Karachi (Pakistan), where they reside for four years. In these years he and his family are treated as inferiors in comparison to the indigenous people of the city. They are regarded merely as the poor relatives of pictures and peer pressure General Zulfikar Ali or else as Muhajir 1 . In Pakistan, he loses his contact with the other midnights children. Importance. But Saleem is after all capable of role of the samurai making himself to be identified as a special boy and better than Saleem is after all capable of making himself to be identified as a special boy and better than Zulfikars own son, Zafar. This movement from India to Pakistan provides him with a creative opportunity to importance of educational research, be able to adjust among the strangers and in a new locality. The Interesting Life Summary. But he remains reserved and distant from his uncles family and other indigenous people and lives a life of seclusion.

General Zulfikar trusts him and importance of educational research keeps him as a companion in some of his secret missions. Saleem and his family come back to equiano, India in 1962 after getting the news of his father, Ahmed Sinais heart-attack. His family reunites and becomes happy once again. His return does not only make his family reunion possible but he also gets reunited with other five hundred and eighty one midnights children. It is the time when Sino-India war starts in 1962, in which Indian forces are defeated by China. Saleem witnesses through the gift of telepathy that due to importance of educational, the Sino- India war, Chinese-Indians have to suffer a lot. The narrator says that the mob attacked Chinese shoemakers, curio dealers and restaurateurs. the government even interned Indian citizens of Chinese descentnow enemy aliens (MC 416). Thousands of Chinese-Indians from Kolkata, Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Jamshedpur, Mumbai and Northeast are arrested and send to the prison camps at Deoli in Rajasthan where they are kept for five years in role of the samurai terrible conditions and extreme surveillance. These people are accused of being spies and most of them are forcibly deported to China. Only some of them are allowed to return to their respective homes. When these people return to their homes, their homes are already been auctioned off, looted or forcibly occupied.

They have to drudge a lot to start their lives once again and make a new beginning on the land where they had been living from decades or even for centuries (Mazumdar and Tankha 2010). Saleem has to undergo a surgical treatment for the disease of sinus, which robs him of his gift of telepathy and activate his olfactory senses. With his hypersensitive nose, he becomes capable of smelling sadness and joy, of sniffing out intelligence and stupidity (MC 430). He is still capable of knowing the inner thoughts of the people around him due to his newly acquired sensory power. Saleem and importance of educational his family shift permanently to Pakistan at pictures bullying and peer pressure, the end of the of educational, year1962, where he began to pictures bullying, learn the of educational, secret aromas of the world, the heady but quick-fading perfume of new love (MC 427). His father starts a new business and feminists his family begins a new life. His sister Brass Monkey gets fame as Jamila Singer and is called Pakistans Angle, The Voice of the Nation, Bulbul-e-Din (MC 435). Importance Research. But during the Indo-Pak war of 1965, Lahore (Pakistan) was burnt by Indian army and Saleem loses all his family members except his sister Jamila Singer in Pakistan and maternal Uncle Mustafa Aziz in pictures bullying pressure India.

In this war, Saleem also loses his memory. But his olfactory senses still enable him to research, be a proud young man. Though looking much older than his age, he is equipped with especial knowledge and unique qualities, which provide him the opportunity to tolerate these new circumstances. He is not acquainted with the locality and its people and remains secluded from why would the conclusion essay other people. Saleem joins Pakistan Army as man dog in Cutia unit 22 and is sent to Bangladesh. The war of Bangladesh provides him with another opportunity to experience the alienation of a people who are treated as aliens in of educational their own country. He witnesses there the massacre of common people.

Once again, the blood flows like mercurochrome in the lawns. It was not only the killing of innocent human beings but rape, torture, arson, burning of the slums and mary torrent villages and living villagers: a maidan [field] in which lady doctors were being bayoneted before they were raped, and raped again before they were shot. Above them and behind them, the cool white minaret of the mosque stared blindly down upon the scene (MC 524-5). All this is done by importance research the Muslims with the stereotyping feminists, Muslims of other states. After Indo-Pak war of 1965 and the triumph of India in Bangladesh in 1971, Indian Muslims confront discriminations in different socio-political spheres. Saleems uncle Mustafa Aziz is a senior Civil Servant and number two in his Department but he was required of being a chamcha [henchman] and clearly the victim of anti-Muslim prejudice, in a contradictory but absolute loyalty to the government of the day (MC 546). And the family of Mustafa Aziz was indeed as crushed, as insect like, as insignificant as that mythically truncated Fly (MC 545). On 16th of December, 1971 Saleem comes back to India with the help of one of his companion of research midnights children, Parvati, the witch through the basket of invisibility (MC 482). He goes to his uncles home but his uncle Mustafa does not allow him to live with him in his home because Saleem does not belong to pictures portraying bullying and peer, the nation where he was born and where his birth was once celebrated by the whole nation.

On 25 June, 1975 Indira Gandhi imposes Emergency on India which results in the suspension-of-civil rights, and censorship of the press, and armoured-units-on-special-alert, and arrest-of-subversive-elements (MC 585). In 1976, Indira Gandhis son Sanjay Gandhi starts to act as a prince and organized the Sanjay Youth Movement. Sanjay Gandhi is determined to the beautification of cities and to stop the growing population of India. For his determination to the beautification of the city, magicians ghetto is destroyed. And for importance research his determination to stop the growing population of the country, the research, young men are captured and sterilized. Saleem and other midnights children are also captured and vasectomised. The Emergency is ended on 18th Jan 1977. Though Saleem is born in India and passed initial eleven years of his life in India, he leaves India in 1958, and lives for twelve or thirteen years in Pakistan where he lose all his family as well his memory, and later on spends few months of his life in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). He returns to India in 1971. Importance. Saleem witnesses the prominent historical events of these three countries: India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. But he is portraying bullying and peer pressure, primarily a nowhere man: my status as defeated-soldier-on-the-run (MC 542).

He does not belong to any country though he is always capable to be adjusted in importance of educational research any community and could confront any circumstances. Every type of socio-cultural and geographical change provides him the opportunities to prove his creativity and capability as the citizen of the world. He and his family are always displaced by force, whether social or political, but never by their will: In my family, we always go when were pushed The boatman Tai drove my grandfather from why would to a essay Kashmir; Mercurochrome chased him out of Amritsar; the collapse of importance of educational research her life under the carpets led directly to my mothers departure from Agra; and many headed monsters sent my father to Bombay (MC 118-9). Such enforced transformation makes Saleem distant from every culture; whether of his own community or country, or of other localities. He does not follow the practices, beliefs and ways of life concerned to a particular culture or society. He thinks that these practices and beliefs are being followed not because they are intrinsically based on any good or right concept but they are regarded as right for they are concerned to a particular community to which the person belongs. Stereotyping Feminists. And such practices make a man conservative on the level of humanity.

People of one community prefer to tease the people of another community or group. Saleem and his family have to confront the similar circumstances. Ahmed Sianis business is ruined when he is in Delhi and is demanded extortion money by the anti-Muslim group for the safety of his business in a communal crisis when India is about to achieve her independence: independence from every evil. Though he is a stranger in the magicians ghetto, he is welcomed there and finds himself attached to of educational research, all the other strangers and identifies himself with them. Saleem is greeted as Saleem Kismati, Lucky Saleem (MC 541) in role of the samurai the magicians ghetto because after his arrival in the ghetto, the magicians found more opportunities to importance research, getting money and new ideas for their magical tricks which make their talent more attractive: Other artistes began to his new peaks of achievement - jugglers managed to keep one thousand and one ball in the air at bullying and peer, a time, and importance of educational research a fakirs as-yet-untrained protegee strayed on to a bed of hot coals, only to stroll across it unconcerned, as though she had acquired her mentors gift by osmosis (MC 540-1). Though wherever Saleem lives he is able to make his new identity yet, he never finds himself totally attached to mary shelley, the place he lives in. He is instead always psychologically ready to leave the importance of educational, place even after passing a good time there. There is not a single moment when Saleem regrets his decision to leave the place, whether it is stereotyping, his birth place, Bombay (now Mumbai) or Lahore where he reaches his adolescence. There is importance research, a lack of attachment, which helps Saleem to move away from social disorganization and insecurity and enables him to remain mobile. Mary Torrent. He is never limited to a particular geographical region and research remains emancipated from life of olaudah every limitation concerned to the geographical boundaries.

He remains reserved and distant from importance research indigenous people but he is at the same time flexible and ready to do everything for them, whether it is to accompany General Zulfikar on his secret political mission or it is his marriage with Parvati-the witch when she is pregnant by portraying and peer pressure Shiva, another midnights child and Saleems rival. He never realizes the need for importance having a life-time relationship with any other human being as his life-partner, a friend or a neighbour. Saleem has never been acquainted with the locals but he is always appreciated by them because of his deep knowledge of pressure human beings, which has been gained by him due to his gift of telepathy and olfactory senses. Importance Of Educational. He is always surrounded by different cultures e.g. he was born form Vanita (a Hindu) and why would the conclusion essay William Methwold (a Christian), brought up in a Muslim family, got his education in a mission school and of educational research his friends are Hindu and Christian and he has to move to a Muslim country Pakistan with his family. And finally, he lives with the atheist magicians: They were a people who denied the supernatural, they were artistes, and like all performers had an implicit faith in luck, good-luck-and-bad-luck (MC 540). Instead of immersing him on mental scale, the cultural differences provide him with the essay be debatable, opportunities to develop his creativity with a better strength than before. Research. These cultural differences seem superfluous to Saleem. He lifts himself above to frankenstein, the sphere of worldwide chaos of importance research cultural diversities and competing groups. He belongs to the borderless society of strangers and legitimizes strangehood, which seemed to him as a religion. He has faith in the unseen and he never finds his loyalties limited to any specific region but his loyalties transcend to the whole universe.

Hence, he is emotionally moved with the same intensity when he comes to Life Without Parents Essay, know the horrible experiences of Chinese Indians as he was moved with the horrible experiences of Indian Muslims. He does not want to belong to a particular group or community and chooses to remain an outsider. But he remains at the same time attached to importance research, the whole humanity and is thus able to feel the stereotyping feminists, sufferings of all the communities. Research. He loses his identity, which he acquires by birth and cannot therefore be identified with anything that belongs to him by birth. Wherever he goes, he invents a unique identity for himself. In Bombay, he was known as Snotnose, Sniffer, Mapface, and Piece-of-the-Moon (534). When he joins Pakistan Army as man dog in Cutia unit 22, he is called Buddha because he had learned the art of submission, and did only what was required of him (488). He is treated as inferior because he does not follow the post-9/11: Essay, ways of life of the young people of his age. He restrains the local influences and attempts to remain original as he is structured by importance research his experiences. He is acquainted with the stereotyping, subtle and emotional aspect of transition. He learns new ways of thinking very easily because he can listen to the subconscious voices of the research, people, and can smell the pictures portraying bullying and peer, intention of the people around him.

Saleems autobiographyor to say history cannot be understood from a single or fixed perspective. Importance Of Educational Research. His personality has the role of the, prism-like characteristics. Saleem is not a rootless traveller. He travels through the different localities and of educational research manages to remain loyal to each locality he lives in. His primary motive is the happiness of the mankind.

He wants to rearrange history so that the shelley torrent, misconceptions and misinterpretations can be erased from the midst of common people. He employs a perspective of dialogic imagination, which encourages him to accept the coexistence of his rivals. Importance Research. It is, for him a matter of fate to compare, reflect, criticize, and understand the contradictory forces. In this novel, Rushdie presents the journey of a nation from a secular state to the state where communal card is used to get more and more political power, which in turn affects the role, life of every human being; whether it is of the simpleton or of powerful elite, of indigenous or a cosmopolitan. In his real life, Rushdie is struggling for his liberal ideals and freedom of expression and through his novels; he has raised his voice not only for a cosmopolitan but also for the whole humanity. Rushdie retells the tragedy of the minority, which usually occurs at the time of socio-political chaos in most of the nations. In such circumstances, people find themselves alien even in research their own homelands and among their own people. The narrator Saleem Sinai is why would the conclusion to a research be debatable, capable to record all the events personally because his family has been forced to move to the different places in the sudden upsurge of communal ideologies. All these events have taken place before him and he has directly been affected by these events.

The other source of his information is the experience of five hundred and of educational eighty other midnights children, who are expelled and who act as a gang which was spread all over the length and breadth of the country and whose headquarter were behind my eyebrows? Midnights Childrens Conference (MC 287). The novel Midnights Children is tracing the why would the conclusion to a research essay, betrayal of optimism that the of educational research, common man have had after independence in the name of life equiano summary secularism and equal civil rights to all: The disease of optimism, in those days, once again attained epidemic proportions (MC 416). When the power struggle starts between two political parties or two nations, common people have to suffer. They face the strife not because of their own faults but the only reason is that they belong to a particular community. Rushdie is successful in voicing the suppressed truth as Neil Ten Kortenaar says: it sounds like a continent finding its voice (MC 22). He is successful in presenting a cosmopolitan perspective in the novel Midnights Children. It contains Becks dialogic imagination which means the clash of cultures and rationalities within ones own life (MC 12). Of Educational. Such clashes make the cosmopolitan perspective is an alternative imagination, an imagination of alternative ways of life and rationalities, which include the otherness of the other (MC 18). 1: I used the stereotyping feminists, word Muhajir not from the text but as a metaphor to show the helpless condition of Indian Muslim immigrants in Pakistan. Though they were promised to get equal rights but they were denied, deceived and treated as refugees. Beck, Ulrich.

The Cosmopolitan Society and its Enemies. Web. 13 Oct. Importance Of Educational. 2012. Hannerz, Ulf. Cosmopolitans and Locals in World Culture. Theory Culture Society. Web. 12 Oct. 2012. Hasan, Mushirul. Adjustment and Accommodation: Indian Muslims after Independence. Social Scientist Vol 18 (1990): 48-65.

Web. 08 June. 2012. Jani, Pranav. Decentering Rushdie: Cosmopolitanism and the Indian Novel in English. USA: Ohio State University, 2010. Print. Kortenaar, Neil Ten. Midnights Children and the Allegory of History. Life Post-9/11: Children Essay. Rushdies Midnights Children: A Book of Readers.

Ed. Meenakshi Mukherjee. Delhi: Pencraft International, 2003. 28-48. Print. Mazumdar, Jaideep and Ishan Tankha. Importance Research. Shame: Wages of why would the conclusion be debatable Loyalty. Web. 05 June. 2012. Niesen, Peter. Bentham's Cosmopolitanism, Theory and Practice. Web.

11 Oct. 2012. Rushdie, Salman. Midnights Children. London: Vintage Books, 2008. Print. CHAPTER-2 Sutanuka Ghosh Roy The Dichotomous Nature of Decolonisation of India in Salman Rushdies Midnights Children. What is importance, history?

Who writes it? Where does it start? Are these divine inspirations behind annals? When finally death comes how one should react to it? Is it possible to leave a trace of ones existence? Can a nations history be represented by a single character? What is the exact nature of stereotyping a nation?

Ultimately what is the nature of history itself? History, after all, is not something to be read only. It is not possible for a person to be solely a history-reader. In brief, human beings are history themselves: every second we die, we are born again, until the ultimate moment. The main or rather the only important thing is whether we are able to make history or not. Of Educational Research. By creating history I essentially mean describing events, and the interesting life equiano also giving human beings a personal identity--- narrating events from ones own point of view, or creating a new one. It is not that history is mere facts, history does have meaning, and in fact history has many meanings. In postmodern literature there are diverse opinions about history.

For Rushdie, the of educational research, iconic writer, history is individual, and historys meaning is determined by the present. Salman Rushdies novel, Midnights Children published in 1981, is a modern epic, depicting Indias decolonisation with the waning influence of portraying bullying British rule. In 1993 Midnights Children was adjudged the Booker of Bookers, the best novel to have won the importance of educational research, Booker prize in its first twenty five years. The novel is divided into three books. The book begins with the story of Sinai family and the readers are led with the events particularly up to Indias Independence and partition. Of Olaudah Summary. Born at the stroke of midnight on August 15, 1947, at the precise moment of Indias independence, the infant Saleem Sinai is celebrated in the press and of educational welcomed by Prime Minister Nehru himself: Dear Baby Saleem, My belated congratulations on feminists, the happy accident of your moment of birth! You are the newest bearer of that ancient face of India which is also eternally young. We shall be watching over your life with the closest attention; it will be, in importance a sense, the mirror of your own (Rushdie, 1981:167). But this coincidence of birth has consequences, Saleem is not prepared for; his telepathic powers connects him with 1,000 other midnights childrenall born in the initial hour of Indias independence are imbued with special powers. He has an uncanny sense of smell that allows him to life of olaudah, sniff out dangers others cannot perceive. Saleem uses his telepathic powers and goes on to arrange for a Midnight Childrens, Conference (233) where various issues like cultural, linguistic, religious and importance research political differences which the Indians face or India as a diverse nation faces are discussed.

He comes in contact with thousands of torrent other children born closest to the stroke of research midnight mainly Shiva of the knees and Parvati, Parvati-the-Witch. While Saleem grows up, his family begins a number of migrations, wars and stereotyping suffers silently. Importance Of Educational Research. Saleem also suffers from amnesia till he enters a quasi-mythological exile in feminists the mangroves of the importance research, Sunderbans where he regains his memory. He reconnects with his childhood friends. During the process he becomes involved with the Indira Gandhi proclaimed Emergency and Sanjay Gandhis cleansing of the Jama Masjid Slum.

As a consequence he becomes a political prisoner. The Emergency is an indicator of the dichotomous nature of decolonisation of India. Inextricably linked to his nation, Saleems life is also a mixture of disasters and triumphs that mirrors the the conclusion to a be debatable, course of the dichotomous nature of decolonisation of modern India. Midnights Children is centered around Indias partition in 1947, which followed its newly granted independence, narrated by a par psychologically developed individual with an unusually grown nose, Saleem Sinai, Baby Saleems nose: it was monstrous; and it ran (Rushdie 1981:169). Saleems birthday coincides with the importance of educational, moment of stereotyping feminists independence (15 August 1947). Exactly after thirty years, fearing his imminent death and the subsequent urgency of leaving a legacy of his very own existence in this world, he is compelled to tell his story to Padma his would be wife. We are taken back during World War 1 to the time when his grandparents Aadam Aziz and Naseem Ghani met and married, and importance then, slowly we begin to see Saleem closer and closer until we are back at the time of the narration. Due to his date of Life birth, Saleem is bogged down by a constant surge of socially-inflicted pressure. He then discovers he has telepathic abilities and can read peoples minds, he also discovers that this ability is also spread amongst other children of his generation: Telepathy, then: the inner monologues of all the so-called teeming millions, of masses and classes alike, jostled for space within my head (Rushdie, 1981:232).

To our utter surprise we discover that everybody who was born in that particular time has some sort of special powers. These are midnights children: every one of importance research whom was, through some freak of biology, or perhaps owing to some preternatural power of the moment, or just conceivably by sheer coincidence (although synchronicity on such a scale would stagger even C.G. Jung), endowed with features, talents or faculties which can only be described as miraculous. (Rushdie, 1981:271) A boy from Kerala has the ability to step through mirrors and reemerge through any reflective surface, including the polished metal bodies of automobiles. A blue-eyed child from Kashmir. can alter his or her sex by stepping into water. Still another, Parvati, is a true witch, with powers of conjuration and the interesting life summary sorcery. Importance Of Educational. To Shiva, Saleems changeling brother, the hour had given the gifts of frankenstein war (of Rama, who could draw the undrawable bow; of Arjuna and importance research Bhima; the ancient prowess of portraying bullying and peer Kurus and Pandavas united, unstoppably, in importance of educational him!). (Rushdie 1981:277).

When Saleem found this fact, he decided to create a link between all these special children through Midnights Childrens Conference. However, we are to remember that this is not the the interesting life of olaudah summary, only story thread in this book: we also see a parallel development of the plot, namely Saleems own familys difficulties and importance of educational research peregrinations to survive plagues, wars and his own mental issues (amnesia, cured in the Sunderban jungle). Saleem then chooses a politically active path, fighting against Indira Gandhis policies, especially measures against all those children the midnights children. Dark clouds were gathering in political skies as well: in Bihar, where corruption inflation, hunger illiteracy landlessness ruled the roost, Jaya-Prakash Narayan led a coalition of students and workers against the governing Indira Congress: in Gujrat, there were riots, railway trains were burned, and Morarji Desai went on a fast-unto-death to bring down the corrupt government of the Congress (under Chimanbhai Patel) in that drought-ridden state (Rushdie, 1981:575) Subsequently, to Gandhis political fall, the prisoners are set free.

It is at this point that Saleems turning thirty, he meets Padma and the novel starts. Exactly a year later, on his birthday, he marries Padma and Children Parents Essay predicts his death on importance of educational, the same day. In the end of his life, Saleem decides to turn his eyes to history. He writes his own history as well as Indias, he writes a Chronicle dedicated to his son. It is when Saleem moves to Pakistan with his family, the novel swirls into a serious concern with the political and military history of the pictures portraying bullying, two rival nations in the sub-Himalayan triangle. Under the surface of research comedy, the tone darkens, it becomes Swiftian. There are passages of mordantly ironic satire juxtaposed against scenes of role phantasmagoric horror. Of Educational. We are literally shocked by the story of the stereotyping, wife of Saleems uncle Mustapha Aziz, who has been passed over forty-seven times for the headship of of educational his department, is driven insane, By a life in stereotyping which she has been required to begin being a chamcha ( to forty- seven separate and successive wives of number-ones whom she had previously alienated by her manner of colossal condescension when they had been wives of research number-threes. If Indira Gandhi had asked him to commit suicide, Mustapha Aziz would have ascribed it to anti-Muslim bigotry but also defended the statesmanship of the request, and mary shelley torrent naturally, performed the task without daring ( or even wishing) to demur. (Rushdie, 1981:546) Rushdies story is an integral part of research Indian Heritage (the readers feel as if not its personification itself), mingled with sunlight and darkness.

Here history (his-story) is a fine blend of happy, glorious ecstatic moments. Post-9/11: Children Parents Essay. There is a sense of pride in being part of this wonderful mosaic. We carefully watch and observe that India was not only subjugated by the British for centuries but it is also subjugated by its own internal malice (social, political, religious). Rushdie intentionally brings in the pickle metaphor. In the novel Indian history is of educational, compared with pickles. For pickles bring both pleasure, and a sore taste in Children Without the mouth. Importance. He writes in pickles too:

What I hope to immortalize in post-9/11: Children Without pickles as well as words: that condition of the spirit in which the of educational research, consequences of acceptance could not be denied, in which an overdose of reality gave birth to a miasmic longing for flight into the safety of dreamsBut the role, jungle, like all refuges, was entirely otherwas both less and more- than he had expected. I am glad, my Padma says, I am happy you ran away. Research. But I insist: not I. He. He, the Buddha. Post-9/11: Children Without. Who, until the snake, would remain not-Saleem; who, in spite of running from, was still separated from his past; although he clutched, in his limpet fist, a certain silver spittoon? (Rushdie, 1981:503) We the readers have to remember that the taste of pickles is not exactly sweet, at the same time it is not bad either, rather it has a complementary taste ( like salt) which gives sense to importance, the particular food we are eating. It is in the same way history gives sense to our lives teaching us lessons. Shelley Torrent. History tells us of our past successes, spicing out our existence and importance adds flavour to our own identity. The Interesting Life Equiano Summary. That is why Saleem chooses to importance of educational research, write history and why would the conclusion to a essay be debatable not fighting death.

Rushdie has shown the dichotomous nature of decolonisation in India in certain blobs and slabs of the scene. Here he writes of, [P]articularly at times when the state takes reality into its own hands, and sets about distorting it, altering the past to importance, fit its present needs, then the pictures portraying bullying, making of the alternative realities of art, including the novel of memory becomes politicized.Writers and politicians are natural rivals. Of Educational Research. Both groups try to portraying and peer pressure, make the importance, world in their own images; they fight for life equiano the same territory. And the novel is one way of denying the official, politicians version of truth (Jain 218). An analysis shows that Midnights Children has depicted the State truth about the of educational research, war in Bangladesh. We have an epic in our hands. The obvious comparisons are to Gunter Grass in The Tin Drum and to Gabriel Garacia Marqquez in One Hundred Years of Solitude.

Rushdie takes a dig at both nations. He scathingly criticizes the militaristic jingoism of the Pakistani generals. At the same time he exposes the hypocrisy, cruelty, and corruption of the Emergency years. Pictures Portraying Pressure. Rushdie, feels for India, so hopeful on the day of its independence, has like Saleem, become pre- maturely aged, impotent and mutilated with cracks developing throughout its body. Rushdie anticipates that the children of the mutilated clock will die with the nation; they will burn like shoes. Meanwhile Shiva the destroyer, now a war hero, bestrides the land. And we are in of educational research Kali Yuga (the Age of Darkness) in which the cow of mortality has been reduced to standing, teetering, on a single leg! Only the the interesting equiano, earthy, accepting dung goddess Padma- the incarnation of suffering Mother India herself- remains to cherish Saleem and against all odds, to hold out a faint hope of regeneration (Towers 1981). Midnights Children depict the importance of educational research, changes which came with colonialism in the native culture and consciousness and shelley which then shaped the histories of these two nationsIndia and Bangladesh. Rushdie writes these narratives build around the individual Saleem Sinai, as he faces these changes which affect his sense of time, his own reality as well as his selfhood. The crucial problem taken up in the novel is whether the importance, common masses and summary India as a whole nation can face the surging tide over the forces of cultural and research political imperialism of the British. The characters in this novel are the different aspects of the social and historical consciousness of the Indian people, delved out in figures drawn from the myths of their collective psyche as well as from their recent political history.

In a way, the shelley torrent, characters in this novel are allegorical representations epitomizing the conflict within the collective consciousness of the nation itself (Parameswaran 38). We are to remember that decolonisation is a political process, frequently involving violence. In extreme circumstances, there is a war of independence, sometimes following a revolution, as happened in India. More often, it has been noticed that there is a dynamic cycle where negotiations fail, minor disturbances ensue resulting in importance of educational suppression by the police and military forces, escalating into Without Essay more violent revolts that lead to further negotiations until independence is granted. The British had to importance of educational, finally leave India. In rare cases, the actions of the native population are characterized by nonviolence, with the Indian independence movement led by Mohandas Karam Chand Gandhi being one of the most notable examples, in the entire world, and the violence comes as active suppression from the occupying forces or as political opposition from forces representing minority local communities who feel threatened by portraying bullying the prospect of importance independence. Doktorarbeit / Dissertation, 110Seiten. Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 38Seiten. Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 29Seiten.

Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 26Seiten. iPhone 7 gewinnen. Jede Arbeit ist ein Los! - Publikation als eBook und Buch - Hohes Honorar auf die Verkaufe - Fur Sie komplett kostenlos - mit ISBN - Es dauert nur 5 Minuten - Jede Arbeit findet Leser. Doktorarbeit / Dissertation, 110Seiten. Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 38Seiten. Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 29Seiten. Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 26Seiten. Der GRIN Verlag hat sich seit 1998 auf die Veroffentlichung akademischer eBooks und Bucher spezialisiert.

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The Role And Importance Of Educational Research Philosophy Essay

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The Role And Importance Of Educational Research Philosophy Essay

10 Changes You Can Make Today to importance of educational, Help Cut Your Cancer Risk. According to the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR), one third of the why would to a, most common cancers could be prevented by making lifestyle changes. And a 2008 review published in Pharmaceutical Research estimates 90 to 95 percent of ALL cancer diagnoses have roots in diet and lifestyle factors. Bottom line: There are many variables within your control that can help reduce your cancer risk. The AICR outlines three overarching tactics: eat nutrient-dense plant foods, be physically active every day, and aim for importance of educational research a healthy weight. Read on to learn about role 10 science-backed strategies that can help lower your risk of cancer. A healthy diet with an importance research, emphasis on plant foods is critical for cancer prevention.

Studies have shown that eating a variety of fresh produce and whole grains is frankenstein torrent associated with a decreased risk of developing some types of cancer likely related to their vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and importance of educational research, fiber. Fruits, vegetables and fiber-containing plant-based products have earned a Food and Drug Administration-approved health claim for their association with reducing the risk of cancer. Include vegetarian dishes into your weekly routine and eat a variety of produce daily (fresh, frozen or canned). Lack of mary shelley torrent, sleep or sleep disturbance can cause shifts in hormones and stress the entire system. Skimping on shut-eye has been linked to importance, hormonal problems leading to weight gain, and the interesting life summary, now a 2014 study in the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine has shown a positive association between sleep disturbance from importance moderate to severe sleep apnea and cancer incidence. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified the shift leading to a disruption of circadian rhythm as probably carcinogenic to humans. When the stereotyping, circadian rhythm is disrupted in rotating-shift workers or people who work at night, hormonal shifts in melatonin have been studied in relation to research, incidence of certain types of life equiano summary, cancers.

Adults should aim for seven to nine hours per importance, night and address sleep apnea with your doctor if this is an issue. A 2003 study in stereotyping feminists the New England Journal of Medicine estimates that being overweight or obese may contribute to up to 20 percent of all cancer-related deaths. Being overweight or obese (a BMI of 25 or greater) is importance research strongly associated with specific types of cancer, including breast (postmenopausal), colon and rectum, kidney, esophagus, pancreas and gallbladder. Its also likely associated with cancer of the liver, cervix, ovary, prostate, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma. The reason for the association may be related to negative effects on the immune system and inflammation, including hormones that stimulate cell growth. Many of the recommendations by the AICR for cancer prevention also help with achieving and maintaining an role of the, ideal body weight, such as increasing physical activity, limiting foods dense in calories like fast food, fried food and sweets and research, increasing fresh produce in mary shelley the diet. Aside from lifestyle factors like nutrition and physical activity, studies in importance of educational research mindfulness and stress-reduction are gaining attention for of olaudah equiano prevention of chronic diseases, including cancer.

A 2010 study published in importance research the Journal of Alternative Complementary Medicine found that participants in an eight-week mindfulness-based stress-reduction program saw increased immune markers and the interesting life of olaudah equiano summary, decreased inflammatory markers in blood tests. The National Cancer Institute advises that while there is currently no direct proven link between stress and cancer incidence, there may be increased health risks with chronic stress. For example, people under stress may develop certain behaviors -- such as smoking, overeating or using alcohol -- that could increase risk for cancer. Incorporating practices such as counseling or therapy, meditation, breathing or physical activity can help you improve your quality of life now and help you cope with daily stressors, instead of turning to other habits for help to keep chronic stress in check. Of Educational! An important topic for men and why would research, women alike, supporting and promoting breast-feeding infants may help prevent breast cancer in women, particularly those with a family history of the disease. Though research is mixed on this topic, a 2010 study presented in the Archives of Internal Medicine showed a correlation with having ever breast-fed and decreased incidence of breast cancer in women with a family history. The best research on prevention through breast-feeding practices includes women who have had multiple children and breast-feed for a longer period of time. Though breast-feeding is of educational not a choice or option for some, women who have children and are able to post-9/11: Children, breast-feed could experience another positive from research this decision and a possible slight decrease in feminists risk for of educational developing breast cancer in Life Children the future. Research shows that limiting alcohol intake is an important part of cancer prevention. Current AICR recommendations state that people who drink alcohol should limit it to no more than two drinks per day for importance research men and no more than one drink per day for women.

Drinking alcohol is associated with an increased risk for head and neck cancers, as well as liver, colorectal, breast and pancreatic cancers. One reason that alcohol increases risk for developing cancer is acetaldehyde, which is a byproduct created when we metabolize alcohol; it is a known carcinogen, or cancer-causing agent. Alcohol is also known to increase estrogen concentration in the body. A 2010 study published in the interesting life of olaudah equiano summary the American Journal of importance of educational, Clinical Nutrition estimates that 20 percent of to a be debatable, breast cancer incidences are attributed to drinking two or more alcoholic beverages per day. Consume no more than one drink per day if you are a woman or two if you are a man. By getting moving, you can reduce the risk for cancer including breast, colon, endometrium, prostate and pancreatic. Recommendations for a physically active lifestyle include both increasing daily activity as well as limiting sedentary time. Research! Adults should aim for at stereotyping feminists, least 150 minutes of moderate activity like brisk walking or yardwork or 75 minutes of vigorous activity like jogging or running each week. Limiting both screen time (TV, computer and phone) and sitting is important as well, and, at importance of educational research, a minimum, doing any activity above your usual level is a positive change. Bonus: Increasing your daily activity also decreases your risk for heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis and stereotyping feminists, high blood pressure. Kristin DeAngelis, RDN, RYT, the executive assistant and certified nutritionist for Joe Cross and his team at importance, Reboot With Joe, suggests going for a daily 30-minute brisk walk and limiting sedentary behavior, such as sitting or watching TV, can help to the conclusion essay be debatable, maintain a healthy weight and reduce cancer risk. 8 INCLUDE WHOLE GRAINS AND LEGUMES DAILY.

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Keep in mind that using tobacco and alcohol simultaneously increases risk for mouth, larynx and esophageal cancers, so if you use tobacco products -- particularly when drinking alcohol -- seek the life, help you need to quit for good and make a critical choice to of educational, reduce your cancer risk. Pictures Portraying Pressure! Do any of these recommendations surprise you? Do you believe cancer could be prevented through changing your lifestyle? Are there other tips for cancer prevention that you think we should have included? Let us know in the comments!

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Photo Essay: 16 years of war in Afghanistan. The New York Times has published a powerful photo essay that follows the entire 16-year arc of the United States' War in Afghanistanone photo per importance of educational research year, starting with 2017 and moving backwards to 2001. Caption photo #3: The aftermath of an why would to a research accidental American airstrike on importance of educational research the Doctors Without Borders hospital in Kunduz in the conclusion be debatable, 2015. I see Alfred McCoy has a new book out in September, just finished reading the 2003 edition of his most famous title. Seems real relevant to this 16 year waste.

I don't want to argue and while I have next to of educational research, zero sympathy for the talibans, I owe to the truth to say that that strike was not totally accidental: Other than that, I have to stereotyping, express my total admiration for importance research war photographers who put their life in feminists, risk on a daily basis to inform us. Research! And these photos are just outstanding ! You'll note I was quoting a NY Times photo caption. No worry, I had noted it for sure. indeed milliamj there is no morality in mary torrent, war for either side. They are still there trying to importance of educational, beat the boogeyman they created? Wow! Those CIA guys are so good. This is such a scam, no way bunch of good photos is going to make me feel good about it.

Ye, ye.. Soviets spent there 9+ years and they were stupid. Americans spent 16 years (and will continue) and they are smart. Afgan guys spent 200+ years being in practically permanent war and they don't give a damn who comes to frankenstein mary shelley, their land for fight - everyone will fail there. After a million killed and trillion spent, that's what winning looks like! 0% winning on the battlefield. but 1000% earning on the opium fields.

That's the real Inconvenient Truth Mr Gore could make a movie about. One of those images is by Lynsey Addario. Importance Research! I recommend her book It's What I Do for frankenstein mary shelley torrent an account of her work in the field. Importance Of Educational! It's a very interesting read, and her experiences are really amazing. I read it too - excellent stuff. Here is a nice picture of her practicing what they call the on-foot sitting a-la Addario:

Photo taking is not just about talent and technique, it's often about waiting, waiting and waiting again until the occurence of the ephemeral moment of truth. When one has talent, courage, stamina, high capacity of forbearance, abnegation and a huge amount of will, this fellow can - like her - get a Pullizer-Prize too. But it's not as easy as it seems. Admirable work by the journalists and the soldiers. Not by the politicians though.

Afghanistan has a history of being where empires go to frankenstein shelley torrent, die. I greatly admire the quality of the work by these photographers and am truly impressed by their courage and dedication. Importance! These intrepid folks give us a window into the interesting of olaudah equiano summary, terrifying situations that people must somehow cope with and importance research, that I can barely imagine. How many of us take on risks of this scale in our everyday jobs? Amazing work by Tyler Hicks and why would the conclusion be debatable, others at NYT. During work in Libya, he was captured along with others and importance research, the writers as well.

Without their coverage and the courage to really look at war you wouldn't be able to have this debate. Without them all you would see is military PR stuff of perfect drone strikes and flyovers from junket trips. Take a moment to frankenstein mary shelley, appreciate the craft. I don't think that the war is about win or lose. It's about: US - if you hurt us, we'll make sure you suffer (even though we suffer during the process). Of course, we don't care about the real reason why you are trying to hurt us. Importance Of Educational Research! The fact that you hurt us simply makes us so mad. You just can't do such thing to the greastest country through the entire history of the samurai earth. Them - if you suffer any how, that's all that really counts. Importance Research! So, let's keep going.

do you serve, or have you served, in the military? I think Charlie Jin has a point, I completely support his right to voice his opinion whether or not he has served. As a SOLDIER I fought for myself and those around me, but I was very aware of the larger context. Samurai! I grew up in Ireland before and during the importance research Troubles. As Europeans shake our heads at what the Sunni and Shiite are doing to each other, yet our Christian castes waged war with great cruelty on each (and Muslims) for centuries. What makes these conflicts linger is Life Without Essay, far deeper than the immediate conflict itself. I grew up in Belfast being told to hate and fear the other religion because of the long history of what THEY had done to US. It was only when I left that enclosed unforgiving environment that I realized how futile and self-destructive it was. Europeans have become involved in the middle east for research a long time because of our own empirical and economic aspirations and frankenstein mary shelley torrent, we are paying the price for importance research that. Why not learn on frankenstein torrent Russian experience?

They couldn't win there, and they weren't as ceremonious as politically correct US forces. It is impossible to win a ground war there unless you turn the entire country into of educational, one bid parking lot, how is Children Parents, it not clear by now? Get the hell out of there! The war will end as soon as the bankers are drafted. Parachute the CEOs, Directors and Board members and majority shareholders of the major defence contractors (on all sides) along with every elderly 'hawk' in Parliament / Congress and any of their children over 18 directly into the combat zone. Pure idiocy. Research! While seeking revenge, dig two graves - one for yourself. Humanity is still in the dark ages.

Well, at mary, least the presidents seemed to importance, be having a good time. Looks sanitized compared to Vietnam war photos. Because the the conclusion to a research essay war is sanitized too. That's why it's going on for 16 yrs with no win. krass - that makes no sense, because the unsanitised US ground troop involvement in the Vietnam War dragged on importance research for twenty years and ended with defeat for the US forces. The United States - and all western powers - will not, and pictures bullying pressure, cannot wage and win guerilla warfare because there is simply not the public will to sacrifice the hundreds of thousands of lives of young men that would be required and the trillions of dollars in of educational, cost. Afghanistan was/is certainly not a sanitized war.

What an absurd and degrading comment. Bad - when a soldier goes to prison for punching a terrorist in the nose, it is a sanitized war. When the crucial combat decisions are made in pictures and peer pressure, Washington by corrupt politicians, whoes main concern are their kickbacks from military contracts, it is a sanitized war. You fight a war to kill the importance research enemy, period. Not to the interesting of olaudah summary, bring a western-type democracy to savages who are 500 years behind, and don't want to go any forward. have you ever been to war? or lived in a war-zone? What an absurd and degrading question.

Cowards like you are always the keenest to importance research, fight to the last drop of somebody else's blood. lol, you're so pathetic. I did'n give you an answer, but you already answered for me. Keyboard warriors like you are always at war, completely missing the point and engaging in personal attacks. Even though I don't have to, I'll give you my answer which is yes. Anybody who thinks the war in Afganistan was sanitized has never been to war, never been to Afghanistan and never spoken to a veteran of the war in Afghanistan, or spoke to a person that lived through the war in Afganistan. Over 100,000 people dead and research essay be debatable, you call this sanitized. How dirty do you want it? Anybody who thinks that an importance of educational argument on the internet is portraying and peer pressure, a personal attack has never been under attack. You are a BS artist with the attitude of a coward.

You're right behind the troops. right behind them. 6000 miles behind them. . and you're right behind your keyboard talking things you have no freakin' idea about. go get some coloring books, snowflake. I'm done with you here. afganistan never lifted a finger to hurt a single American. but we have tortured the people and importance of educational, culture for almost 2 decades. would any American from texas or Alaska tolerate such a terrible war and occupation for this long without resisting a foreign invader. which is what america is frankenstein torrent, . these wars cannot be won . Vietnam was not won. and afghanastan under the soviets war was similar.

we are now not in importance of educational research, it to win it . just to maintain conditions ripe for oil companies and piplene projects uraniumrare earth mining herion. it is endless war for endless profit .. period in spite of our psychological conditioning to the contrary. done? done?? being called a snowflake by somebody complaining about personal attacks on shelley the internet is beyond parody - it's like being savaged by a dead sheep (to borrow a phrase). you should be ashamed of importance research yourself, poncing about and complaining about how the sanitization of a war that has killed hundreds of of olaudah equiano thousands has caused no win. Of Educational Research! What does a win look like to cowards like you? You are the epitome of a coward. When you sign up and put your life on the line, *and* enthusiastically send your sons and daughters to a hell on and peer earth 6000 miles away to die for you in a unsanitized dirty war, then you might have something to say. Till then, stay safe in your little dental practice looking after the teeth of NY liberals where the biggest threat you face is bad breath.

who are the importance of educational research savages again . Pictures Bullying Pressure! lol. i personally resent seeing anyone disparage the research American soldier. they put their life on the line for what they believe is right they follow orders. and except for a few bad eggs do their jobs with bravery and why would essay be debatable, patriotic duty. this is a different issue than asking if they are in harm's way for a good reason. or are being sacrificed for a corrupt series of elites needs thousands away. in Washington, New York or Tel aviv. truly the of educational soldier is as much a victim.

as the post-9/11: Children Without Parents citizen in America or Afghanistan in Syria or Iraq. i personally resent seeing anyone disparage the American soldier Agreed. There is a very apt quote, which I will paraphrase, regarding the ease at which we go to war, and how easy the decision is to go to war. The decision to go to war is easy. If I am prepared to go - and die - and of educational, I am prepared to send my son and my daughter to fight and why would the conclusion to a essay, if they die send my wife and my elderly parents to fight: then it is an easy decision to importance of educational research, say yes.

If I am not prepared to do that, I am not prepared to send others to their deaths for me. we are in frankenstein shelley, america conditioned to of educational, believe that military incursions everywhere are to save you from Life post-9/11: Children Parents terror . but this is patent nonsense. in fact America's military breed anti-American sentiment from importance of educational its wanton killing of pictures portraying civilians everywhere. every sane person who cares about the future of civilians everywhere, both in America and everywhere else in the world should ponder carefully what we are told by our governments about the goals and morality of wars. we should be prepared to serve to the last man to defend America from an invasion. this is our patriotic duty. . why would we expect for any other outcome in of educational research, the countries we wantonly attack and pillage to serve the corporations who procure resources and energy. Shelley! they are resisting a foreign invasion period. i t does not matter one's politics or mindset . knee-jerk support for importance of educational war and military intervention around the world hurts the civilians of both the aggressor and the attacked . only the moneyed class wins. i personally resent seeing anyone disparage the American soldier. they put their life on the line for what they believe is equiano, right they follow orders Cosinaphile, i have to break out agreement and reply to your comment because I couldn't agree with you more in that! I served In Russian Army in 1984-88, and even though I was spared from direct combat (thank God), I know what it was.

I lost some good friends, and know many others who came back totally different, not in a good way. That's why it is beyond ridiculous what that keyboard warrior typed above. the decision to go to war is importance, easy. Role Of The! It's not about whether I'm ready to die or not. He totally missed the point what to die FOR!! Yes, I am ready to importance research, die to defend my family, my house and my Land, but I don't want to sacrifice a finger for someone's political ambitions or financial profit. thank you . ive often felt we agree more than disagree. So you are aware of the unsanitized Soviet war in Afghanistan - (there was no Russian Army when you claimed to have served in the Soviet Army) that also ended in humiliating retreat after the deaths of millions? NO war is sanitized. That's an oxymoron, which is why I call BS on your claims to role of the samurai, be a ex-soldier in the Russian army. Importance! No soldier that stepped foot in Afghanistan would say a war there could be sanitized.

Hundreds of thousands died in of olaudah equiano, the aftermath of the US invasion. Importance Of Educational Research! You're a Walter Mitty. A joke. You don't even know what a win in Life Children Without Parents Essay, Afganistan would look like, yet claim to importance of educational research, know how a win would be achieved. Frankenstein! BS. Hey, have you been exposed to radiation for a long time while working with your nuclear materials by any chance? When you are reading someone's comments and replying to them, try to use whatever left of your fried brains, not just your fingertips.

sanitized has to do with the way the conditions and goals of war are presented. when shown to martin luther king,he wept. then shifted focus from civil rights to anti-war ,shortly after that he was assassinated by a lone crazed gunmanthe official narrative from importance of educational research Lincoln onward. we now live in a world where this can not happen. journalists must be embedded what info is delivered how it is spun is carefully controlled by a propaganda mechanism managed by the pentagon. its how info in conflict zones are managed now. in this sense the information and frankenstein, stories are carefully vetted to produce certain emotional and psychological responses in the receiver of domestic news. in this sense, theres a sanitition going on of the horrors and cruelty of wars. but I think the underlying reality of importance of educational research wars never change. they are brutal horrific structures of geopolitical will that cause endless death pain and suffering of the innocent. Krass Hey, have you been exposed to why would the conclusion research be debatable, radiation for a long time while working with your nuclear materials by of educational any chance?

I can spot BS from 1000 yards. And you are full of it. There was no Russian Army when you claimed to have served in it. No Soviet veteran worth their salt would have said so. Stereotyping! Certainly no Soviet veteran that served during the Afghan War.

You are a sad Walter Mitty. Badscience, how many Soviet, or Russian, or Ukrainian, or Uzbek, or whatever Afghan war veterans do you know or at least spoke with? You're a pathetic demagogue, typical keyboard warrior, picking on importance words and pretending to know everything about everything. Stop making a fool out of yourself, for God's sake, it's embarrassing.