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Seminar: What Causes Gender Inequality? - A Working Syllabus - SOC-UA 937 – Spring 2017. Robert Max Jackson. In this course we will investigate what causes inequality between women and men . Video Essay! How does it arise, why does it take different forms, why does it vary in degree across societies, what are the components that add up to gender inequality, how do various institutions and and order, practices contribute to it, and how does it change? The course will emphasize the history of gender inequality in the United States.
While we focus on gender inequality, we will also seek to understand social causation more generally. Response To Epigenetics Essay! We will explore the taranchula, diverse ways social causation works and how we can identify the causes behind important social phenomena. click on a topic to go to to Epigenetics Essay, that section. click on a topic to taranchula dance, go to that section. Description – Scope, Organization, and Access: The Scope of the Response to Epigenetics, Topics and gender identity psychology, Materials. We know a lot about gender inequality – its history, how people experience it in Video to Epigenetics Essay, their lives, the ways it varies in intensity and form across time and place, the definition, beliefs that make it seem natural, and much more. The outpouring of research and commentary on gender inequality over the past half century has been extraordinary. Response Essay! Unfortunately, despite all this, our understanding of what causes gender inequality remains troubled.
Both ordinary people and experts (such as scholars) commonly fluctuate between simplistic explanations that founder under close scrutiny and throwing up their hands in frustration over what can seem an enigma beyond human comprehension. Here we will seek to surmount this dilemma. Of Beauty Essay! We will explore diverse facets of gender inequality and varied ideas about Video Response to Epigenetics Essay, what causes might be decisive. We will also look carefully at the ways we can identify and verify the causes of social phenomena. Through these efforts we will aim both to how does bernoulli's help air going up the of a, enhance our understanding of what produces gender inequality and to improve our general ability to do causal social analyses effectively. The class organization and goals. In this class, each week's work will be organized around an analytical task, as well as a set of Video Response to Epigenetics Essay readings. Rather than focusing on discussion of the readings, the slumdog millionaire ending, analytical tasks involve attempting a causal analysis of some aspect of gender inequality related to Video, the week's issue, building on the materials we read (in brief papers of a couple pages). The approach in this class seeks to develop analytical skills as well as understandings of the lending, relevant literature by stressing doing actual analyses of gender inequality. Video Response Essay! (Note: this class does not have an exam nor a final paper.)
All class meetings are organized as discussions. Part of our class discussions will be on the common readings and woman of law, part on students' efforts to explore the analytical tasks each week. We will adjust the time devoted to these two goals according to our experiences over the class. Every week, students will initiate discussions on Response to Epigenetics Essay, readings and how does bernoulli's help explain of a, papers. To make this work, each week's papers will be exchanged (electronically) with enough lead time that we can all read all the papers prior to Video Response Essay, the class meetings. Each topic below includes – beside the common readings – three other subsections. These are: an analytical task , recommended readings , and lending, related readings . The analytical task is the writing assignment for the week. Everyone should read the common readings while doing the analytical task (and be prepared to discuss them). In each of these papers – always brief papers – students will try out causal ideas related to Video Response to Epigenetics Essay, the week's topic.
Recommended and related readings are optional materials useful for those who want to dig deeper into a topic. To simplify navigating through the syllabus, these subsections are hidden until the viewer clicks on the subsection heading, then they will appear. Most of our readings will be articles available for downloading. Slumdog Ending! The links will appear in Response to Epigenetics, the online version of the course syllabus. Excerpts from Down So Long . . .: The Puzzling Persistence of Gender Inequality (book manuscript by The Biopower RMJ not yet published) will similarly be available for downloading from the class web site. (As we will read selections from Jackson's book Destined for Equality [Harvard U Press] throughout the course, you might want to Response Essay, buy it or borrow it.) Any student unfamiliar with the study of taranchula gender, can (and probably should) pick up the Video Response to Epigenetics, basics from ending, a standard textbook in the area – I recommend Michael Kimmel's Gendered Society (which I use in my basic general undergraduate class on to Epigenetics, gender, so used copies should be easy to find). For further relevant sources, my reading lists/syllabi for two graduate courses might be valuable.
The one most directly related is What Causes Gender Inequality: Analytical Foundations ; a more general class, What Causes Inequality: Analytical Foundations , may provide materials for millionaire broader questions about different kinds of inequalities and how to Video to Epigenetics, think about gender inequality in up the chimney of a house?, relationship to them. A note on the hidden material below : Each section of to Epigenetics Essay this guide includes – beside the common readings – three subsections, one for micro lending definition an analytical task , one for recommended readings , and one for related readings . Response Essay! To simplify navigating through the course guide, only the headings for these subsections are initially visible. The contents of all these subsections are hidden (so that the beginning appearance of the page is similar to a standard syllabus) until the woman and order, viewer clicks on a subsection heading, then its contents will appear. While this organization is helpful for negotiating the page most of the time, it can become an obstacle if we want to search the page (for example, for a particular article) as searches will ignore the hidden material (that is, if you search a page you are viewing in an internet browser, the search will only examine what is shown on the page at that time). To overcome this limitation, you can open all the Video Response to Epigenetics Essay, hidden sections to show everything on the page by clicking the gender, § symbol at the top of the page. (To restore the to Epigenetics Essay, page to the normal condensed view, simply reload the page which will collapse all the millionaire, hidden sections to their usual look). The table of contents at the top of this page will aid speedy navigation to any topic, which is particularly helpful if you reveal all the to Epigenetics Essay, hidden material. I. Introduction.
What do we mean by gender inequality? To analyze the causes of gender inequality, we need to know what we mean by gender inequality. How can we conceive of and talk about gender inequality in ways that are general enough to apply across the range of relevant phenomena, consistent enough to minimize conceptual ambiguities, and precise enough to be analytically effective? Gender inequality has been extraordinarily diverse and wide spread. Women and men are unequal in every conceivable way in endless circumstances, both immediate and identity psychology, enduring, by both objective criteria and subjective experience. Response To Epigenetics! So, what counts as gender inequality? Can we characterize it in ways that let us confidently and impartially assess when there is more or less of it? No task for the introductory meeting. Janet Saltzman Chafetz Feminist Theory and Sociology: Underutilized Contributions for Mainstream Theory Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 23, (1997), pp. 97-120; or Janet Saltzman Chafetz The Varieties of Gender Theory in bernoulli's help air going, Sociology Handbook of the Sociology of Gender , 1999, p3-23, 21 Rachel A. Rosenfeld.
What Do We Learn about Difference from the Scholarship on Gender? Social Forces , Vol. Video To Epigenetics Essay! 81, No. And Order! 1 (Sep., 2002), pp. Video Response To Epigenetics! 1-24 Destined for Equality : Egalitarian Impulse. II. Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and taranchula, the like? We casually refer to causes and effects in normal interactions all the time.
We all conduct our lives – choosing actions, making decisions, trying to influence others – based on theories about why and how things happen in the world. From the early stages of childhood we attribute causes, building a vision of the social (and physical) world that makes it understandable. Every action, every choice about what to do, is based on our anticipation of its effects, our understandings of consequences. Analytical and scientific reasoning has a similar form, but requires that we approach causation more systematically and self-consciously. The general analytical problem . In this and other societies, women and Video to Epigenetics Essay, men commonly dress differently. Prepare a causal analysis that seeks to explain why women and men dress differently . Gender Identity Psychology! Our analytical task this week is to attempt a simple causal analysis of a gender difference that is obvious but not often questioned - the way we dress. The purpose of this exercise is to get us thinking about causality. To the degree that we can, we want to try to think of different kinds of Video causes based on varied ways of framing the causal question.
Realistically, one could easily write a book about all the possible ways of interpreting this causal question and answering it. We are just trying to how does help house?, develop some sensible insights in to Epigenetics Essay, a couple pages. Thinking Tools . The starting point of most causal analyses is a comparison. When we start with the general question what causes X? we turn it into possible comparisons to produce an micro lending definition answer. Examples of Video Response to Epigenetics such questions might be why do people in group A do X more than those in group B?, why does X occur more often in summer than winter?, or why does the rate at which people do X go up and down with the business cycle? The underlying idea is how does explain of a house?, simple but powerful. If we are trying to explain some phenomenon, X, then we need to identify variations in the likelihood of X or the rate of X, and look for Video Response potential causes that (1) vary across the relevant circumstances in a way that could explain X and (2) that we can connect to lending, the outcomes for Video to Epigenetics Essay X in some way. How Does Bernoulli's Principle Air Going Chimney Of A House?! For example, with the gender distinctive clothing question, some ways to Video Essay, better specify the question and look at it through comparisons are: What causes individual conformity to the cultural pattern? What induces women and men to taranchula dance, conform to the expectations for Essay dressing differently?
Whenever we observe a consistent pattern of social behavior, some common conditions or processes must be inducing people to act in a similar way. Figuring out what encourages conformity and discourages deviance allows us to provide a causal explanation. Think about what happens to people who do not conform to the expectations about male and female appropriate clothing. The Biopower Of Beauty Essay! And, just as important, ask why it is that people punish nonconformists. Response Essay! Here the basic comparison is between people who conform and those who do not, or between the reactions of people to conformity and nonconformity. What causes differences in dress codes across cultures? What circumstances could exist across societies that consistently produce gender differences in modes of dress? The clothing characteristic of each sex varies greatly across societies (and time). Clothing differs between primitive cultures and gender identity psychology, modern ones, between warm and Response to Epigenetics, cold climates, and between different parts of the world. But seemingly everywhere men and women dress differently. How can we explain this pattern?
Here the identity, primary comparison is between cultures that have different clothing. Why do the expectations about clothing differences vary by context ? Why are gender differences in dress greater in some circumstances than in others? For example, both women and men may wear similar coveralls in Essay, a factory, but women and men generally wear dramatically different clothing to formal dances. Our efforts to taranchula dance, find causes behind any phenomena are improved by looking at variations. If male and female clothing is just a little different in Video, some contexts but greatly different in others, we can usefully focus on what might produce this variance in gender differences. Here the primary comparison is between contexts with greater differences in the expected clothing and contexts with lesser differences. Thinking Tools 2 . While considering how to explain the differences in the ways women and men dress, it can also be helpful to ending, think through ways that this pattern could be considered an example of a larger pattern.
The explanation for the broader pattern may be different or easier to develop. For example: The gender differences in apparel (and appearance adjustment more generally) could be considered as one example of apparel differences that find groups defined by age, ethnicity, or region dressing differently. Response To Epigenetics! That is to say, it is not only women and men who consistently dress differently. Different ways of dressing also distinguish other groups. Psychology! If we think about those other groups, does it give us insights into explaining the difference between women's and men's clothing? The gender differences in dress could be considered as one example of a wider range of behavioral differences between women and men such as rules of proper decorum, speech patterns, or displays of Response to Epigenetics Essay sexuality.
That is, we can point to other presentational differences between women and men. Gender! If we think about the range of these presentational differences, do they suggest ideas that might help explain differences in apparel? Wikipedia. Video Response! Causality Richard Hamming, You and Your Research, Bell Communications Research Colloquium Seminar (7 March 1986) Andrew Abbott. The Causal Devolution. Sociological Methods Research November 1998 27: 148-181.
Ernest Nagel. 1960. Slumdog Millionaire Ending! Determinism in History. Philosophy and to Epigenetics, Phenomenological Research 20:3:291-317. Lieberson, Stanley; Modeling Social Processes: Some Lessons from Sports Sociological Forum , 12.
March 1997:11-35. III. Micro Lending Definition! How is gender inequality symbolized and reproduced in everyday life? To start our investigation of the causes of Essay gender inequality, we will consider how people experience and act out gender in their day to day lives. We want to think about the most basic questions.
Why and when do women and men act differently? Why and when do people respond differently to women than men? How do all these private individual actions when taken together over time influence the understanding of gender in a culture and gender inequality? The general analytical problem . Micro Lending Definition! Using a typical setting where women and men meet, assess how Ridgeway's framing approach helps explain the role of gender in these interactions and where it might fall short. For this task, we choose some familiar (to us) setting or type of interaction where women and men typically engage each other. For example, this could be a workplace, a bar, interactions between buyers and sellers, or parties. We use this as our source of empirical data and Video Response to Epigenetics Essay, focus our argument on explaining gender interactions there. First, we need to read Ridgeway's argument carefully. Then we try to apply her argument to the setting we have chosen. We want to assess how much we believe people's actions (in the context we chose) fit the slumdog ending, expectations we can derive from her argument and when they might not.
As we work on our analyses, we are evaluating Ridgeway's approach as a tool. The right tool allows us to Response Essay, construct a better edifice with less effort; the wrong tool does not. Thinking tools . Woman And Order! The remaining notes for this analytical task look at some analytical steps that allow us to think through this problem effectively. Systematic steps in the analysis . Doing this kind of thought experiment, we want our thinking to Essay, be as systematic as possible. For all systematic causal analyses, we want to consider how the phenomenon being examined varies in regular or predictable ways across conditions, settings, types of people, places, or the like. Then, we ask what conditions or events typically precede or occur along with the ending, outcomes that could plausibly influence those outcomes. For example, first, we simply consider possible differences between men's and to Epigenetics, women's actions.
Then we consider how their actions might differ between opposite-sex and same-sex encounters. We can broaden the range of the examples we use to think about these differences by woman considering other characteristics that might affect interactions, such as the age or race of the people, whether the interaction is Video to Epigenetics Essay, cordial or unfriendly, how well the bernoulli's principle explain air going chimney of a, people know each other, and so on. We want to ask ourselves if the gender aspect of the interaction will be influenced by these other circumstances that seem relevant to interactions. For example, does gender influence cordial interactions differently from the ways it influences confrontations in Essay, our setting? If we believe the answer is yes, then we consider how and why. Analogously, we want to think about the micro, ways that people's goals in Essay, gendered interactions vary in these kinds of of law circumstances, and how these goals influence their actions. For example, in the same setting, a person seeking sex will commonly act differently than someone trying to Response to Epigenetics, curry favor or sell a product. When we apply a systematic logic to the analysis, we usually do not want to write about all the possibilities we think about. How Does Principle Help Explain Air Going Chimney House?! Instead, we use the Video Essay, ones that we find telling.
But we will not identify those telling possibilities unless we systematically work through all the dance, relevant possible influences. Gender context . We can take the Video Essay, analysis of interactions another step by considering how the influence of gender on these interactions is potentially affected by conditions like: the presence or absence of of Beauty Essay onlookers (i.e., the relative privacy of the interaction) or the gender distribution of other people present (i.e., mostly male, mostly female, or mixed) Conformity . Whenever we try to explain patterns like this, we want to consider the Video Response to Epigenetics, exceptions. When will people violate the implications of gender expectations and what follows when they do? Are there circumstances that make it more likely people will depart from conventional behavior? Violations of norms or common expectations are valuable for causal analyses because cracks in the veneer of social order can reveal its structure and dynamics. Gender Identity Psychology! Bring it together . After working through the Video Response to Epigenetics Essay, steps above, we try to assess when Ridgeway's approach does a good job explaining how gender influences behavior in our chosen setting, and when her approach seems to fall short. Do we see ways that her approach neglects or misunderstands important causes influencing the gender character of behavior in the context we examine? Our central goal here is to explain how and why gender organizes interactions in our chosen example. We are not attempting a general evaluation of Ridgeway's ideas, but a focused assessment of their effectiveness in the setting we have selected to try them out.
Erving Goffman, The Arrangement between the Sexes Theory and Society, Vol. 4, No. 3 (Autumn, 1977), pp. 301-331 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Slumdog Millionaire! Gender and Society , Vol. 2, No. 3 (Sep 1988), pp. 274-290 Cecilia L. Ridgeway, Framed Before We Know It: How Gender Shapes Social Relations. Gender Society 2009 23:145-160 Candace West and Don H. Zimmerman Doing Gender Gender Society 1987 1: 125-151. Cecilia Ridgeway.
Framed by Gender . Oxford: 2011. . IV. Video To Epigenetics! Why have women apparently occupied a subordinate position in all societies? And how does explaining the origins of gender inequality relate to explaining the persistence of gender inequality? Although some scholars may question if women have been subordinate in taranchula, all societies, all agree that men have been dominant in most societies although the degree of dominance varies greatly. This raises the very tricky question, how do we explain the prevalence of Essay male dominance? This exceedingly elusive question continues to elude any answer that will evoke a consensus. Analytical Task Alternative 1: An analytical critique . As most of us lack the The Biopower of Beauty Essay, substantive knowledge needed to develop even simple analyses of Response to Epigenetics gender inequality's possible origins, we will explore the causal possibilities by of law responding to Response Essay, the arguments of people who are knowledgeable. Please read the Basics of Causal Descriptions on a separate page for some simple, beginning ideas about gender, describing a causal analysis. Isolate what you believe are the most important causal arguments in the common readings . Give a critical assessment of their different approaches . In doing this, try to pay attention to what it is that makes you find the causal arguments more or less persuasive.
The recommended and related readings provide a range of material that you can look at as you need to Video Response to Epigenetics Essay, deepen and sharpen your arguments. It can be helpful to look back at of law the material from Topic II, especially Gerring's list of criteria for causal arguments. Analytical Task Alternative 2: A hypothetical scenario . When we cannot hope to research a social phenomenon with empirical observations, we can sometimes gain some traction by trying to think through hypothetical possibilities. Here is an example. Assume that sometime in the near future we launch a rocket into space with a crew of Video to Epigenetics 1,000. This crew is evenly divided between women and men, the women and micro definition, men have similar credentials and accomplishments, and the two sexes are about Essay, equally represented at each level of authority. The crew members' cultural understandings are similar to those of college students today. This ship reaches a far away planet much like earth but lacking intelligent life.
Unfortunately, the ship's engines have become unstable and the crew must abandon it. So they must start life on this new planet. While they possess much advanced knowledge, they have no technology. Gender Psychology! They must start from scratch, producing food, organizing themselves into Video Response to Epigenetics, a community, pairing off to how does help explain up the of a, reproduce, slowly building toward some kind of Video Response to Epigenetics technological development over generations. Principle Air Going Up The Chimney Of A! [Note: If the Video to Epigenetics, distant planet scenario seems unnerving, we could have the same effect by dropping a 1,000 people on a remote island that is taranchula dance, isolated as a social experiment.] Under these conditions, what are the alternative possibilities for Video to Epigenetics Essay women's status? What might decide which alternative occurs?
Sapolsky, Robert. Testosterone rules Discover . Chicago: Mar 1997. Vol. Slumdog! 18, Iss. 3; p. Response To Epigenetics Essay! 44 Wood, W., Eagly, A. Woman And Order! H. (2002). A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727.
Evolutionary Psychology and similar approaches : The debates over Essay, evolutionary psychology - in general and as applied to gender inequality - are very important but often difficult to follow and assess. Here are some starting points for learning the basics. Buller's supplies a sophisticated overview and critique of the most influential paradigm in evolutionary psychology (while supportive of the more general venture), Downes and Walter present guided views of the field, and other pieces provide further commentaries and some studies that explore key issues facing this approach. Downes, Stephen M., Evolutionary Psychology, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2014 Edition) Sven Walter, Evolutionary Psychology, The Internet Encyclopedia of gender Philosophy 2009 Bolger, Diane. Introduction. In A Companion to Gender Prehistory , edited by Diane Bolger, 1-19. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons, Inc, 2012. [doi:10.1002/9781118294291.ch0] Buller, David J. Evolutionary Psychology: A Critique. In Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology , edited by Video Response to Epigenetics Essay Elliott Sober. Cambridge, MA: A Bradford Book, 2006. [also, compare David Buller. A Guided Tour of Evolutionary Psychology (In A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Mind . Eds.
Marco Nani and Massimo Marraffa. An official electronic publication of the Department of Philosophy of woman University of Video to Epigenetics Essay Rome 2000.) Also by Buller see: Evolutionary Psychology: The Emperor's New Paradigm, Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (2005): 277-283 and for dance a full treatment his book Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for Video Response Essay Human Nature . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books, 2005.] Fausto-Sterling, Anne. Bernoulli's Principle Explain Air Going Up The Of A House?! Beyond Difference: A Biologist's Perspective. Journal of Social Issues 53, no. 2 (2010): 233-58. [doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1997.tb02442.x] Goodman, Madeleine J., P. Bion Griffin, Agnes A. Estioko-Griffin, and John S. Grove. The Compatibility of Video Response Hunting and Mothering among the Agta Hunter-Gatherers of the bernoulli's principle explain up the of a house?, Philippines. Sex Roles 12, no. 11-12 (1985): 1199-209. [doi:10.1007/bf00287829] Rigby, Nichole, and Rob J. Kulathinal. Genetic Architecture of Sexual Dimorphism in Humans.
Journal of Cellular Physiology 230, no. Video Response! 10 (Oct 2015): 2304-10. [doi:10.1002/jcp.24979] Stulp, Gert, and Louise Barrett. Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Height Variation. Woman Of Law And Order! Biological Reviews 91, no. 1 (Feb 2016): 206-34. [doi:10.1111/brv.12165] Joseph Henrich. Video To Epigenetics! A cultural species: How culture drove human evolution Psychological Science Agenda . Science Brief.
2009 Rosemary L. Hopcroft. Gender Inequality in Interaction – An Evolutionary Account. Social Forces 87.4 (2009): 1845-1871. Randall Collins. A Conflict Theory of Sexual Stratification. Social Problems , Vol. 19, No.
1 (Summer, 1971), pp. Woman And Order! 3-21 Rae Blumberg. A General Theory of Gender Stratification. Sociological Theory 2 (1984): 23-101. Rae Blumberg.
Extending Lenski's Schema to Video Response to Epigenetics Essay, Hold Up Both Halves of the Sky.aˆ?A Theory-Guided Way of Conceptualizing Agrarian Societies that Illuminates a Puzzle about Gender Stratification Sociological Theory 22:2 (June 2004):278-291 Matthew H. Slumdog Millionaire Ending! McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. The Early Development of Gender Differences Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38 (2009): 83-97 Laurie Wermuth and Miriam Ma'at-Ka-Re Monges. Gender Stratification: A Structural Model for Examining Case Examples of Women in Less-Developed Countries. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 23.1 (2002) 1-22 Randall Collins, Janet Saltzman Chafetz, Rae Lesser Blumberg, Scott Coltrane, Jonathan H. Video Response! Turner Toward an Integrated Theory of Gender Stratification Sociological Perspectives , Vol.
36, No. 3 (Autumn, 1993), pp. 185-216 Janet Saltzman Chafetz Gendered Power and Privilege: Taking Lenski One Step Further Sociological Theory, Vol. 22, No. 2, Religion, Stratification, and Evolution in Human Societies: Essays in Honor of Gerhard E. The Biopower Essay! Lenski (Jun., 2004), pp. 269-277 Joan N. Huber. Comparative Gender Stratification. Handbook of the Sociology of Gender , 1999, p65-80 Maurice Godelier, The Origins of Video Response to Epigenetics Essay Male Domination New Left Review , May-June 1981, pp. 3-17 William Tulio Divale, Marvin Harris.
Population, Warfare, and the Male Supremacist Complex. American Anthropologist , New Series, Vol. 78, No. 3 (Sep., 1976), pp. How Does Bernoulli's Principle Help Air Going Up The Chimney Of A! 521-538 [See also: William Divale, Marvin Harris, Donald T. Williams. On the Misuse of Statistics: A Reply to Hirschfeld et al. American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 80, No.
2 (Jun., 1978), pp. 379-386; William Divale, Marvin Harris. Response! The Male Supremacist Complex: Discovery of a Cultural Invention American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 80, No. 3 (Sep., 1978), pp. Woman! 668-671 C C Mukhopadhyay, and Video to Epigenetics Essay, P J Higgins. Anthropological Studies of Women's Status Revisited: 1977-1987.
Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 17 (1988): 461-495 Naomi Quinn. Taranchula Dance! Anthropological Studies on Women's Status. Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. Essay! 6 (1977): 181-225 Chris Hann. Reproduction and Inheritance: Goody Revisited. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 37 (2008): 145-158. V. What determines men's and women's roles and positions within families? Family and taranchula dance, kinship are potentially relevant to gender inequality in varied ways and a lot of work had pursued such issues. Probably the two most important general issues involve the Video Response to Epigenetics, ways that women and The Biopower Essay, men are unequal within families and Response Essay, the ways that family organization both contributes to and is influenced by gender inequality beyond the family institution.
We will just touch the of law and order, surface of these issues this week. The general analytical problem . We want to provide an integrated analytical overview of the principal causal arguments about gender inequality and family organization that appear in the common readings. Each of the readings has various causal arguments about family organization, some directly about gender inequality, some relevant to gender inequality but not directly exploring it. Some of the causal questions may receive different causal analyses by these authors. Video Response To Epigenetics! Sometimes two or more authors may use a similar causal approach to explain different causal problems. Our goal is to sort this out. The Biopower Of Beauty! Our overviews should be organized around the Response to Epigenetics, causal arguments, not a series of summaries of what each author wrote (see Thinking Tools). Thinking tools . We want to use one of the following two possible ways to organize the causal assessment (unless one of us has a better way). The first organizes around what is to be explained, the second around the causes. First approach . We start by identifying the principal causal problems addressed by the group of papers. That is, we figure out what they suggest needs to be explained.
Then, we organize these causal problems in a sensible order (including consideration of some problems potentially being secondary or sub-problems of others). Under each causal problem, we summarize and assess all the relevant explanations found in the readings. Lending! Second approach . We start by identifying the Video to Epigenetics, principal causal frameworks used in the papers. That is, we figure out The Biopower what they suggest are the conditions or processes that have the to Epigenetics Essay, most important influence over the outcomes. Then, we organize these causal frameworks in how does explain air going chimney of a house?, a sensible order, taking into Video, account which are entirely different and slumdog millionaire ending, which might be variations of a similar theme, and to Epigenetics Essay, which are competing versus complementary. For each of these, after summarizing the causal logic of the framework, we show how it has been used by these authors, describing the range of outcomes the framework is supposed to determine and how it has such effects. Note that regardless which way we organize our analysis of competing causal arguments, it can be valuable to think about not only what is considered by the authors being examine, but also which theoretical questions and which causal frameworks seem relevant but absent.
Please reread the help air going chimney, Basics of Causal Descriptions on the starting point for describing a causal analysis. Video! Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to produce a critical overview of the micro lending definition, principal causal arguments concerning the family and gender inequality, starting with the ideas present in the common readings for this week. To do this effectively, we need to identify all the relevant causal arguments, deduce the logical structure of Video to Epigenetics each causal argument and determine how to present that clearly (even if the dance, original source is inconsistent or ambiguous), detect how the causal arguments (from different sources) relate to each other and present them in a way that makes those relations clear, and, where possible, summarize the important analytical strengths and weaknesses of each argument (or facet to an argument). (We should start with the understanding that this kind of analytical overview is rather easy to Response to Epigenetics Essay, do poorly and very demanding to micro, do well and thoroughly. At this stage we are not aspiring to a professional job but hoping to Video Response, achieve a reasonable, if basic, analysis.) Destined for taranchula dance Equality : Institutional Individualism: Individualistic Family 157-169 Coltrane, Scott.
1989. Household Labor and the Routine Production of Gender. Social Problems 3 Stephanie Coontz. The Historical Transformation of Marriage, Journal of Marriage and to Epigenetics Essay, Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 974-979) November 2004. How Does Help Explain! Beth Anne Shelton, Daphne John.
The Division of Household Labor. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 22, (1996), pp. 299-322 Andrew J. Cherlin, The Deinstitutionalization of American Marriage Journal of Marriage and Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 848-861) November 2004. Kathleen Gerson. Moral Dilemmas, Moral Strategies, and the Transformation of Gender: Lessons from Video to Epigenetics, Two Generations of Work and Family Change Gender Society . Vol. 16 No. 1, February 2002 8-28 Sara B. Raley, Marybeth J. Mattingly, Suzanne M. Bianchi. Taranchula Dance! How Dual Are Dual-Income Couples?
Documenting Change From 1970 to 2001. Journal of Marriage and Family 68:1 (2006), 11-28 Davis, S. N., T. Greenstein and J. G. Essay! Marks, Effects of Union Type and Division of Household Labor, Journal of Family Issues 28 (2007):1247-72. [doi: 10.1177/0192513X07300968] Scott Coltrane. Father-Child Relationships and the Status of Women: A Cross-Cultural Study. American Journal of Sociology, 93 (1988): 1060-1095. The Biopower! Joann Vanek. Time Spent in Housework.
Scientific American 231 (Nov 1974):116-120. Response! Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. The Sociology of Women's Economic Role in the Family. American Sociological Review , Vol. 42, No. 3 (Jun., 1977), pp. 387-406 Kathleen Gerson. Definition! (2004) 'Understanding work and Response to Epigenetics Essay, family through a gender lens', Community, Work Family , 7: 2, 163 - 178 Rodrigo R. Soares, Bruno L. S. FalcA?A?o. The Demographic Transition and the Sexual Division of Labor. The Journal of Political Economy , Vol.
116, No. How Does Bernoulli's Principle Help Explain Air Going Up The House?! 6 (Dec., 2008), pp. 1058-1104 Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in Romantic Relationships', Journal of Bisexuality , 9:1, 33-69 Veronica Tichenor. Video Response To Epigenetics! Maintaining Men's Dominance: Negotiating Identity and Power When She Earns More. Of Beauty! Sex Roles 53:3-4, (2005): 191-205 Becker, G. S., Human Capital, Effort, and Video Response to Epigenetics Essay, the Sexual Division of gender psychology Labor, Journal of Labor Economics 3(1) (1985):33-58. [ VI. Response To Epigenetics Essay! What is the role of slumdog ending sex differences in the functioning and perpetuation of Video Response Essay gender inequality?
Attempts to gender identity, explain gender inequality at all levels are haunted by Response to Epigenetics essentialism . Essentialist arguments impute distinctive attributes to women and men and attribute the social differences between women's and men's activities, opportunities, statuses, and micro definition, roles to these distinct attributes. Even theoretical analyses of gender inequality that expressly reject the possibility of Video to Epigenetics Essay consequential, inherent sex differences, commonly build their explanations of inequality on gender differences. To complicate matters, essentialist arguments proclaiming superior attributes for women exist alongside of the arguments proclaiming women inferior. Moreover, while for some, essentialism always means a difference based in biology or genetics, for others it includes cultural differences that are embodied in women and men. The general analytical problem . To investigate how essentialist arguments work, we will examine how different kinds of micro essentialist arguments might be applied to explain some aspect of gender inequality, in contrast to a non-essentialist argument. We aim to see both the attraction of essentialist arguments and the possibilities for alternatives. Select one form or facet of gender inequality that you will try to explain for Response Essay this task.
This instance or aspect of gender inequality should be sufficiently important, widespread, and enduring or recurring to merit thoughtful theory and explanation. It should also be narrow or specific enough that the goal of woman explaining it is Video to Epigenetics Essay, plausible. For example, the facet might be that wives commonly defer to woman and order, husbands. For the selected type or aspect of gender inequality, you will suggest five alternative explanations, each one representing a different approach to Video to Epigenetics Essay, explaining such social phenomena. The explanations should be succinct but clear. They should also be plausible to the extent that a reasonable person might make such an argument.
Plausible does not mean true, of course. Lending! Rather, we are trying to imagine an argument that would seem plausible to people who are advocates for Video Response Essay each of the perspectives. The five types of explanation . Attempt to devise the micro lending definition, best explanations you can for the relevant facet of Response to Epigenetics inequality from each of the following perspectives. Of Beauty! Explanations may be categorized in many ways. Video Response To Epigenetics! The five perspectives defined here are meant to engage different responses to the problem of essentialism. Direct biological - Devise an explanation claiming that some biological difference between the sexes produces the relevant aspect of inequality by making women and men act differently. Essay! For example, an argument might be that men are stronger than women so men dominate women as a simple result of superior strength. (More complex biological explanations might be derived from evolutionary psychology.) This type of explanation is usually purely essentialist. Note that this type of explanation can be divided further into those relying on real biological differences and those imputing fictional biological differences. Let us stress biological differences that are at least potentially real here, leaving the fictitious ones for below.
Indirect biological - Formulate an explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the inequality, but the biological difference has important effects or implications of some sort, and those effects that make likely or unavoidable the emergence or persistence of the Video, selected aspect of Essay gender inequality. For example, someone might argue that women's child bearing makes them anxious about the welfare of their children, and that anxiety makes them feel weak and in want of a protector, leading them to Video Response, defer to husbands. Or, others might suggest that women's biologically induced child rearing orientation encourages both women and men to make men responsible for of law warfare, and that men's resulting skill at combat, their possession of weapons, and men's organization around mutual defense leaves wives typically in their husbands' control. The key for this type of explanation is that the relevant biological differences do not directly cause the gender inequality being explained, but have effects on social behavior and social organization that lead to Response to Epigenetics, gender inequality. Gender Identity! These types of explanations have essentialist origins in Response to Epigenetics Essay, a biological difference, but the explanation as a whole may invoke mediating causal influences that reduce the essentialist quality, sometimes greatly.
Non-biological sex difference - Suggest how some socially constructed difference between women and men – one that is neither biological nor a direct result of biological differences – initiates or preserves the aspect of gender inequality being explained. This will usually be an enduring individual characteristic (a difference that people carry with them, not a difference in taranchula, their circumstances). For example, one might claim that women are fearful and dependent because of socialization processes (that have no biological basis), and this psychological condition induces wives to defer to their husbands. Or, one might argue that childhood sports available only to boys result in a higher competitive drive that accounts for to Epigenetics adult men's greater success in of law, business. This type of explanation claims a real difference exists between women and to Epigenetics, men (in the woman of law and order, society or social context where the inequality being explained occurs; the relevant sex difference need not exist in Video to Epigenetics, all or any other society or social context), but this difference is a social construction. This type of micro lending explanation often becomes redundantly circular: each aspect of inequality exists as a result of inequality, and that overall inequality is constituted by Video Response the various aspects.
Fictitious sex difference - An imputed sex difference that does not really exist is claimed to play a significant role in producing the selected facet of gender inequality. Micro Lending! For example, someone might suggest that although women have no better capacity for Video Response to Epigenetics Essay child rearing, people commonly assume they do because women bear children, and that this false expectation produces a division of labor and woman of law, power favoring men. This type of explanation focuses on the consequences of beliefs, relying on the observation that beliefs can organize behavior even if they are false beliefs. While such fictitious differences are commonly assumed to be biological, they need not be. Causes independent of sex differentiation - A causal process that does not involve any difference between the sexes is argued to produce the inequality being considered. For example, some might argue that for families to fulfill their social functions effectively, they need one spouse/parent to perform the critical emotional actions needed and the other spouse/parent to perform the practical and leadership actions (this is Video Response, essentially a well-know idea of Talcott Parsons). This role differentiation can then result in woman of law, spouse inequality, as an to Epigenetics Essay indirect and unintended consequence. This category includes highly diverse explanations, the one critical similarity among them being that they do not rely on a sex difference in their central causal argument. It may be worth noting that one reason explanations based on sex differences (including all the preceding perspectives) are more common is that formulating a plausible analysis that forgoes the mechanism of definition sex differences is often a hard task. (Note, in Video Response to Epigenetics, this task we are aiming to produce explanations that those advocating each of the above types of explanation would think are reasonable. It is often hardest to conceive good explanations from the points of view we find unconvincing or unappealing, but the capacity to do this is a valuable skill.) Bringing it together . The point of how does bernoulli's help explain air going up the chimney of a house? this exercise is to examine how it is possible to devise a range of alternative causal explanations of gender inequality stressing some mechanism of sex differences, while developing alternative theories that do not rely on sex differences is Video Response to Epigenetics Essay, rather hard. Of Beauty! The difference arguments run the full range from being directly and to Epigenetics Essay, fully biological to relying on non-biological or fictitious differences in millionaire, indirect ways.
The arguments that exclude not only biology but all dependence on sex differences commonly derive from another theoretical approach, such as functionalism or conflict theories. The challenge with these approaches is not only to Video, make the immediate causal process eschew differences, but to avoid relying on sex differences one or two steps earlier in the causal chain. Uri Gneezy, Kenneth L. Leonard, And John A. List. Gender Differences in micro definition, Competition: Evidence From a Matrilineal and a Patriarchal Society. Econometrica, Vol. To Epigenetics Essay! 77, No. 5 (September, 2009), 1637-1664 Review : Section II Common Readings above and the DeLamater and Hyde piece from Section VI. Douglas Schrock, Michael Schwalbe. Men, Masculinity, and Manhood Acts. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol.
35: 277-295 (August 2009). [doi: 10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115933] Janis S. Millionaire Ending! Bohan. Regarding gender: Essentialism, Constructionism, and Video Response to Epigenetics, Feminist Psychology. Psychology of Women Quarterly , Mar 93, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p5-22 Matthew H. Taranchula Dance! McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. The Early Development of Gender Differences. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 83-97 (October 2009) Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. (2002). A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences.
Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. [doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.128.5.699] Nancy Chodorow. Oedipal Asymmetries and Heterosexual Knots. Social Problems , Vol. 23, No. 4, Feminist Perspectives: The Sociological Challenge (Apr., 1976), pp. 454-468. Eagly, A. Video Essay! H., Wood, W. (1999). The Origins Of Sex Differences In Human Behavior: Evolved Dispositions Versus Social Roles. American Psychologist, 54, 408-423.
Valian, V. Gender Identity Psychology! (1999). The Cognitive Bases Of Gender Bias. Brooklyn Law Review, 65, 1037-1061. Clopton, Nancy A.; Sorell, Gwendolyn T. To Epigenetics Essay! Gender differences in moral reasoning. . Psychology of Women Quarterly, Mar93, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p85 [doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1993.tb00678.x] Pamela L. Geller. Identity and Difference: Complicating Gender in Archaeology. Annual Review of micro Anthropology , Vol. Response Essay! 38: 65-81 (October 2009) [doi: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-091908-164414] Barbara J. Risman, Intimate Relationships from a Microstructural Perspective: Mothering Men.
Gender and Society 1:1 (March 1987). Nancy Chodorow. Millionaire Ending! Mothering, Object-Relations, and the Female Oedipal Configuration. Feminist Studies , Vol. 4, No. To Epigenetics Essay! 1 (Feb., 1978), pp. 137-158 [jstor: 3177630] Timothy J. Biblarz Judith Stacey. How Does the Gender of Parents Matter? Journal of Marriage and Family 72:1 (2010):3-22 [doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00678.x] Adrienne Rich. 1980. Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence.
Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 5 (4): 631-660 Judith Butler. Performative Acts and slumdog millionaire ending, Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Video, Feminist Theory. Bernoulli's Help Explain Air Going Up The Of A House?! Theatre Journal , Vol. 40, No. 4 (Dec., 1988), pp. 519-531. Nussbaum, M. C. The Professor Of Parody [J. Butler]. The New Republic v. 220 no. 8 (February 22 1999) p. 37-45. Timothy V. Kaufman-Osborn.
Fashionable Subjects: On Judith Butler and the Causal Idioms of Postmodern Feminist Theory. Political Research Quarterly , Vol. 50, No. 3 (Sep., 1997), pp. 649-674 Veronica Vasterling. Butler's Sophisticated Constructivism: A Critical Assessment. Hypatia , Vol. 14, No. 3 (Summer, 1999), pp. Video To Epigenetics! 17-38 Barbara F. Reskin. Including Mechanisms in gender identity, Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality.
American Sociological Review, Vol. 68, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21. VII. What is the role of sexuality? Sexuality has been evoked in multiple ways in the study of gender inequality. Some have considered it as a possible motivating cause for inequality, others have explored how gender inequality can mold the Video to Epigenetics, experience and definition, practice of sexuality, and others have tried to theoretically incorporate sexuality as a peculiar tension between women and Response, men that mediates both the The Biopower of Beauty, causes and effects of gender inequality. Essentially, everyone recognizes sexuality is critically important to gender inequality, but we lack agreement or clarity on how it matters. The general analytical problem . Focusing on heterosexual behavior, it appears that men seek to have sex with women much more than women seek to have it with men, relative both to how often they have sex and with how many partners . Our central task this week is to propose causal accounts that plausibly explain this. Give a brief account of possible explanations from the following perspectives.
In each case, describe a plausible approach (accepting the assumptions of the perspective), then assess its strengths and weaknesses. Evolutionary Psychology - Trying to explain this phenomenon (well, part of it) has been a highlight of the work that evolutionary psychologists have done on gender differences. Video Response! Provide an appropriate brief explanation of this sort, identify the gender identity, fundamental assumptions it requires. Also, consider the evidence and what might be important shortcomings. Indirect biological - Formulate an explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the inequality, but the biological difference has important effects or implications of some sort, and Video Response, those effects that make likely or unavoidable the emergence and persistence of this sexuality difference. Also, consider under what social conditions this sexual difference should be larger or smaller, assuming that this explanation is correct. A Fictional Difference - Try to explain how this purported difference in sexuality might not be real.
This includes explaining why the dance, fictional belief in this difference would arise and become prevalent. Secondary effect of gender inequality - Consider how this difference can arise as a result of gender inequality. Examine what social conditions must be true for this causal sequence to occur. A different approach - What plausible explanation can you provide that does not fit into the above categories? Can you provide reasoning or evidence to show that one of the explanations is Video Essay, better than the others?
Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to construct and assess alternative basic causal arguments seeking to understand a widely accepted difference in the sexuality of women and men. In each case, try to be clear about the how does bernoulli's explain air going up the chimney house?, logic of the causal argument. Video Essay! In each case, provide a logical description of the mechanisms that link the causes to the outcomes. Alternative Analytical Task [ignore] The general analytical problem . Air Going Up The! Our central task this week is to propose a causal account that plausibly explains the relationship between one aspect of sexuality and gender inequality. Everyone who analyzes gender inequality considers sexuality important, but they have highly varied ideas about what matters and why. To Epigenetics Essay! This disagreement suggests that the underlying problems are difficult. We cannot hope to solve them in this brief effort.
So, our aim is to propose a simple and reasonable account of some part of the relationship between inequality and sexuality. Definition! We are not trying to develop a full, professional analysis. We also want to consider how our proposed accounts agree with, differ from, or challenge the existing scholarly arguments. Response! Again, our goal here is limited. The aim is to give a reasonable first sense of how the proposed account fits (or does not fit). Of Beauty Essay! Thinking tools As suggested above, we can use any aspect of sexuality that seems interesting.
However, it may help if the selected facet of Video to Epigenetics Essay sexuality: has a relationship to gender inequality that at least some writers think is important. Which way it is important is wide open. The role of the of Beauty, chosen sexuality characteristic relative to gender inequality may be cause, effect, catalyst, or whatever else seems causally relevant. allows discussion of relevant ideas from at least three scholarly works. These may be part of the common readings, any of the other readings recommended here, or another legitimate source. This doesn't mean that the texts must directly discuss the specific relationship we write about, but that they include ideas or arguments which we can apply or to which we can respond. A basic approach to the task presentation might have the following three parts: First, we lay out the causal, explanatory problem. What are the outcomes, patterns, processes, or relationships that we would like to explain by identifying reasonable causes?
And why is this important enough to merit attention? (The latter part may seem self-evident, but we still want to describe why we think explaining the to Epigenetics, phenomenon is important.) Second, we provide the causal analysis. We want to be as complete as possible within reasonable space limits. And, we want to be clear, simple, and direct. Third, we try to The Biopower Essay, show how our proposed causal analysis relates to the existing literature. For our purposes, we can limit ourselves to considering a couple theories or perspectives that would support or compliment our approach and a couple that would be likely to question our proposed causal analysis. (In a professional effort, we would need to consider every important relevant argument.) These may come from the Video Essay, common readings or any other relevant scholarship. How Does Bernoulli's Help Chimney House?! When discussing those who might disagree, we want to be as specific as possible about what criticism we would expect from each of these opponents and how we might respond. Video! Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to construct a basic causal argument seeking to taranchula, understand how some aspect of sexuality is Response, related to gender inequality, and to taranchula, assess how that causal argument relates to the existing literature (as represented in our readings). Zaylia, Jessica Leigh(2009) 'Toward a Newer Theory of Sexuality: Terms, Titles, and Video Response Essay, the Bitter Taste of Bisexuality', Journal of The Biopower of Beauty Essay Bisexuality , 9 (2): 109 - 123. Crawford, M., et. al., Sexual Double Standards: A Review and Methodological Critique of Two Decades of Research. The Journal of Response to Epigenetics Sex Research v. 40 no.
1 (February 2003) p. 13-26 Dennis D. Of Beauty! Waskul, Phillip Vannini, Desiree Wiesen. Women and Their Clitoris: Personal Discovery, Signification, and Use. Symbolic Interaction May 2007, Vol. 30, No. 2: 151-174 Breanne Fahs. Compulsory Bisexuality?: The Challenges of Modern Sexual Fluidity. Journal of Bisexuality , Volume 9, Issue 3 4 July 2009 , pages 431-449 John A. Miller, Joan Acker, Kate Barry, Miriam M. Johnson and Video to Epigenetics, Lois A. West. Comments on MacKinnon's 'Feminism, Marxism, Method, and the State'. Signs , Vol. 10, No. 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp.
168-184; [jstor: 3174252; and Catharine A. MacKinnon, Reply to Miller, Acker and millionaire ending, Barry, Johnson, West, and Gardiner. Signs , Vol. Video Essay! 10, No. 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp. 184-188 [jstor: 3174253] Steven Epstein.
An Incitement to micro, Discourse: Sociology and the History of Sexuality . Sociological Forum , Vol. 18, No. 3 (Sep., 2003), pp. 485-502. Nicole Constable. The Commodification of Intimacy: Marriage, Sex, and Reproductive Labor. Video! Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 49-64 (2009) Impett, E. A., Peplau, L. A. (2003). The Biopower Of Beauty Essay! Sexual Compliance: Gender, Motivational, And Relationship Perspectives.
Journal of Sex Research, 40(1), 87-100 [doi: 10.1080/00224490309552169] Ronald Weitzer. Sociology of Sex Work. Video Response Essay! Annual Review of bernoulli's help air going up the house? Sociology , Vol. 35: 213-234 (2009) Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in Video Response, Romantic Relationships', Journal of Bisexuality, 9: 1, 33-69 Lisa Duggan From Instincts to Politics: Writing the History of Sexuality in the U.S. The Journal of Sex Research , Vol.
27, No. 1, Feminist Perspectives on Sexuality. Part 1 (Feb., 1990), pp. 95-109 Michael W. Wiederman. The Truth Must Be in how does bernoulli's explain air going house?, Here Somewhere: Examining the Gender Discrepancy in Self-Reported Lifetime Number of Video Essay Sex Partners. Of Beauty! The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 34, No. 4 (1997), pp. Response Essay! 375-386 Norman R. Brown, Robert C. Sinclair. Micro! Estimating Number of Lifetime Sexual Partners: Men and Women Do It Differently.
The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 36, No. 3 (Aug., 1999), pp. 292-297 John Levi Martin, Matt George. Theories of Video Response Sexual Stratification: Toward an Analytics of the The Biopower of Beauty Essay, Sexual Field and a Theory of Sexual Capital. Sociological Theory, Vol. 24, No. 2 (Jun., 2006), pp. 107-132 Judith Treas, Deirdre Giesen.
Sexual Infidelity among Married and Cohabiting Americans. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Feb., 2000), pp. 48-60 Blow, Adrian J.; Hartnett, Kelley. Infidelity In Committed Relationships II: A Substantive Review . Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, Volume 31, Issue 2, (2005): 217-33. Lever, J., Frederick, D., Peplau, L. A. (2006).
Does Size Matter? Men's And Women's Views On Penis Size Across The Life Span. To Epigenetics! Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 7(3), 129-143. VIII. What is the role of violence and intimidation in the relationships between men and women? Most theoretical approaches to gender inequality suggest that violence between women and micro definition, men plays a role in Response Essay, sustaining inequality; some also point toward violence as an initial cause. A recurring issue concerns the degree to of Beauty Essay, which violence is an Video Response Essay expression or result of gender inequality or, alternatively, is a cause of gender identity inequality. The separate roles of Response to Epigenetics Essay rape, harassment, and domestic violence, and their relationships to each other are another critical question. Much research and argument has also been focused on the question of women's aggressive impulses and actions. Analytical Task : Try to develop a reasonable explanation for why women do not engage in sexual harassment or sexual violence at gender identity psychology rates similar to those of men.
Here, our strategy is to Video Response to Epigenetics Essay, reverse the usual way people approach the problem of gender violence, aiming to explain the slumdog millionaire ending, (suppressed) rates for women rather than the Video Response to Epigenetics, (elevated) rates for men. In addition to the reading materials, consider carefully the pointers below in the sections on Thinking Tools and Well Formed Causal Arguments In short , taking into account the pointers below and gender psychology, the ideas in the materials we have read up to Video to Epigenetics, this point, you want to develop a reasonable explanation why women do not engage in The Biopower, harassment or violence toward men at the rates that men do toward women. Thinking Tools: ( click to open ) To pursue this task, we need to Response, consider what we mean by violence or aggression. When people refer to the patterns of violence between women and men (in modern societies), they are usually referring to several kinds of aggressive behavior, particularly: (1) sexual violence (especially rape), (2) sexual harassment, and millionaire ending, (3) intimate partner violence (which includes wife battering). These three categories implicitly distinguish patterns of aggression based on Response, several criteria: (1) the degree to which the aggressive acts involve sexuality, (2) the severity of the aggressive acts, and (3) the lending, existing relationship between the relevant men and Video Response, women. In simple terms, the aggressive actions in The Biopower Essay, these three categories have two obvious potential relationships with gender inequality: (1) inequality produces them, and (2) they reinforce gender inequality. These actions are especially linked to inequality by the ways they contribute to women’s fears and sense of physical vulnerability. That fear is crucial. For it is the prospect of possible violence that induces women to Response Essay, restrict their behavior, to seek male protectors, and to explain air going chimney, heed men’s wishes. The fear of violence is commonly a more prevalent and effective mechanism of control than the Response Essay, experience of violence. Note, however, that we cannot assume that sexual violence would not exist in the absence of gender inequality (although we might wish to examine this as a hypothesis).
We know, for example, that partner violence occurs in gay male and lesbian couples at rates comparable to those of heterosexual couples. To put it differently, we have good evidence for inferring that gender inequality is a contributory cause for sexual violence, but not for the claim that it is a necessary cause. Similarly, we must be wary of simply assuming that sexual violence leads to of law and order, gender inequality. To simplify our task, we will set aside the question of intimate partner violence and focus on the other two kinds mentioned above, sexual violence and Video to Epigenetics Essay, sexual harassment. So, our goal is to explain why women, seemingly, indulge less often in sexual violence and harassment toward men than the reverse . We can also note that one analytical starting point to explaining such differences would be to decompose the possible causes into two possible types that raise different causal questions: Women and men may resort to violence and harassment at different rates under comparable circumstances. This would lead us ask what conditions, expectations, or the like cause women and men to act differently. Women and men may face the conditions that induce or allow violence and harassment at different rates.
This would lead us to ask how and why women and men find themselves at different rates in circumstances that promote aggression toward the how does bernoulli's principle help air going chimney of a, other sex. [Both men and women vary greatly, so we must decide if we will abstract away all that variation (and thus talk of men or women in to Epigenetics, the most generic or abstract possible manner) or if we feel that some variations (e.g. wealth or age) require consideration for the analysis. Remember that you can restrict the scope of your analysis.] Try to approach the identity psychology, problem of defining potential causes as systematically as you can. For example, consider a list of potential determinants that might reasonably include beliefs, resources, opportunities, the anticipated consequences of alternative actions. Another way to look at it is the Video Response, old detective's script: motives, means, opportunity. The key here is to slumdog millionaire, avoid randomly attaching yourself to one or two possible causes, just because they happen to be what you first think about. You want to think seriously about what you might have neglected. It is often useful to start this kind of Response Essay analytic reasoning concretely, concentrating on circumstances we know best. We think about the taranchula dance, kinds of Video Response to Epigenetics Essay people we know best, either through personal experience or from studying them. We ask ourselves why the women in these circumstances or groups do not engage in sexual harassment or sexual violence toward men as much as do men toward women. If we can gain an explanatory foothold in these familiar circumstances, we have a starting point for developing a more general explanation.
Also, try to micro lending definition, introduce appropriate connections between the argument(s) you present and Response to Epigenetics, the readings. Consider not only the common readings from this week, but also past readings and optional ones from this week that seem particularly relevant. The causal arguments should try to conform to the standards for a good causal argument that we have read about and discussed. Among other things this means: The causal analysis should clearly state what is bernoulli's air going, being explained. The analysis should describe the social mechanisms linking causes to effects. It should show what happens in the world that produces the outcomes, what kinds of people or organizations behave in manner, what circumstances arise that induce the relevant behavior, and to Epigenetics Essay, so forth. This may be abstract at woman of law the level of the causal model.
The analysis should consider why the Video to Epigenetics, decisive causes exist and take the form that they do. That is, the causal analysis should push back at least one step past the causes being invoked to ask what causes them. A strong analysis will consider what alternative causal arguments could be made (i.e., how the causal processes could be different from what you describe) and show what evidence or logic favors the argument you have presented. A thorough causal analysis will recognize that other causal models might be considered plausible, and try to slumdog millionaire ending, compare the causal model being promoted to the alternatives. The analysis should consider the generalizability of the the arguments presented. It should consider to what periods, places, types of societies, parts of to Epigenetics Essay society, kinds of social relationships or interactions do the arguments apply? Most will find it difficult to do all of the above effectively, so consider these to be suggestions about what would be ideal, then apply your judgment about allocating your time and effort. Try to Essay, develop a clear causal analysis of the Essay, role played in gender inequality by a fear of violence.
This analysis should include a causal explanation why fear of psychology (gender related) violence exists within a system of gender inequality. While thinking through how to explain this fear, you might consider comparisons or circumstances under which these fears vary, including Women's fears vs. men's fears The circumstances under which women experience greater fear and Essay, those where they feel safe Differences in the amount of Essay fear typical amongst groups or categories of women according to their age, affluence, location, companions, or any other relevant social condition Differences in the distribution of fear across societies distinguished by Video Response to Epigenetics Essay such conditions as forms of slumdog millionaire ending economic and political organization, degree of Video to Epigenetics Essay development, prevailing religious or cultural institutions and woman of law, the like This analysis should also include a causal explanation of the consequences for gender inequality of the distribution of fears of violence. In what ways do fears of violence influence the behavior of women or the relationships between women and men? Consider how such fears may affect various kinds of women under various circumstances. But remember to return to aggregate effects – it is the impact of these fears on the pattern of women's experiences and behavior that affects gender inequality writ large. Response To Epigenetics! Avoid the The Biopower Essay, analytic temptation to argue as if equality might imply an absence of discord and aggression. Realistically, equality between two groups by itself only leads us to expect that acts of aggression will occur with equal frequency and Video Response, effect between members of the two groups. Taranchula! Removing inequality as a source of discord should reduce one kind of frustration that motivates aggression. Video! Other sources of discord still exist, however, and some forms of aggression that could be suppressed by of Beauty inequality might even rise. Archer, J. Video Response To Epigenetics Essay! (2002).
Sex Differences In Physically Aggressive Acts Between Heterosexual Partners: A Metaanalytic Review. Aggression Violent Behavior, 7(4), 313-351. [doi: 10.1016/S1359-1789(01)00061-1] Saguy, Abigail C. Employment Discrimination or Sexual Violence?: Defining Sexual Harassment in American and French Law. Law Society Review. 34:4 (2000):1091-1128. also see Saguy, Abigail C. What is Sexual Harassment? From Capitol Hill to the Sorbonne, Thomas Jefferson Law Review , 27:45, (2005):45-56. Manuel Eisner. Long-Term Historical Trends in Violent Crime.
Crime and Justice , Vol. Psychology! 30, (2003), pp. 83-142 Malcolm M. Feeley, Deborah L. Little. The Vanishing Female: The Decline of Response Women in the Criminal Process, 1687-1912. Law Society Review , Vol. The Biopower Essay! 25, No. 4 (1991), pp. 719-758 Quinn, Beth A. Sexual Harassment and Video Essay, Masculinity: The Power and Meaning of 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. 16, no.
3, pp. 386-402, June 2002 Rachel Bridges Whaley, The Paradoxical Relationship between Gender Inequality and Rape: Toward a Refined Theory. The Biopower Of Beauty! Gender Society , vol. 15, no. Response To Epigenetics! 4, pp. 531-555, Aug 2001 [doi: 10.1177/089124301015004003] Murray A. Taranchula Dance! Straus. 2008. Dominance and symmetry in partner violence by to Epigenetics Essay male and female university students in 32 nations. Children and Youth Services Review 30(3):252-275.
Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. (2002). A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: Implications for the origins of sex differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. [note: also recommended for previous section] Sarah K. Murnen, Carrie Wright, and Gretchen Kaluzny. If 'Boys Will Be Boys,' Then Girls Will Be Victims? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Research That Relates Masculine Ideology to Sexual Aggression. Sex Roles Volume 46, Numbers 11-12 / June, 2002 Peggy Reeves Sanday. Rape-Prone Versus Rape-Free Campus Cultures.
Violence Against Women, Vol. 2, No. Micro Lending Definition! 2, 191-208 (1996) [doi: 10.1177/1077801296002002006] Quinn, Beth A. Sexual Harassment and Masculinity: The Power and Meaning of 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 386-402, June 2002. Linda Gordon. Family Violence, Feminism, and Social Control. Feminist Studies, Vol. 12, No.
3 (Autumn, 1986), pp. 453-478 Christopher Uggen Amy Blackstone. Sexual Harrasment as a Gendered Expression of Power. American Sociological Review , Volume 69, Number 1, (February 2004): 64-92 Sandy Welsh. Gender And Sexual Harassment. Annual Review of Sociology 25 (1999): 169-190 Lee Ellis and Charles Beattie. The Feminist Explanation for Rape: An Empirical Test. T he Journal of Sex Research , Vol. 19, No.
1 (Feb., 1983), pp. 74-93 Kimberly Martin, Lynne M. Vieraitis and Video Response, Sarah Britto. Gender Equality and Women's Absolute Status: A Test of the slumdog ending, Feminist Models of Rape. Violence Against Women . 12 (4) 2006: 321-339 Gwen Hunnicutt. Varieties of Patriarchy and Violence Against Women Resurrecting Patriarchy as a Theoretical Tool.
Violence Against Women . 15 (5) 2009: 553 - 573 [doi: 10.1177/1077801208331246] Tom W. Smith. The Polls: Gender and Video to Epigenetics Essay, Attitudes Toward Violence. Of Beauty! The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 48, No. 1 (Spring, 1984), pp. Video! 384-396 [jstor: 2748632] Richard C. Eichenberg.
Gender Differences In Public Attitudes Toward The Use Of Force By The United States, 1990-2003. International Security 28.1 (2003) 110-141 Jon Hurwitz and Shannon Smithey, Gender Differences on Crime and Punishment. Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 51, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. Of Law! 89-115 Joan B. Kelly Michael P. Johnson. Video To Epigenetics Essay! Differentiation Among Types Of Intimate Partner Violence: Research Update And Implications For Interventions. Family Court Review, Volume 46, Issue 3, 2008 (p 476-499) [doi: 10.1111/j.1744-1617.2008.00215.x] Richard B. Woman Of Law! Felson, Alison C. Cares.
Gender and the Seriousness of Assaults on Intimate Partners and Other Victims. Journal of Response to Epigenetics Essay Marriage and Family, Volume 67, Issue 5 (2005):1182-1195 Murray A. Straus and Ignacio Luis Ramirez. 2007. Gender Symmetry In Prevalence, Severity, And Chronicity Of Physical Aggression Against Dating Partners By University Students In Mexico And USA. Aggressive Behavior 33:281-290. [doi: 10.1002/ab.20199] Russell P. Slumdog Millionaire! Dobash and R. Emerson Dobash. Women's Violence to Men in Intimate Relationships. The British Journal of to Epigenetics Criminology 44 (2004): 324-349 [doi: 10.1093/bjc/azh026] IX. How has the economy influenced men's and women's positions in society? Analyses of gender inequality attribute great importance to the economy.
Gender inequality appears everywhere embedded in economic inequality, in the sense that a critical aspect of gender inequality involves unequal access to economic resources and positions. This relationship becomes clearer in more advanced societies where economic organization has become institutionally differentiated from kinship and political organization. Sometimes this unequal economic access is understood as an expression of gender inequality, sometimes a cause of gender inequality, sometimes a result. Many analyses consider it all three. Analytical Task 1: Develop a causal analysis of economic inequality between women and and order, men that accounts for two empirical observations, one being the Video Response to Epigenetics Essay, earnings inequality between the sexes by the gender composition of major occupational categories, the other being the changing likelihood that wives will earn more than their husbands. The data to The Biopower of Beauty, be explained can be found in three tables (click to Video Response Essay, see). Use the and order, tabs at the bottom to switch between tables. The first table shows the 2012 earnings gap in the 20 occupational categories that have the largest number of Response Essay females. These have been sorted by the proportion female. The numbers in dark red show the earnings gap where women also account for slumdog two-thirds or more of the Response to Epigenetics Essay, those in the occupational category.
The second table shows the same kind of data as the first, but is for how does principle explain air going up the of a the 20 occupational categories that have the Response, largest number of males. It is otherwise the same as the woman, first table, except the dark red numbers are for occupational categories where two-thirds or more of the Video to Epigenetics, workers are male. The third table shows the taranchula, changing proportion of married couples where the wife earns more than the husband over the 25 years up to 2011. Preliminary to developing an analysis, the first task is, of course, to interpret what the data in the tables tell us about economic inequality between women and Video Response to Epigenetics Essay, men. The Biopower! It is recommended that you focus on the dark red numbers of Video to Epigenetics Essay all the tables. The first two tables are meant to be interpreted as one.
The main task is to develop a background analysis of gender inequality in woman and order, the economy, as it exists today and how it has changed over the past several decades. To Epigenetics! This may lead you to considering longer term changes to explain conditions during this period. You might think of yourself as writing a textbook or preparing a background paper on gender inequality in the economy, where these tables are the data that is being presented. Your goal is to offer an understanding of these tables. Psychology! One way to think about this is in terms of Video Response to Epigenetics Essay what we don't see in the tables. Why aren't women and men distributed equally across these occupational categories? Why are women's earnings lower? Why do the micro lending definition, difference between women's and men's earning vary across the occupational categories? Why has the proportion of wives earning more than their husbands gone up? What are the implications of the earnings differentials by occupational categories? What are the implications of the data on wives' earnings?
How can we reconcile the data on Response, wives' earnings with the data on occupational earnings differences? In short, we are aiming at a brief explanation of women's vs. men's economic participation today and over time that shows why we find data looking like this. Analytical Task 2 [ignore Fall 13] Identify three of the most important, primary, explanatory problems that need solution to understand the relationship between the economy and gender inequality . The Biopower Of Beauty! Each way that some aspect of gender inequality influences economic organization implies a causal problem. Similarly, in the reverse, each way that economic organization influences some aspect of gender inequality implies a causal problem.
For example, women used to have no access to most high-status positions in the American economy and are now still under represented in them. In either direction we might consider the intensity or degree of gender inequality, rather than some aspect of gender inequality, as that which influences or is influenced by economic organization. For each observation or claim about economic inequality between women and men, we can ask why? or how? For example, why are women under represented among those at the top of large economic enterprises? or how does women's relative absence from positions great economic power influence the persistence of gender inequality? Which explanatory problems are primary is a theoretical (and empirical) judgment. A primary causal process is one without which the relationship between the economy and gender inequality would look and Response to Epigenetics Essay, work differently . Note that you are identifying three that you believe are among those that are primary, not the micro definition, three most important. For each of the three selected, primary, explanatory problems, do the Response Essay, following: State clearly what is the explanatory problem and gender psychology, why it is a primary or important one . To Epigenetics Essay! Think carefully about what makes some causal processes more important than others when we are trying to slumdog millionaire, understand a social phenomenon (her the relationship between gender inequality and economic organization). Select one of the Response to Epigenetics, three explanatory problems you have identified for deeper consideration. For that problem: Briefly describe what stand out as the gender psychology, possible causal processes that could account for the relationship or condition that is the focus of the explanatory problem. For example, what might be the causal processes that account for few women being in positions of Video to Epigenetics Essay high economic power? These are the competing or alternative explanations for the problem.
These may include the causes or explanations explicitly suggested in the literature concerning the identity psychology, problem, or explanations derived from applying a more general theoretical orientation (e.g., a Marxist or a functionalist approach), or any additional possibilities you work out in another way. Describe a research possibility that could seek to resolve one (or more) of these causal problems. You have identified competing, causal explanations for each of the explanatory problems. For one of these, consider how we might hope to learn which causal explanation is more valid by doing relevant research. Video Essay! To do this, we usually want to think about the circumstances under which the gender identity, competing theories suggest that something in the world should look or work differently. To summarize, the analytical task involves (1) identifying three primary, explanatory problems relating gender inequality and economic organization, providing a careful description for each of those explanatory problems, stating why it is Response to Epigenetics, important, (2) for one explanatory problem, exploring competing explanations that could solve the problem, and describing a research design that could, hypothetically, discover which explanation is better. Francine D. Blau. Trends in the Well-Being of American Women, 1970-1995. Journal of Economic Literature , Vol.
36, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 112-165 Francine D. Dance! Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn. The Gender Pay Gap: Have Women Gone as Far as They Can? Academy of Management Perspectives 21 (February 2007): 7-23. [Reduced version of chapter in Declining Significance of Gender] Barbara F. Reskin, Including Mechanisms in Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality: 2002 Presidential Address, American Sociological Review , Vol. 68, No.
1 (Feb., 2003), pp. Response To Epigenetics! 1-21 Michelle J Budig. Male Advantage And The Gender Composition Of Jobs: Who Rides The Glass Escalator? Social Problems . May 2002. Vol. 49, Iss. Taranchula Dance! 2; p. 258 Elizabeth H. Gorman and Julie A. Kmec. Response To Epigenetics! Hierarchical Rank and dance, Women's Organizational Mobility: Glass Ceilings in Corporate Law Firms. Video Response! American Journal of micro definition Sociology Volume 114 Number 5 (March 2009): 1428-74 [doi: pdf/10.1086/595950] Christine E. Bose, Philip L. Essay! Bereano and Mary Malloy. Household Technology and the Social Construction of Housework. Technology and Culture , Vol.
25, No. 1 (Jan., 1984), pp. 53-82 Maria Charles. Deciphering Sex Segregation: Vertical and Horizontal Inequalities in lending, Ten National Labor Markets. Acta Sociologica , Vol. 46, No. To Epigenetics Essay! 4 (Dec., 2003), pp. 267-287 Shelley J. Correll, Stephen Benard, In Paik. Essay! Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?
American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 112, No. 5 (Mar., 2007), pp. 1297-1338 Louise Marie Roth. Women on Wall Street: Despite Diversity Measures, Wall Street Remains Vulnerable to Sex Discrimination Charges.
Academy of Video Essay Management Perspectives , Feb 2007, Vol. 21 [doi: 10.5465/AMP.2007.24286162] Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A. Is The Gap More Than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis Of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, And Earnings. Journal of how does principle explain air going chimney Applied Psychology . Video To Epigenetics Essay! Vol 93(5), Sep 2008, 994-1012. Claudia Goldin.
The Changing Economic Role of Women: A Quantitative Approach. Gender Identity Psychology! Journal of Interdisciplinary History , Vol. Video To Epigenetics! 13, No. 4, The Measure of American History (Spring, 1983), pp. 707-733 [jstor: 203887] Claudia Goldin. The Quiet Revolution That Transformed Women's Employment, Education, and Family. The American Economic Review , Vol. 96, No.
2 (May, 2006), pp. Woman! 1-21 Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. Demographic Influence on Video, Female Employment and the Status of help air going chimney of a house? Women. American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 78, No. Essay! 4, Changing Women in taranchula dance, a Changing Society (Jan., 1973), pp.
946-961; see also Valerie K. Oppenheimer. The Interaction of Demand and Supply and its Effect on the Female Labour Force in the United States. Population Studies , Vol. 21, No. 3 (Nov., 1967), pp. Video Response To Epigenetics! 239-259 England, Paula, Paul Allison, and Yuxiao Wu. Does Feminization Lower Wages, Do Declines in Wages Cause Feminization, and How Can We Tell From Longitudinal Data? Social Science Research 36(3) (2007): 1237-56. Bernoulli's Principle Chimney Of A House?! [doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2006.08.003] Trond Petersen, Vemund Snartland, Eva M. Meyersson Milgrom. Are female workers less productive than male workers? Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 25(1) (2007): 13-37. Claudia Goldin, Lawrence F. Katz, Ilyana Kuziemko.
The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the College Gender Gap. The Journal of Video Response to Epigenetics Essay Economic Perspectives , Vol. Micro Definition! 20, No. 4 (Fall, 2006), pp. 133-156 Jerry A. Jacobs. Gender Inequality and Higher Education. To Epigenetics Essay! Annual Review of Sociology, Vol.
22 (1996): 153-185 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.153] Claudia Buchmann, Thomas A. DiPrete, Anne McDaniel. Gender Inequalities in Education. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 34 (2008): 319-337 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.34.040507.134719] England, Paula and Su Li. Desegregation Stalled: The Changing Gender Composition of College Majors, 1971-2002. Gender Society 20(5) (2006):657-677.
M. Evertsson, P. England, I. Mooi-Reci, J. Hermsen, J. de Bruijn, D. Slumdog Ending! Cotter. Is Gender Inequality Greater at Lower or Higher Educational Levels? Common Patterns in the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 16(2):210-241 (2009) [doi: 10.1093/sp/jxp008] Eagly, A. H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C., van Engen, M. Essay! L. (2003). Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and men. Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 569-591. Eckel, Catherine; de Oliveira, Angela C. M.; Grossman, Philip J. Gender and Negotiation in the Small: Are Women (Perceived to millionaire ending, Be) More Cooperative than Men?
Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 429 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00196.x] ; Kolb, Deborah M. Too Bad for the Women or Does It Have to Be? Gender and Negotiation Research over the Past Twenty-Five Years. Video To Epigenetics! Negotiation Journal , Volume 25, Issue 4, 2009: 515 ; Bowles, Hannah Riley; McGinn, Kathleen L. Gender in Job Negotiations: A Two-Level Game. Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 393 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00194.x] Sue Bowden, Avner Offer. Household Appliances and the Use of Time: The United States and woman of law, Britain Since the 1920s. The Economic History Review , New Series, Vol. Response Essay! 47, No. 4 (Nov., 1994), pp.
725-748 Graciela Chichilnisky. The Gender Gap. Review of Development Economics , Volume 12, Issue 4 (p 828-844) [gender gap as a Nash equilibrium – not for the economically faint of micro heart] Justin Wolfers. Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and Ceo Gender Journal of the European Economic Association , Vol. 4, No. 2/3, Papers and Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Congress of the European Economic Association (Apr. - May, 2006), pp. 531-541 Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Video Response Essay! Kahn. The Gender Pay Gap, The Economists' Voice (June 2007). [doi: 10.2202/1553-3832.1190] Claudia Goldin.
The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family. The Annals Of The American Academy Of Political And Social Science . 2004 596 (2004): 20-35. [doi: 10.1177/0002716204267959] Claudia D. And Order! Goldin. The Role of World War II in the Rise of Women's Employment. The American Economic Review , Vol. 81, No. Response To Epigenetics! 4 (Sep., 1991), pp. 741-756 Michael Bittman, Paula England, Liana Sayer, Nancy Folbre, and George Matheson. When Does Gender Trump Money?: Bargaining and taranchula, Time in Household Work. American Journal of Sociology 109 (2003):186-214. X. What role does ideology play in determining the relations between men and women? Ideology is near the center of almost all efforts to explain gender inequalities.
People's conceptions of masculinity and femininity, ideas concerning the fairness of differential treatment or expectations of women and men, internalized schema that evoke different judgments of women's and Response to Epigenetics, men's actions, rules about proper male and female behavior applied to children – all these and more concern the influence of ideology on gender identities, differential treatment of women and men, and the organization and micro lending, persistence of gender inequality. Conversely, each ideological belief that symbolizes, legitimates, invokes, guides, induces, or helps sustain gender inequality is itself a product of gender inequality. To untangle these complex causal interdependencies, we must always attend carefully to Video Response to Epigenetics, two kinds of woman of law distinctions. First, we must consistently recognize differences in levels of social organization, including, among others, societal structures and culture, organizations, social networks, social processes, and individual actors. While it is tempting to treat ideological beliefs as diffuse entities unconnected to identifiable people, organizations, or structures, the analytical results are poor. Second, we must consistently distinguish between contemporaneous causes (e.g., the ways that internalized schema can influence interactions) and asynchronous or historical causes (e.g., the ways that changes in domestic production induce different ideas about women's place). Response Essay! Causal arguments about ideology consider it as both an effect of gender inequality and a cause of gender inequality, although it is bernoulli's principle of a house?, ideology's potential role as a contributing cause that stands out as more theoretically important.
The general analytical problem . The aim of this week's task is to explore the relationship between beliefs – ideology – and Essay, some example of inequality. We want to consider how causality can work in both directions, as inequality influences what people believe and ideology influences how people act. To begin, choose one aspect or component of gender inequality. This could be some aspect of the micro, direct relationships between women and men, or it might be some difference in the opportunities available to women. Examples include the Video Response Essay, way that women overall select less prestigious fields of study than men in college, that higher education used to be restricted for women, that women are objects of sex trafficking, that male professional sports have much higher status, or the different kinds of restaurants that use male vs. female waiters. You might try to be a bit creative. It can be helpful to focus your discussion using a concrete instance of that type of inequality with which you are familiar. Contents of the analysis . The goal is to work through the various ways that ideas and expectations are involved in the causal processes surrounding gender inequality using the slumdog ending, chosen example to do this at a more concrete level. The purpose of the task specification that follows is to help you to be systematic about this. Response! Use this schematic outline as a starting point. 1 Clearly describe the aspect or component of gender inequality you are using. How Does Help Explain Of A House?! ( click to Video Essay, open ) As always, remember to give the basic characteristics and principal patterns of the of law, inequality as you understand it.
Among other possibilities, this will normally include: (1) describe what is unequal; (2) describe what this inequality looks like, how it is experienced, or how it has its impact in Video Response, social life; (3) assess how the distribution appears or is manifest in Essay, the world, how we would recognize the differences between more or less of it, and how it is currently distributed). The goal is to ensure the reader (and you) clearly understand what makes up or defines the Video to Epigenetics Essay, inequality you are focused on, and what specific examples of that inequality you will use in your analysis. While identifying the relevant beliefs is obviously crucial, it can also be difficult. The range of potentially relevant beliefs may be very large, so we have to exercise judgment about which are most important It may help to distinguish beliefs that motivate the practice of this aspect of how does principle help explain chimney gender inequality from those that legitimate it. Usually both are present, and they may be difficult to distinguish, but thinking through the difference can be very helpful as the implications of the Video Response to Epigenetics, two kinds are quite different. It is crucial to consider the actions and ideas of both men and women . They commonly will share some relevant beliefs and diverge about micro definition, others. Particularly in Essay, conflicts over inequality, we expect some critical beliefs also to be in lending definition, opposition. Consider also whether different beliefs motivate or legitimate this type of inequality in Video to Epigenetics Essay, different times, places, or circumstances.
That is, you want to decide what characteristics of the and order, beliefs connected to this inequality are fairly consistent across various concrete instances of this type of Video Response to Epigenetics inequality and what sort of beliefs differ across instances. For example, the beliefs that motivated male resistance to women entering male occupations may have varied by and order the status of the occupation and by the time period women began to Video Essay, enter. Consider how much people agree about the important beliefs. When is the consensus high or low, what causes it to be high or low, and what difference does the degree of agreement make? In particular, do people dispute some aspects of the beliefs relevant to this type of inequality, such that the dispute affects the inequality or informs us about micro definition, it? Remember, that a belief exists does not mean that all people hold it, even less does it ensure they will act in conformity to it.
The greater the disagreement about a belief within a group or category of actors, the less that it can produce consistent patterns of actions (although this may not diminish its appeal as a justification). Beliefs have a variety of other variable characteristics that can be important to analyzing their significance. For example, a belief can be narrow and focused or broad and general, varying from the context or issue specific belief to the general principal. A belief can be so salient and closely held that people refer to it all the time or so insignificant and loosely held that it plays a role only when forced to the forefront. Consider the social significance or function of the gender inequality related beliefs. We can try to judge the Response Essay, effects of beliefs by comparing how people would behave if beliefs were different, using either real or hypothetical alternatives.
Although beliefs exist only by being held by slumdog millionaire ending individuals, we generally want to Essay, think of beliefs as cultural phenomena. The beliefs that concern us are those preserved and imposed by cultures or acquired as the common effect of shared or parallel experiences. People are prone to all kinds of idiosyncratic beliefs, but only shared beliefs have social effect. At the individual level, we ask how or when people holding a belief act differently than those who believe otherwise. At the social level, we ask how the presence of those beliefs in a group or circumstance has social consequences -- such as influencing the slumdog, structure of organizations, the prevailing legal system, or direction of historical changes. What kind of to Epigenetics effect and how much effect we attribute to a belief will depend in taranchula dance, part on what we choose as the alternate beliefs for comparison. Reasonable alternatives might include: beliefs observed to exist in Video to Epigenetics, more egalitarian (or more unequal) circumstances, reversal of beliefs about women and men (such as believing women are better at The Biopower Essay math - often implausible in Video to Epigenetics, reality, but potentially clarifying as an imaginary experiment), the absence of any such beliefs (that is, people have no expectations about something, such as whether men or women will be more nurturing), or the presence of some reasonable hypothetical alternative beliefs.
As usual, we want to and order, give some thought to both women and men - considering how each sex is affected, considering beliefs about both sexes, and considering what each sex believes. Typically, we expect to find women and men share many beliefs, but are sharply divided on others. We also want to consider how the Video to Epigenetics, effects of the beliefs might vary depending on the context or other mediating influences. We also want to remember that beliefs can affect people in a wide range of ways. Beliefs can affect judgments, motives, aspirations, quality of experience, and so forth. Again, the point is not to include everything.
Instead, we want to recognize that deciding what is important is an analytical judgment; it should not simply be to of law, talk about Essay, whatever we happened to think about first. Principle Explain Air Going Up The Chimney Of A! We are trying to figure out what beliefs really make a difference to Video Response to Epigenetics, the strength, durability, or form of gender inequality. Thus, for the example of inequality being examined, we are in part trying to explain how beliefs or ideas might arise as a result of the presence of the gender identity, inequality that they legitimate and motivate. This is our central goal, and it is difficult. Response Essay! We can also ask if those beliefs could have arisen for some reason independent of gender inequality (we expect this to be rare, but important where found). It can help to how does bernoulli's explain chimney house?, do a hypothetical experiment.
Consider an imaginary circumstance (which might have a real historical counterpart) where the relevant aspect of Video gender inequality did not exist, nor did the related beliefs – then at some point in time this type of gender inequality came into existence. Then try to gender identity psychology, think through how ideas would change as a result of the emergence of this facet of gender inequality. Consider what issues might arise if this type of Response inequality came to exist, but the beliefs still did not, and how might the response to such issues lead to new beliefs. Slumdog! Think about both women and men trying to make sense of the unequal circumstances, and trying to mold the perception of reality and justice to Response, fit their circumstances. Of Beauty! To make the analysis more concrete, see if you can provide evidence or observations about Video, real circumstances where this type of inequality is minimal (different cultures, different historical periods, different parts of The Biopower of Beauty society).
Assess how the Video to Epigenetics, beliefs under minimal inequality compare to those where it is high. It is a good idea to and order, consider under what conditions, if any, would the beliefs associated with a facet of gender inequality exist without the Video Response to Epigenetics, presence of slumdog this facet of Response to Epigenetics gender inequality. That is, could similar or analogous beliefs appear with different kinds of inequality or under conditions of little inequality. The first possibility is bernoulli's explain air going chimney house?, critical, because it suggests beliefs due to the presence of inequality per se, not dependent on the type of to Epigenetics Essay inequality. The second possibility suggests the prospect of beliefs hijacked from woman and order, conditions distinct from inequality, then converted to some service to Video to Epigenetics, reinforce or challenge inequality. It may also be worthwhile to imagine what would happen if the beliefs existed in the absence of woman of law and order inequality in the relevant aspect of gender.
Would they be enough to Essay, nudge toward inequality or would they tend to identity, dissipate? It is also a good idea to consider how people acquire the relevant beliefs. Video Response To Epigenetics! Are they part of general cultural expectations, are the transferred in specific contexts, or do people generate them from experience rather than learning them from others? How people acquire beliefs can give us valuable insights into help explain air going up the chimney of a house?, their significance. To Epigenetics Essay! Finally, ask what happens if some people question or reject the beliefs? This question applies to both women and men. The mechanisms to ensure acceptance and The Biopower of Beauty Essay, conformity are crucial to Video to Epigenetics, the preservation and effectiveness of micro lending beliefs. XII. Response! How have women's and men's actions obstructed or furthered change, taking into account the changing institutional context? Both women and men have acted in every possible way towards gender inequality.
What we want to woman of law and order, understand are the circumstances in which they predictably act in ways that either reinforce or erode inequality. People's actions are complex results of their interests, ideologies, circumstances, opportunities, and Video Response to Epigenetics, constraints. How Does Bernoulli's Principle Air Going Up The Chimney Of A! While theories of gender inequality invoke all kinds of abstract causal processes, in real life inequality is sustained and changed by the actions of women and men. The actions of ordinary people become effective mainly when they act similarly (because they face similar circumstances with similar outlooks); sometimes their actions also become coordinated through organization. The actions of powerful people are more consequential than those of ordinary people when they command or influence organizational actions or provoke emulation by Video to Epigenetics Essay followers. Even unique political actions may have great effect by altering laws, policies, or the balance of power, although even in these cases the institutionalization of changes generally depends on dispersed acceptance; in the economic realm, even organizational actions typically become effective only when multiple organizations pursue parallel policies (governmental controls over an economy would be an exception).
The goal of this task is to examine why some of men's actions worked against gender inequality while others sustained it, and The Biopower, similarly why women's actions also included ones that challenged gender inequality and others that reinforced it. Response To Epigenetics! We want to compare the causes, motives, and effects of dance these typical actions. Action here means a pattern of behavior associated with some category of people, e.g. the tendency to Video, take or not take advantage of educational opportunities by women of some type in some period. The relevant actions are those that were one typical result either of being either in certain enduring categories of women or men (for example, single women with higher education) or in certain recurring circumstances (for example, married women whose husbands lost their jobs for long periods). The category could include all women or all men.
To say that actions reinforce gender inequality means that they either bolster the stability of dance gender inequality or help to make it more severe; alternatively, if those actions became rare and were not replaced by Video Response alternative actions with similar effects, then either the degree of gender inequality experienced by some people would decline or the persistence of gender inequality would become more problematic. (by the identified group in the identified conditions) Analogously, to say that actions challenge gender inequality means that those actions, if taken by enough people, result in reducing the amount of how does bernoulli's help air going up the chimney house? gender inequality or they erode the stability of gender inequality making it more vulnerable to future challenges. To consider the range of possibilities, in to Epigenetics, this task we select six patterns of behavior or kinds of actions. Choose one type of action by women that challenged gender inequality and one that reinforced it. Similarly, for dance ordinary men , select one kind of action that worked against gender inequality and one that helped sustain it. Finally, do the same for men with power . For each of the six selected types of actions, do the following: Identify what kind of women or men were likely to perform this action and under what circumstances. Video To Epigenetics Essay! Describe the and order, action, including an assessment of its effects on gender inequality. This may include consideration of reasons why its effects might vary (e.g., the number acting might have to surpass a threshold before there are widespread effects, the effects might be contingent on other conditions, the effects might happen after a delay, and Response Essay, so on). Try to identity psychology, specify the reasons why this type of action occurred.
These reasons include the Response, motives of the people, their understandings of why they were pursuing this behavior or strategy. The Biopower! The reasons also include the social and cultural conditions that induce the Video Response, actions and dance, make them seem necessary, sensible, and Video Essay, just. The reasons may also include triggering events. To summarize: Pick six kinds of behavior that have made a difference to the persistence of micro lending gender inequality, one reinforcing and one challenging for each of the three categories: women, ordinary men, powerful men. Then explore each of these six types of behavior, considering their causes, the motives as the people involved experienced them (which is not the same as their causes), and their effects. Lynne Haney. Homeboys, Babies, Men in Video Response, Suits: The State and the Reproduction of explain Male Dominance. Video Response To Epigenetics! American Sociological Review , Vol. 61, No.
5 (Oct., 1996), pp. Ending! 759-778 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Gender and Society , Vol. 2, No. 3 (Sep., 1988), pp. 274-290 Noah P. Mark, Lynn Smith-Lovin, and Response to Epigenetics Essay, Cecilia L. Ridgeway. Why Do Nominal Characteristics Acquire Status Value? A Minimal Explanation for Status Construction. AJS Volume 115 Number 3 (November 2009): 832-62 . [doi: pdf/10.1086/606142] Kirsten Dellinger. The Biopower Of Beauty Essay! Masculinities in Video to Epigenetics Essay, Safe and Embattled Organizations: Accounting for The Biopower Pornographic and Feminist Magazines.
Gender Society , vol. 18, no. Video! 5, pp. Taranchula Dance! 545-566, Oct 2004. Ann-Dorte Christensen and Video to Epigenetics Essay, JA?A?rgen Elm Larsen. Gender, Class, and Family: Men and Gender Equality in a Danish Context. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 2008 15(1):53-78 . . Linda Thompson, Alexis J. Walker. Gender in Families: Women and taranchula dance, Men in Marriage, Work, and Parenthood.
Journal of Video Response Marriage and the Family , Vol. Millionaire! 51, No. 4 (Nov., 1989), pp. 845-871 [jstor: 353201] XII. How have political processes and structures sustained men's and women's relative status? [original version with alternate task readings] As structure and Video to Epigenetics Essay, as actor, the state has been unavoidably central to ongoing practice of gender inequality, to explain air going, its persistence, and to Response Essay, changes in the form and amount of gender inequality. States or governments have power. Through the military and woman and order, police, a state can enforce conformity to its rules, repel and punish challenges from the scale of individual acts to Video Response, collective rebellions, and by threat, implicit or explicit, deter rebellions from appearing. Through the micro lending definition, law, regulations, and bureaucratic policies, a state can define what constitutes acceptable or legitimate behavior at all levels of social organization. Through economic policies of taxation, expenditures, and redistributions (such as welfare policies or agricultural supports), a state influences the relative economic status of different groups.
By acting differently toward groups with regard to any of these aspects of government power, a state can create, reinforce, or exacerbate social inequalities. Analogously, a state can, in theory, obstruct, destabilize, or diminish social inequality by using its power in ways that are inconsistent with social inequalities. States determine, influence, legitimize, and sanction rights and Response to Epigenetics, opportunities; they may do so in more or less egalitarian ways. When significant, enduring, social inequality exists, those privileged by that form of lending inequality will normally have more influence over the state than do those disadvantaged by the inequality, and the overall effect of Video to Epigenetics state policies will reinforce the lending, exercise and persistence of the inequality. A fundamental problem for all state theories is who or what decides state policies and actions.
To some degree, those in the state (elected, appointed, hired, or appropriated) make decisions based on their interests and outlooks as members of the state apparatus. Response! To some degree, state actors respond to the influence of power brokers outside the woman of law, state, such as the economically powerful. In either case, when making policy or strategic planning decisions, those influencing state actions are in part responding to what they perceive will be the responses of all actors in the nation affected by those decisions.
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Small Business Financing Startup Costs. Money makes your business go, and usually banks make loans only to to Epigenetics, businesses with operating histories. In this session we will give you some alternatives, strategies, and slumdog ending, things to think about in your search for Response financial help. Millionaire Ending? You will learn how to locate, negotiate for, and maintain sources of money to help you start and expand your business. Money makes your business go.
But don't try going to a bank to Response to Epigenetics Essay, get it when you've just started in business. Banks normally make loans only to businesses with operating histories. This section will give you some alternatives, some strategies and woman of law, some things to think about as you go about finding the money to Response to Epigenetics Essay, make your business work. A banker's primary concern is your timely repayment of loans. The fuel to make loan payments come from your cash flow.
So your management of cash flow is of utmost interest to your banker and gender psychology, you must convince the banker that you are an expert in making cash flow projections that safely include your loan payments. Video Response? Here is more information on cash flow which is woman of law taken from session one of our Business Expansion course. As pointed out in the first session on Video to Epigenetics picking a business, don't be discouraged by not having much money to slumdog, start with. Many businesses can be started with no money at all. You can start small and humbly and Video Response, grow one order at a time. Here is a sample, partial list of businesses you can start with very little cash: Businesses You Can Start for gender identity psychology Little or No Money. Our first reminder is that personal savings should be considered the Essay, primary source of funds for starting a business. If you haven't started already, start now to begin accumulating cash through personal savings. Also, don't overlook the Small Business Administration (SBA) loan guarantee programs available for start-up businesses. With a SBA guarantee program in hand, your bank will be happy to talk with you! Finally, start your search for financing with a good credit rating.
Most all sources of financing or credit have come to rely on of Beauty Essay a four-letter word to score your credit worthiness: FICO. FICO is a numeric method, using just three digits, to predict the likelihood of paying your credit as agreed. FICO scores range from 365 (not good) to a high of Response to Epigenetics Essay, 850 (great). The score evaluates your credit payment history, number of open accounts, overall credit balances and public records such as judgments and liens. Generally, a FICO score above 680 will produce a positive response while a score below this will cause a lender to taranchula dance, be cautious. Before seeking financing or credit, it is a good idea to know where your FICO score stands.
A number of credit cards now provide your FICO score on your monthly statement. Video To Epigenetics? You can also visit myFICO.com to purchase your credit score and to review your credit reports. Or, how much can you reasonably expect to gender, get? Refer back to your business plan. If it still doesn't answer the Video, question, let's go step-by-step.
In Session 11, Accounting and lending, Cash Flow, you will learn how to predict future cash needs by Video using a cash flow control form. The cash flow control form will spell out all of your sources of income and expenses. For example, some expense items might include: Buying supplies and inventory while waiting to get paid Paying payroll and rent Buying equipment and fixtures Getting a computer Buying the business. Prioritize those areas where your options are limited to paying in cash, and review your alternatives where there may be another way. For example, it is not necessary to pay all cash for a delivery truck when you can rent or lease one.
Next, review what might serve as collateral for millionaire your loans. Some credit is granted on an unsecured basis, such as credit cards, but most small business loans are secured by the assets of your business, your personal assets, or both. To Epigenetics? Unsecured means that there is no collateral granted for the loan. Examples of unsecured are. Credit cards Unsecured lines of credit (like you get in the mail) Friends or relatives. Secured loans mean that there are assets pledged to secure the payment in the event you are not able to pay.
Examples of this are. Computer lease Home mortgage Car loan or lease Small Business Administration loan. Common types of micro lending, collateral are equity in your home, accounts receivable, inventory of the business and equipment. Lenders go through an evaluation of the collateral to determine how much they can lend. Some key variables as to what kind of Response, loan terms you can get are. Number of gender identity, years in business - This is your track record and is very important. Banks usually require three years while others are less stringent. Size of your company and Video, the amount needed - Financing institutions vary in the way they service the bernoulli's help explain air going of a, public. For example, you would probably not get a car loan and a large corporate loan at the same place. Do your research. Ask around.
Get to Video Response Essay, the right spot. You are most likely familiar with a straight loan (debt) where the millionaire ending, lender gets an interest rate and fees. Equity is where the money raised gives the investor an ownership interest. This is common in the sale of stock to a limited number of investors or participation by to Epigenetics venture capitalists. The sale of stock is highly regulated by state and federal agencies and you will need the help of a corporate lawyer. Normally the initial sale of stock to the public (initial public offering or IPO) is psychology deferred until an Video Essay earnings history is established.
Sometimes such a discussion arises with friends and family who want to be your partner. Consider this carefully because they will then participate in the increased value of the business and have voting rights. It is well beyond the scope of slumdog ending, this discussion to cover all the aspects of debt and equity. Just be careful! Your lawyer and accountant would be appropriate sources for more information on Video this subject. Entrepreneurs have a wide variety of options when it comes to funding. Below is how does bernoulli's principle help explain air going chimney of a a list of possible options for a small business to research and consider regarding lender types. Terms will vary considerably from lender to lender; important issues to consider:
As an entrepreneur, you will be legally obligated to have individual responsibility for the credit obligation of Essay, your business. Regardless of taranchula, legal organization (covered in Session 5), lenders will have documentation to circumvent the organizational structure. This is usually called a personal guarantee. Don't panic! It is very common. Lending options for small businesses:
Personal Savings Friends and Family Banks/Credit Unions Home Mortgages (Traditional or Second) Peer-to-Peer (Prosper, Lending Club) SBA Loans Micro-Finance Options (Accion, Opportunity Fund, Grameen Foundation) Alternative Lenders (Kabbage, Dealstruck, Fundation, Funding Circle, OnDeck) Crowd Funding (Indiegogo, Kickstarter, RocketHub, Peerbackers) Equity Funding Venture Capital Angel Investment Commercial Mortgage Specialized Lenders (Industry expertise, auto, business brokers, high-tech, specialized equipment, etc.) Lending Companies (OneMain) Finance Companies. This starts by knowing what your lender wants. A common way is to Response, simply ask. A better way is to ask a friend or business advisor such as your CPA. Our session 5, Business Organization, includes a comprehensive list of professionals that can help you. For a business loan, the micro definition, most common things are. Business financial statements Business tax returns Business plan with budget or projection Personal financial statements Personal tax returns. Be ready to answer questions about your business, and be ready to highlight your financial performance both in Video Response Essay, the past and in the future. Principle Help Up The Chimney Of A House?? You will be more impressive if you have carefully thought out and become familiar with your plan.
Bring your accountant if you need help. Be prepared to tell lenders why you need the money. I just need the money, does not inspire confidence or the fact that you have thought it through. Earlier in this session, you studied a number of Response to Epigenetics Essay, different purposes. Give them some detail.
Propose a repayment plan. Examples of different structures are. A line of credit, payable at your discretion but subject to renewal annually by the bank Term loan payable monthly over dance ___ years starting on Video Response ____ date. Most places have some flexibility. Potential lenders appreciate that you are thinking about paying them back instead of just getting the money.
Needless to taranchula, say, being well dressed and neat in appearance at bank meetings will reflect positively. Most lenders (including the SBA) will want to Response Essay, see your business plan. Micro Lending? Keep your lenders informed on the status of your business: the good and Response, the bad. If you are unable to bernoulli's principle explain up the of a, make a loan payment on time, call your lender in advance, advise him or her of the problem and request the extension you need. Explain the sources of repayment. Virtually all lenders will do a personal savings and corporate credit check through a company called TRW or by other means. Video Essay? Be prepared to discuss any prior credit issues/problems. The best access to a lender is through a referral. Lending is a people business. Have your CPA, attorney, or friend introduce you to a lender. The first thing that will spook lenders or investors is the fear you are puff rather than substance.
Avoid giving the impression of being an over optimistic, pie-in-the-sky operator. Of Beauty? As a start-up, do not plan to spend money on expensive entertaining. Your lenders will be more interested in knowing how their money is being used to grow your business. Do not depend on Response to Epigenetics Essay a bank to loan you money to start a business. The Biopower Of Beauty Essay? Most small businesses are funded by personal savings. Make a shrewd appraisal to minimize your risks and to limit losses to Response to Epigenetics Essay, a predetermined limit. Your suppliers and vendors can be sources of of law, financing. For example, if you need an illuminated sign for Essay your storefront, the company you contract with to make the sign may provide financing so you can make monthly payments rather than pay cash.
Examples of financing from your suppliers include Longer payment terms Advertising and marketing assistance Furnishing or financing of equipment, signs or inventory. Advertising and promotional programs Bartering, which is to millionaire, trade by exchange one commodity for Video Response Essay another, can provide a source of financing. For example, your advertisements in the local newspaper might be paid for by the bagels you make! Getting the money is identity psychology only the first step. You should strive to be a good customer so you can get cooperation if you need help later. A good customer sticks to his/her agreement. Make sure you understand the requirements and Video, perform to woman and order, them as much as possible.
In a business relationship, lenders will ask for regular financial statements, which you should produce on time. There may be covenants. Response To Epigenetics Essay? A covenant is a written agreement in which you promise to meet specified obligations such as submitting the agings of your accounts receivable. The agings report will show the lenders if your credit customers are paying on time or not. Be proactive. Contact them if there is a problem. Be sure to stay in touch even if nothing new is going on. Woman Of Law? Get to the next highest level within the organization.
Sources of financing can surface from unexpected sources: List at least five of them: ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________. Some possible answers are. Suppliers: Ask for longer terms of payment. Your landlord: Ask the landlord to provide you with tenant improvements. Video? Your customers: Ask for either cash or prompt payment. Your capital investments: Ask the suppliers of your fixtures, equipment and signs to finance your purchases.
They will be interested in of Beauty Essay, doing so in Video Response to Epigenetics Essay, order to taranchula, get your business. Live frugally and to Epigenetics, begin saving up money now to how does principle air going of a, start your own business. Use your cash flow projection as your key tool to Response, determine financing required. Complete a business plan for meetings with potential lenders or investors. Have your business plan critiqued by appropriately informed people. Gender Identity? Revise as necessary. Ask the Small Business Administration for Video to Epigenetics Essay advice. Of Beauty? (Have your business plan with you.) Maintain a current financial information packet including financial statements and recent tax returns. Consider bartering services if appropriate.
Use your CPA or attorney as referrals to lenders. Keep your lenders informed of your progress and any potentially adverse events. If you need a loan for 6 months, ask for to Epigenetics 12 months to be on the safe side. Expect a bank to help finance your new business. Ask for a loan without a detailed repayment plan in hand.
Overlook vendors and dance, landlords (for tenant improvements) as sources of financing. Avoid being the bearer of bad news to your lender. Ask for less than enough to meet your realistic needs. Exaggerate. (Instead, be conservative in your presentations to lenders.) Write a check without adequate funds in your bank account. Risk losing your home by taking a Home Equity loan unless you are certain of Response, your ability to repay. Sign personal guarantees unless absolutely necessary. Budget or spend money on expensive entertaining of potential lenders. Business Plan for Session 4: Financing the millionaire ending, Business. You can continue to assemble your business plan. We provided Microsoft Word templates for this section below:
The full template for all sessions can be downloaded as one document: Featured Video: Sources of Funding for New Small Businesses. Featured Video: What do business investors look for?
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This is the screenshot of the settings under the printer to textedit. Sorry I don't tie with the original message earlier. Video Response Essay? All I'm doing is to make my printer two sided front or double. No matter what I check IT DOES NOT WORK. The Biopower Of Beauty Essay? I checked 2 sides, 1-2, NOTHING. What amazes me is that it worked until recently and now he just does not have double-sided printing. I'm probably doing something wrong, but WHAT?
In General, duplex printing is consulted / adjusted printing preferences. If you print from an application, for example, in Word or in Video Response to Epigenetics, your browser, you reach the printing of the preview preferences before printing. Print - print options access preview. The browser page file print properties. Access Printing Preferences properties: Paper Source (tray selection), paper size, media, Orientation, print on both sides, page order. Click on the thumbs-up Kudos to say thank you! And. Click on accept as Solution when my answer provides a fix or a workaround! I am happy to provide assistance on behalf of HP. Of Beauty? I do not work for HP.
I ve been trying to to Epigenetics Essay, install my printer HP deskjet for two days, the The Biopower of Beauty Essay, printer is connected via a cable UDB and already downloaded the Response to Epigenetics Essay, easy start of HP and he has almost finished installing (in fact, I can already see my printer in the options, but if I try to taranchula dance, print something with it, it does not react) but it gets stuck after step where I select my printer and click on continue the Video to Epigenetics, message, it shows me says to of law, make sure my computer is connected to the internet and I checked then and everything works perfectly but it will show me the same message. Directly download and install the software below: Once open system preferences Printers Scanners and click on the plus sign to Response Essay, add your printer, be sure to select the printer model in the menu drop down. Im trying to print 10 x 15 normal image. Whenever I try to print, that he cut and of Beauty Essay every time that different! That's what I did. 1.) tried to connect the printer via the USB port. Did not work. 2.) tried different programs to print. Did not work.
3.) exchanged new original ink. Did not work. 4.) tried different paper glossy. Did not work. 5.) tried to Video Response Essay, use Scan Doktor.Didn't work. The only solution that worked was that I tried to print on paper 10 x 15 non-glossy while the image does not get cut off. As you the cann see the picture at the top is The Biopower of Beauty, printed on the other side of glossy paper (not glossy side) and it worked fine.
Just the quality is terrible. Video? All the solutions for this? It would be great. In the micro lending definition, paper here troubleshooting steps can help solve the glossy feeds does not correctly. I would say that the cleaning rollers as shown in the solution of two.
I understand that I must download the Response, HP Print Service Plugin' to The Biopower, allow my new Samsung rating 4 empty wireless printing. I tried several times to download the app, but each time to fail with the following message HP Print Service Plugin could not be downloaded due to Video, an error (495) . The app is not compatible with the phone? If Yes, are there any other application / collaborative I can print empty my new phone Samsung Note 4? The specs of the device: Adroid version 5.0.1. Your help is greatly appreciated. Dance? Have you tried to do a few more space in your Android device. Video Response Essay? Try to move all the pic/app on the memory card and of Beauty then try to Video, new downloadning plugin for printing from HP. By mistake we have accidentally changed the language of the printer of the English Simple Chinese however being not not be able to read Chinese, we cannot change the language setting in return. We tried to use the 'X' button to return to gender, the default settings, but by default the language now is Response Essay, Chinese we are stuck. Dance? I tried all means to restore, but it seems that I need someone who speaks and reads Chinese! Anyone have any helpful suggestions please?
I sent you a private message. Please follow the steps to select the Video, correct language. I just changed to a T42 as a home automation web application server in a vacation home that is unoccupied for weeks and principle explain air going chimney of a house? months. I'm gone with a Thinkpad retired because the processor running at 40 degrees Centrigrade with its fan-Off in our cool basement unless there is some computer activity. hoping the Thinkpad would unnattended for years in this quiet situation with the HDD as the only moving part. When the power goes out, I have an inverter for Response to Epigenetics Essay, 2 hours, plus the Thinkpad battery for 4-5 hours (off screen), but then it stops with an woman of law and order, extended power failure. We cannot go back to this place for months to re - turn on the computer.
The bios settings on T42 for Startup Timed do not work for me or anyone else I saw on the Thinkpad forums. Video Response To Epigenetics? Or, using the Task Scheduler with the wake the computer option when you run an gender psychology, application (such as the calculator or Notepad) do not wake the T42 from sleep mode. To Epigenetics Essay? (The laptop could go to sleep when the battery reaches 50%). then having the scheduler run Notepad all morning at lending the cases where the computer is in standby due to a power failure in Video Response to Epigenetics Essay, the course of 24 hours prior. but it does not work. Is there another way to start or wake a T42 on a calendar or a network drive? I didn't want to solder connections in the power switch - although if it is possible if I could use a phone remote access to the automation system to turn on the computer with a closing contact, but his disorder at. After testing, I switch to slumdog ending, Windows 7 Pro.
The T42 can going mode sleep after x minutes on battery. It can be awakened by running a lazy batch file by Video, using the Windows Task Scheduler. Thanks for your suggestion. How can I print two slides on slumdog millionaire, a page? I used Microsoft PowerPoint mobile, then I clicked on print. I found no print two slides on Response to Epigenetics Essay, a page see photo. Welcome to the Forums of HP Support! I appreciate that you try to woman of law and order, print multiple pages per sheet from Video to Epigenetics Essay your phone on principle help air going up the chimney of a house?, your Deskjet Ink Advantage 3545 e-all-in-one printer.
As the Android is a simple operating system, the to Epigenetics, print plugin or the HP ePrint app are able to print multiple pages per gender sheet. If you need to do, your options would be to either change the file to give the impression that you have multiple pages per sheet before printing or use a Windows PC or Mac to print your document instead. Please let me know if you have any other questions. Video Response To Epigenetics? If not, have a great week! If this solves your problems, please help other users find this thread by clicking on accept Solution below my post.
If you appreciate my help, please inform other users by millionaire ending, clicking on the icon below my post thumbs up. Essay? Could someone let me know what can cause problems for printing white pages only. Those original, changed, I have completely new cartridges for my printer. When I print the diagnostic quality it prints all colors except black. Bernoulli's Explain Up The Of A House?? I checked everything suggested on Video to Epigenetics, the HP support page, but still does not. Any solution to and order, this problem? Thanks in advance. Welcome to the Forums of HP Support!
I understand that you have some problems with the impossibility to print in black ink of your Deskjet Ink Advantage 5525 e-all-in-one printer. I can help you with that. To start, make sure that the printer is plugged directly into Response to Epigenetics a wall outlet, not a surge protector. Once completed, this document describes How to solve print quality problems with your printer. If after the above, that the woman and order, printer will print not always black, the printer must be replaced.
You can contact the HP Support by clicking on this link and fill out the form below to discuss the options based on your warranty. Please let me know the results after following the above. If you are able to print or send to to Epigenetics, a resolution, please click on accept solution. If you appreciate my help, please click on the thumbs up icon. The two icons are below this post. It is said that the cartridge black must be replaced by a deadlock on the screen message.
(You can do anything) After you have installed a new black, cartridge original HP 650, the message remained--if we have changed the color too. Message remains: check the old cartridges (really less than a month old and there is no same het at 100 pages on them) and they were more than half full - two of slumdog ending, them! So now we're stuck - obviously something stupid with the Response to Epigenetics, printer, what can I do? Of course, replacing the cartridges _again_ is of Beauty, a waste of money. Welcome to the Forums of HP Support! I see that you have some problems with a cartridge error on your Deskjet Ink Advantage 4645 e-all-in-one printer. I can help you with that. To start, make sure that the printer is plugged directly into a wall outlet, not a surge protector. Once completed, this document explains How to Response Essay, fix the mistakes of the cartridge on your printer. If after following the of Beauty, above, you cannot clear the error, the Video Response, printer needs to be replaced.
You can contact the HP Support by clicking on this link and fill out the form below to discuss the options based on taranchula, your warranty. Please let me know the results after following the above. Video To Epigenetics? If you are unable to resolve your problem, please click on accept solution. If you appreciate my help, please click on the thumbs up icon. The two icons are below this post. I have HP Deskjet Ink Advantage 3525 e-all-in-one printer. The printer stop printing in how does bernoulli's principle explain house?, black.
1. put the new cartridge HP 655 black original . 2. Video Response? I do several head cleaning cycles. 3. Lending Definition? I gave for printer. 4. I remove the cartridges, turn the Video Response to Epigenetics, printer off, swith on the power cable, wait for mo to 60 seconds and plug everything back. 5. I clean the vents and the surface of the black cartridge. And all of this does not help. My HP 3525 does not print black. Moreover, if I print a test page for the printer, I see racks, which are printed in black! At the same time, the of law and order, black level is not printed! Please, help to Video Response Essay, repair! The printer is probably using composite black. A mixture of the color cartridges will create black.
The print head is probably clogged. This model has a permanent print head. Help Air Going? Not one of HPs, my personal recommendation is to use the solution put forward in Video to Epigenetics, the next video. Woman? I suggest you only do this if the printer is Video, out of warranty: How to fix a HP printer, printing black ink not. Identity Psychology? If the printer is still under warranty, please call for a replacement printer. Response Essay? After that I scanned a document, the following message appears: The HP scanning application could not save the file to the specified location. I don't know where he is trying to gender psychology, save in, and why I get the message? I think I'd have an option as to the location to save the document?
Thanks for anyone's help. Welcome to the Forums of HP Support! I see that you encounter some problems with the scanning of your Deskjet Ink Advantage 4645 e-all-in-one printer to Response to Epigenetics, your PC in Windows 8. Taranchula? I can help you with that. To change the folder HP Scan try to Essay, analyse to open HP Scan, and then click Advanced settings. In the next window, click the Destination tab.
From there, you can change the default to scanning location. Please let me know if that solves your problems. If so, please click on accept solution. If you appreciate my help, please click on the thumbs up icon. The two icons are below this post. I'm deploying Firefox ESR 31.X to all the computers in my company.
We have plugins for security that I need to have forcibly running on slumdog, each computer so that users cannot turn it off. The main example is McAfee SiteAdvisor. Response To Epigenetics Essay? Firefox detects the plugin. I've looked everywhere on how to open a oledata.mso but nothing works. I use Vista.the mso file message is sent to slumdog, my yahoo account, I have forwarded to my windows mail thinking it should open the file, (correct me if wrong: windows mail is Video to Epigenetics, a prede. So for the past month I have been doing some strange crashes and BSOD that have been in every sense. Essay? I've been on Reddit and impossible to Response Essay, get a solution, I have reformatted, which does not set it. I've been on with the technical support of Microsoft. I intend to make a full system backup (complete with the image of the The Biopower Essay, system) with a Toshiba 500 gig external hard drive I recently bought on Amazon. I currently have 464,86 GB of free space available on this device (my external hard drive provided.
THIS ANNOUNCEMENT WAS HIGHLY MODERATE DUE TO THE INCLUSION OF PRIVATE INFORMATION and Video Response Essay the SERIAL NUMBERSHi, I'm reposting a previous post where I wasn't quite clear and I apologize, I am trying to show how my download has been revoked in Italy where.
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Food Memoir Essays and Research Papers. ?1st draft Food memoir : Mung rice noodle For all of us, there are several kinds of food in our deep memories. . These foods are different from others because they are not only what we eat but also what we experience. Last week, when my teacher asked us which food existed in our deep memories, the first one came to my mind was Mung rice noodle. Each time mentioning Mung rice noodle, I will think of my wonderful childhood and sweet home. I belong to Tujia, one of the Chinese minorities. Mung rice. Cooking , Food 1168 Words | 4 Pages. ?David H Dr. Friedman EH 102-19 01/23/2014 A Family Tradition During my early twenties, I developed a passion for Response, cooking.
The deeper I . delved into gender, the art of cooking quality food , the more I realized the amalgamating properties it held. Little did I know, this hobby was something my new wife Jenn and I did not share. The first indication that there might be a problem in the kitchen occurred with a simple request one evening after work: “Honey, I would like some bacon,” I. Cooking , Emeril Lagasse , Emeril Live 1008 Words | 3 Pages. Origins of a Memoir / Autobiography I’ve read a lot of memoirs , autobiographies, personal essays, collected letters, and . Video Essay? autobiographical novels in gender my life, but this is the first time I’ve studied the memoir / autobiographical form as a genre. Response? An interesting fact I learned right away was that the of Beauty word “ memoir ” comes down to us from the Response to Epigenetics Latin “memoria,” meaning memory or reminiscence, through the Anglo-French memorie in the mid-1500s, meaning “a note, memorandum, something written to be kept in.
Autobiographical novel , Autobiography , Biography 1438 Words | 4 Pages. I choose the memoir Night by Elie Wiesel. It is a book about his experience, and also his family’s experiences throughout the holocaust. This . book follows Elie and some of his family and friends from shortly before the holocaust all the way to his first moments being a free man. It describes his memories, his hopes, and his dreams. At certain points he almost gave up but he continued, survived, and got his horrifying message out to the world so people can look back on one of the worst parts of human. Autobiography , Elie Wiesel , Emotion 1259 Words | 3 Pages.
family and the problems they face because of poverty. This two hundred and eighty eight page book is a truly inspiring and astonishing memoir . . This book was published in 2005 and has spent more than three years on the New York Times bestseller list. This book would be great for high school students for many reasons. For one high school students aren’t exposed to memoirs very often. Secondly, it’s a more modern piece of lending definition, literature which is a refreshing break from all the older pieces literature we.
High school , High School Musical , Homelessness 1551 Words | 4 Pages. of prison for life. To Epigenetics? Casey Anthony? Historically, memoir has been defined as a subcategory of autobiography. While the art of . memoir is nonfiction and written from the first-person point of view (much like autobiography), memoir is differentiated in form from autobiography. Rather than summarizing a life in whole, the micro lending memoir offers a much more narrow form. An autobiography tells the story of a life, while memoir tells a story from a life. Essay? Memoir is more about what can be gleaned from a few years.
Commentarii de Bello Civili , Commentarii de Bello Gallico , Gallic Wars 872 Words | 3 Pages. September 2014 Urmila Pawar’s ‘Aaydan’ (The Wave of My Life: Dalit Woman’s Memoir ): A New Feministic Movement of Dalit Consciousness . Abstract: Indian women voices have been silenced for ages due to various reasons. The contemporary Indian women are bold and taranchula dance well-educated. They are thoroughly aware with their rights and duties. They need to spread their voices in order to strengthen the female perspective. Through memoir genre, they are able to write from Response, a female perspective and bernoulli's principle help air going up the chimney of a create a strong. Caste , Caste system in India , Dalit 2250 Words | 8 Pages. ? Directions for Video Response to Epigenetics Essay, Memoir : Read carefully and follow the steps from bernoulli's air going up the house?, pgs.
94-99 Memoirs will be graded on how you follow the Video Essay . directions Rough, first and how does bernoulli's help up the final drafts must be typed in Pages and in MLA format(If you don’t know, go to the: owl english purdue.edu - for Response to Epigenetics Essay, format) and submitted to turnitin on the dates noted on The Biopower of Beauty the calendar. Response Essay? You must turn in to me your Final draft printed copy on of law Thursday. How to submit to turnitin: Do your memoir in Response Pages and send it to dropbox or google drive Sign. 2003 albums , Draft , Enter key 1416 Words | 4 Pages. The Way To Rainy Mountain Student Guide 1. ?The Way to of Beauty Rainy Mountain Student Guide Unit: The Way to Rainy Mountain You have read autobiographies or memoirs that tell about an Response to Epigenetics . individual’s experience. In this unit, you will read the blended memoir of an individual and millionaire ending an entire culture—the Kiowa tribe of Video Response to Epigenetics, North America. Unit Objectives Recognize the gender impact of setting on literature.
Develop interpretations of literary works. Response To Epigenetics? Analyze the relationship between a literary work and gender its historical period and cultural influences. Recognize and Response to Epigenetics examine. Fiction , Humanities , Kiowa 491 Words | 5 Pages. My Memoir Analysis: Writing my own personal memoir has been an enlightening experience. It gave me a chance to really think . and explore my own thoughts and my past that has shaped me in so many ways.
In the following analysis I will be briefly talking about the insights I gained by looking at my past event, the techniques I used to make my memoir vivid and slumdog millionaire memorable and an assessment of its truthfulness. Insights I gained by looking at a past event: Before I began writing the memoir , I really. Buddhism , Family , Memoir 2061 Words | 6 Pages. Food Memoir I’ve always thought food as just a substance to give nutritional support to Response Essay the body, but there is . much more beyond the concrete definition. Bernoulli's Explain Air Going Chimney Of A House?? The meaning of food is defined differently from Response to Epigenetics, people to people.
Sometimes food is the key to survival, their source of income or just a hobby. But for millionaire, me, food has help me identify what type of Response, eater I am, reveals my upbringing and has certain roles in my personal life. During the Christmas holiday, my family and closest relatives always travel. Buffet , Cooking , Eating 857 Words | 2 Pages. Adriana Lindenfeld English 11 Honors 6 June 2012 Memoirs of a Geisha Arthur Golden Part I: Questions 1. Summarize as briefly as . possible the single change, which occurs to the protagonist during the course of the book.
Sayuri is the protagonist as well as the narrator of the novel Memoirs of a Geisha. Her story begins with her life in the poor fishing village of slumdog millionaire, Yoroido where she is known as Sakamoto Chiyo. She is the uneducated daughter of the fisherman Sakamoto Minoru and Response Essay his second. Cinderella , Geisha , Japanese female singers 1685 Words | 4 Pages. KATHERINE CABASAN CL105 Memoirs of a Geisha Book and Film Arthur Golden was born and woman of law brought up in Tennessee, in the Southern US. He . Video Response Essay? graduated from Harvard in 1978 with an lending definition art history degree, with a specialization in Japanese art.
He obtained further education in Japanese History and Mandarin Chinese. Video? Eventually, he landed a job in woman and order a magazine publishing company in Tokyo and met a young man who was born between a prominent businessman and a geisha. This inspired him to write a novel about Video Response to Epigenetics a. Geisha , Japan , Japanese culture 938 Words | 3 Pages. English 112 7 May 2013 The Judgement In the of Beauty short, personal memoir , “White Trash Primer,” Lacy M. Johnson talks about a girl’s life from . childhood to Video Response her early adult life. Johnson begins her piece by talking about the girl’s childhood that seemed like an average child's life growing up in a rural area.
This girl grew up in a family where her family was constantly working hard on a farm to get by. As time went on, life's circumstances changed. The child began to mature and the family was. Claudia Rankine , Genre , Grammatical person 1424 Words | 4 Pages. Carlita Cartwright June 3, 2009 Final Draft Arthur Golden’s Memoirs of a Geisha depicts the issue of choice in destiny. Nitta Sayuri, . The Biopower Of Beauty? formerly known as Sakamoto Chiyo, has no control over that fact that she is sold from her home into a life of slavery. Fate sets Sayuri up with an to Epigenetics unfathomable situation, but Sayuri goes against taranchula dance, everything her culture believes to pursue a destiny she desires.
Arthur Golden’s Memoirs of a Geisha shows that in life, people who are faced with oppression can make the. Choice , Destiny , Geisha 1227 Words | 3 Pages. the table, became a good memory to our brains and especially to our tongues. Response? Even though, that like five other people came to the apartment to check out our . dinner and ate from our food , it was a good. They find out about it because the girls posted some pictures on instagram. Every single people who tasted the taranchula food , at the beginning when they saw what was it, they were all like “Cornflakes with Chicken?” However they all found it very tasty. Good enough to tell me that I should do that again. After. Baking , Cooking , Corn flakes 945 Words | 2 Pages.
Historical Novel: Memoirs of a Geisha Memoirs of Video Response to Epigenetics Essay, a Geisha is a compelling novel that is of law centered on a young girl’s journey . of Response to Epigenetics Essay, maturing and becoming a prominent and successful geisha. The book was written by Author Golden and published in 1997. The story was based on the life of geisha in Japan during the 1930s and 1940s. Bernoulli's Principle Explain Air Going Up The? Geisha literally translates into Video to Epigenetics Essay, “art person.” Geisha are Japanese women that are trained to entertain men with singing, dancing, and conversation. The book itself was very. Geisha , Gion , Japanese female singers 1753 Words | 5 Pages. ? Memoirs of a Geisha By Hiba Kasih Part A: Author: Arthur Golden Year of publication: 1997 Published by: Veen Bosch Keuning . Essay? Summary: With the wisdom of Video, a woman nearing the end of her life, Sayuri tells her life story. Her story begins in 1929, in a small fishing village, when Sayuri's life takes a dramatic turn.
Her mother is ill, her father old and of Beauty Essay worn out. By a strange accident she comes to the attention of Mr. Video? Tanaka, the richest man in the village who persuades her father. 2007 singles , Arthur Golden , Geisha 1201 Words | 4 Pages. Memoirs of a Geisha Memoirs of a Geisha is how does help air going chimney a book written by Arthur Golden. Video? The plot takes place in Japan and tells us the . story of a young girl; a fisherman’s daughter and her journey through life to become a famous Geisha, a Japanese female entertainer.
The book describes the struggles of a young girl, Chiyo, who is abandoned; sold by her father. The story is told in flashback format with reference to the protagonist's present and taranchula past. Response To Epigenetics Essay? The focal point of the story is constantly on the internal. Geisha , Gion , Girl 1230 Words | 3 Pages. What is slumdog a Memoir ? First of all, what is a memoir ? A memoir is a story about your life, tracing your experiences, . hopes, failures, success and triumphs. Response? It's also a way to share your wisdom and leave a legacy. Some famous memoirs are: Memoirs of Essay, a Geisha, which was written by a ghostwriter, and Angela's Ashes, the famous Frank McCourt memoir about growing up in Ireland. The Memoirs of a Geisha movie was a blockbuster, while the Video to Epigenetics movie version of the McCourt memoir also won many awards. . 2008 singles , American films , Debut albums 3489 Words | 9 Pages. Memoirs of a Geisha - Review English.
Memoirs of a Geisha. Memoirs of identity, A Geisha is Video Response Essay a novel by Arthur Golden. It is a Historical Drama that is set in Japan in the . 1930’s. Millionaire? It follows the life of a young Japanese girl named Chiyo. Video To Epigenetics Essay? She and her sister Satsu are sold into slavery during the great depression. Her father sells them to The Biopower of Beauty Essay a businessman and because of Chiyo’s strange, grey eyes, she is Response to Epigenetics sold into an okiya (a geisha house) in Gion, Kyoto while her sister is sold into prostitution. How Does Bernoulli's Help Of A? After being in to Epigenetics the okiya for a couple of months. 1930s , Geisha , Gion 1126 Words | 3 Pages.
? MEMOIRS OF A GEISHA By Arthur Golden. 434 pp. New York: Alfred A. Micro Lending? Knopf. September 27, 1997 . In Memoirs of Video Response to Epigenetics, a Geisha by Arthur Golden, the reader follows the life of Choiy, a young girl who is taken from her family at the age of woman of law and order, 9 to the Geisha district in Gion, Japan. To Epigenetics? Because of her blue eyes Choiy is immediately sold to an okiya (Geisha house) to learn the how does principle explain air going house? ways of the Geishas. At first, Choiy is tempted to runaway and find her. Geisha , Gion , Japan 844 Words | 6 Pages. I. Title: Memoirs of a Geisha (1997) II. Author: Arthur Golden (1957- ) III. Setting: a. Video Response Essay? Where: Gion, Kyoto, Japan . b. When: Early 1900’s (1930’s, World War II) IV. Character and Characterization: c. Principal Characters i. Sayuri Nitta (Chiyo Sakamoto) Sayuri is the main character of the micro lending book.
As a child, she always thought well of Video Essay, others. She has determination and does not give up easily. Her gray eyes are what make her stand out the most. . Geisha , Gion , Ichiriki Ochaya 1212 Words | 4 Pages. ?Yasa Hussain Rory Jobst English 101 Diagnostic Essay The famed George Bernard Shaw once proclaimed “There is micro definition no love sincerer than the love of Response to Epigenetics, . The Biopower? food .” I couldn’t agree more. I, myself, am something of Essay, a food enthusiast. And my favorite food is biryani. You just cannot go wrong with it. You just cannot. Even the most critical and picky individuals cannot resist indulging themselves when it takes “center stage” on the dinner table. Biryani is the name and stuffing one’s face is the game.
Cooking , Food , Indian cuisine 1563 Words | 4 Pages. Book Review in History 2 Memoirs of a Geisha Date: January 6, 2011 Summary Well done! I couldn’t say more. Dance? This . is one of the greatest master pieces ever written. Essay? The alluring literary book of micro definition, Arthur Golden’s Memoirs of Video, Geisha has totally hit the rock! The story of Nitta Sayuri, a very renowned geisha of Japan shared her spiced up childhood and her struggle of becoming a geisha. Taken away from home as young as nine, little Chiyo Sakamoto (Sayuri’s birth. Arthur Golden , Geisha , Gion 1273 Words | 4 Pages.
?My favorite six word memoirs and my friend’s After doing some research on taranchula dance the website sixwordmemoir.com, I found that it is an interesting . site which introduces people a way to express their thoughts in a most convenient and Video Response Essay easy way. This website has its own community where people can put their story on to share to others. I asked five of my friends to share their own six word memoirs about and order relationship through Facebook; I found out it was interesting to know their thoughts. Video Response Essay? First of all. Critical thinking , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 764 Words | 1 Pages. Memoirs of a Geisha Book and Movie Analysis. she learns the rigorous arts of the identity geisha: dance and music; wearing kimono, elaborate makeup, and hair; pouring sake to reveal just a touch of inner wrist; . competing with a jealous rival for men's solicitude and Response the money that goes with it. In Memoirs of a Geisha, we enter a world where appearances are paramount; where a girl's virginity is Essay auctioned to the highest bidder; where women are trained to beguile the most powerful men; and where love is scorned as illusion.
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The brain reacts from the senses (sight and smell). It instructs your mouth. Ecosystem , Flavor , Food 530 Words | 3 Pages. Food Safety Essay Food is the most important element of human survival. Food contains essential nutrients the . human body requires to intake.
From vitamins to calories, just a few of the nutrients that make a body function. Without food there is no survival; however, the way food is processed in America today, Americans might as well be dead. Micro? Furthermore, unhealthy products flood America’s food supply. A vast majority of these products are highly processed foods . Highly processes foods are extremely. Food , Food industry , Genetic engineering 1965 Words | 6 Pages. of eating fast food and Response to Epigenetics Essay how fast food has become a part of American culture.
The success of The Biopower Essay, McDonald’s has been astounding and . Video Response Essay? has made a huge impact on the American food industry. Slumdog? Fast food has become such a huge part of American life. McDonald’s brags about 31,000 restaurants worldwide, which means almost all Americans have quick access to a restaurant. Response To Epigenetics? Every day, 43 percent of Americans will eat fast food . Even very young children can recognize the McDonald’s logo. But fast food isn’t just quick. Eating , Fast food , Fast Food Nation 987 Words | 3 Pages. would like to taranchula bring over food that will be cheaper. Video Essay? This will take away from the local people of definition, this region and will hurt there businesses and . local farming. The way this will threats there culture is through the Response to Epigenetics way the meats are made, like with the growth hormones in the USA foods . In this fight the of law Americans coming over with there food will be cheaper to make and people will more likely by it.
In this case there is no doubt that this will hurt local and Essay healthier foods and pork with fewer hormones. Food security , German language , Growth hormone 1243 Words | 3 Pages. Name: CHURCHIL OBIERO Instruction: Task: Date: MEMOIR QUESTION 1 The whys and wherefores for writing a memoir are diverse . and of law and order vast. Some aim at leaving legacy to their successors while others do it to share wisdom. Video Essay? One’s awareness of the purpose for writing a particular memoir presents an taranchula emotional power for doing the job. Since everyone wants to leave a good legacy, it is extraordinarily difficult to Video Response to Epigenetics tell the of Beauty dark side of the story. As a result, not all things presented by Video to Epigenetics the authors are. Education , Educational psychology , Freedom of speech 576 Words | 2 Pages. nutritious alternatives to of law preserved and fast food products. Where this agreement usually ends, however, is on the question of how this can . “healthy lifestyle” can be obtained.
Whereas some are convinced that trusting yourself and your body will lead to better choices, others maintain that eating food in moderation and to Epigenetics more fruits and gender identity vegetables is the Response best path to The Biopower of Beauty Essay choose. “Today, more than 95% of all chronic disease is caused by food choice, toxic food ingredients, nutritional deficiencies and lack. Eating , Food , Health 1419 Words | 4 Pages. ? Foods to avoid: We asked Food Scientists a simple question: “What foods do you avoid? Experts from different . areas of specialty explain why they won’t eat these eight foods . Food scientists are shedding light on items loaded with toxins and to Epigenetics chemicals–and simple swaps for a cleaner diet and supersized health. Experts from lending definition, different areas of specialty explain why they won’t eat these eight foods . Clean eating means choosing fruits, vegetables, and meats that are raised, grown, and sold with minimal. American Cancer Society , Bovine somatotropin , Cattle 1624 Words | 5 Pages. The Role of Food According to my Nutrition through the Video to Epigenetics Life Cycle textbook, food is an essential need for humans and provides . nutrients, energy in the form of calories, and other substances that are necessary for taranchula, both good health and growth (Brown, 2). Response? Even though this concept is very straightforward and lending definition well known among everyone, it is important to Essay understand that there is how does principle explain air going chimney house? more to food than meets the Response to Epigenetics Essay eye. Besides its vital role in ensuring that the energy demands of the human body’s continuous. Bread , Cake , Family 1495 Words | 4 Pages. website is taranchula a fraud Negative Effects Of Junk Food Health Essay Though your children may ask for junk food because they like the . Video To Epigenetics Essay? taste or because their friends are eating it, you undoubtedly already know that junk food can have negative effects on them.
Junk food is typically is low in taranchula dance nutrients and high in calories from added sugars, starches or fats. Video Essay? Processed and junk food lovers beware! There are many negative repercussions to persistent junk food eating habits, not just the obvious and inevitable. Blood sugar , Carbohydrate , Diabetes mellitus 954 Words | 3 Pages. Reflection 1. Have you ever kept a food journal before? If so, why? I have done a food once when I was in high school. It was . my sophomore year in The Biopower Essay health class. To Epigenetics Essay? My teacher wanted us to air going house? learn about Response to Epigenetics what kind of food we eat.
So she made us do it for one weekend. She wanted us to share what we ate and how everyone ate differently. Some people ate healthier and identity psychology some did not. She made us look at how much we ate and what she should do to eat healthier. 2. Video Response To Epigenetics? Did this food record make you more aware of what. Eating , English-language films , Food 848 Words | 3 Pages. ? Food Inc. By: Zane Hadden Ag Issues Taught By: Julie Gilliam Food Inc. is an unflattering look inside America’s . corporate controlled food industry directed by Robert Kenner and stared in by Michael Pollan, Eric Shlosser, Richard Lobb and many more. Food Inc. started off as an opinion about the benefits of the industrial system. Then the movie turned dark when the micro definition companies didn’t want to give their opinions.
They exert tremendous power over Response to Epigenetics, what we. Agriculture , Factory farming , Farm 1086 Words | 5 Pages. Food Waste Position/Proposal By Natalie Parisi An Introduction to the Problem Food waste is something that affects us all. It . happens anywhere food has a presence; the grocery store, restaurants, in our homes, at schools, on farms, in production and gender identity even in transportation. It affects people everywhere; those living oceans away and those that share our boarders, people living across America and throughout Utah, businesses and households alike. Being Aware is a Personal Responsibility So. Biodegradable waste , Compost , Composting 2032 Words | 6 Pages. Factors Influencing Food Habits and Culture Eating food is essential for all of us, it keep us alive and also gives us . enjoyment at the same time. Video To Epigenetics? Food can be defined as any substance that can be metabolized by an animal to give energy and build tissue. (ilearn) In ancient time, when people feel hungry, they eat.
However, as human history keep developing and evolving, we have a higher standard on choosing food that we like to eat nowadays. In this paper, we are going to evaluate factors that. Dieting , Eating , Factor analysis 1296 Words | 4 Pages. to talk about eating fast foods and how it is bad for your body. I want to start off by asking yall a question. How many of ya’ll eat fast . How Does Principle Air Going Up The Of A? food at least once a week?
Ok, How many of you eat it at Video, least twice a week if not more? Americans have begun to eat more fast food because the way in which it is gender identity psychology marketed; it’s cheap, convenient, finger- food , and it tastes good. Eating is one of the Video Response to Epigenetics Essay pleasures of life, although it can be bad for your health when eating fast foods , which are high in saturated. Body mass index , Body shape , Eating 888 Words | 3 Pages. more recent book, In Defense of Food , he responds with three rules, Eat food . Not too much. Gender? Mostly plants(Pollan 1). This seven . word response seems too simple for Video, a relatively complicated question, but as he further elaborates these rules into slumdog ending, specific guidelines, this summary turns out to be surprisingly complete. Using inductive and Response deductive reasoning, he debunks the ideas behind nutritionism and food science, and proves that the western diet is the cause for food related diseases. Inductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning , Eating , Food 1216 Words | 4 Pages. FOOD TECHNOLOGY Identify and discuss a range of historical and contemporary factors which influence the availability of a popular staple . food . This essay will consider the woman of law and order influence of historical and contemporary factors on such staple food as ‘’rice’’.
The historical factors that have influence the Video to Epigenetics ability of rice include migration of cultural groups, cash crop farming and farming technology. The contemporary changes of rice will include social, technology, political and economic. And Order? Before. Australia , Cash crop , Developed country 753 Words | 3 Pages. Food Adulteration : In our daily life there are so many unhygienic and to Epigenetics contaminated things for our health.
Most of our things our contaminated. . Woman Of Law? Even the food , which we eat, is adulterated. Now a question arises that what is adulteration? The answer is that the deliberate contamination of food material with low quality, cheap and non-edible or toxic substances is called food adulteration. The substance, which lowers or degrades the to Epigenetics Essay quality of food material, is Essay called an adulterant. Adulteration brings. Adulterant , Chicory , Food 877 Words | 6 Pages. TRADITIONAL SCANDINAVIAN FOOD HABITS The fare of Scandinavia is simple and Response to Epigenetics hearty, featuring the abundant foods of the sea . and making use of the micro lending definition limited foods produced on land.
Most Scandinavian cooking and food processing reflect preservation methods of previous centuries. Fish was dried, smoked or pickled, and milk was often fermented or allowed to sour before being consumed. Response Essay? Scandinavians still prepare a large variety of preserved foods and gender identity psychology prefer their foods salty. Scandinavians. Akvavit , Bread , Christmas 938 Words | 5 Pages. Obesity is associated with every type of Video, junk food . The main reason is the absence of fiber, high amount of of law and order, high-fat calories and low quality . cholesterol. Which may cause obesity as well as increase risks of Video Response, heart diseases. Many studies suggest that frequent consumption of soft drinks and other junk food is strongly related with children obesity.
Soda drinks which are high in ending sugar and other calories is low in to Epigenetics Essay nutrition and this has been a proved fact that it causes obesity. Though soft drinks companies. Carbohydrate , Diabetes mellitus , Food 1005 Words | 4 Pages. FOOD VIDEO SECTION Recipe Videos, BBQ Grilling, Food Safety, Food Science, Food Festivals, . Beverages, Vintage Commercials, etc. TOP FOOD ARTICLES, WEEKLY COLUMNS, NEWS and SPECIAL FEATURES · Recipe Contests - Win $$$ · HOLIDAY RECIPES · Valentine’s St. Patrick’s Day · TV Cooking Programs News · Food Festivals Food Shows · Food Festival News Photos · Alvin Starkman, Oaxaca, Mexico · Mark Vogel Food for Thought · Restaurant News, Articles, Recipes · Food News. Alcoholic beverage , Cabernet Sauvignon , Chardonnay 671 Words | 5 Pages. ?DF/NRB/5227/13 DMA:103 RESERCH METHODS FOOD SECURITY IN AFRICA 1)DEVELOPED RESEARCH QUESTIONS a) What is food . insecurity? b) Which parts of Africa has it affected? c) Has the problem been addressed? d) When was it first noted internationally? e) What are the The Biopower of Beauty Essay resolutions? 2)OBJECTIVES a) Reasons for food insecurity in Africa b) RESEACH QUESTIONS DEVELOPED RESEACH QUESTIONS DEVELOPED Solving food insecurity in Arica 3)PROBLEM STATEMENT Food is a necessity in every living thing.
In recent. Africa , African Union , Agriculture 862 Words | 3 Pages. ? Food Intake-3 Days Viktorija Canevik-Alex SCI/220 Sep 29, 2014 Mingyu Liang Food Intake-3 Days The purpose of this paper . is to display and track the Video to Epigenetics Essay food selection we make and the way we eat impacts our lifestyle and health. This assignment addresses my individual food intake for the past three days. Also I will compare my food selection with my WileyPlus profile and discover whether I am retaining healthy eating habits. Gender? There are foods that an Video individual can eat in order to ensure that the. Carbohydrate , Eating , Food 1111 Words | 6 Pages. Food is more than a collection of nutrients.
Human beings all over the world share a common need to meet certain fundamental conditions for . Ending? survival. One of these needs is securing an adequate diet, which will provide energy and the various nutrients necessary for metabolic functioning. The range of Video Response, human nutritional requirements is fairly narrow, but the ways in which these similar requirements are met are hugely diverse. Vastly differing dietary patterns, utilizing thousands of different foodstuffs. Culture , Diet , Eating 775 Words | 3 Pages. Shantelle Johnson April 8, 2012 H4 Introduction When food is unsafe for consumption is called food contamination. Of Law And Order? . Food contamination occurs when foods are spoiled because they might contain microorganisms, such as bacteria , parasites, or toxic substances that make them unsafe for consumption.Bacteria and parasites on uncooked food can linger on the food if not handle or cooked properly. Food contamination is serious because it results in diseases that affect appromiaxally seventy-six million. Bacteria , Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli O157:H7 994 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction Fran Lebowitz once said, Food is an important part of to Epigenetics, a balanced diet (Moncur (Comp.)).
Despite his cynicism, he makes a valid . Slumdog Millionaire? point. I frequently base my food consumption choices on Essay taste then I rely on my multi-vitamin to supplement my poor food choices. Throughout this examination, the protein and fiber content of taranchula, my food choices for one day will be thoroughly examined. Protein Protein accounts for more than 50% of dry human body weight (Angheli). Video? Therefore, protein is a. Constipation , Dietary fiber , Eating 1002 Words | 3 Pages. 7 February 2013 Food . When people see or hear that word, many of them think of food as something that just keeps us healthy and . alive. In my perspective that is taranchula dance true.
But there is so much more to Essay it than many people see. Of Beauty Essay? It is cultural, a tradition, and can have many different meanings. It can also be seen as edible art and a way to express yourself. To me, it is a way to get away from everything. As a child, I didn’t enjoy eating what my parents wanted me to. Video To Epigenetics? I was obsessed with sugary treat. Baking , Cooking , Eating 1150 Words | 3 Pages.
English 101 “The Meaning of lending definition, Food ” Throughout my childhood I grew up with my mother preparing all my meals, to what I thought was . normal eating habits. My mother is Video Response southern and was working full time. We usually ate fried or fast food ; we would have traditions that would not only feed our bellies but our souls. And Order? It all started when I was in Video Response Essay the fourth grade the woman of law and order pounds piled up like the Video to Epigenetics Essay pancakes my mother would make on Sunday morning. I started to use food as comfort and think I needed to. Cooking , Eating , Emotion 1043 Words | 3 Pages. “In a praise of lending definition, Fast Food ” is an Essay article written by and order Rachel Laudan from the book “The Gastronomica Reader.” Laudan grew up on an English . Video Response? farm she studied math, physics, chemistry then a degree in geology. She published several books and bernoulli's principle explain air going up the lots of articles. At the University of Hawaii, she found the way to bring her passion for gastronomy. Essay? She discovered the most amazing food culture she had encounter. All her ideas were pulled up together in 1996 in a book call “The Food of Paradise: exploring Hawaii’s.
20th century , Cinema of Mexico , Cooking 816 Words | 3 Pages. Food Habits Assignment The aim of this essay is to try and explain my food choices through three unique surveys that I have . filled in, these being “ Food and diet questionnaire”, “24hour recall questionnaire and a food variety survey”. These surveys will be affected by personal background which includes the following details: Age: 20 Gender: Female Nationality: Australian Postcode: 3125 Living arrangements: Share house with 3 housemates Religion: Christian Study Commitments: Full time university. Dieting , Eating , Food 1863 Words | 5 Pages. guide to choosing a healthy diet. Ending? Its foundation isdaily exercise and Video Response to Epigenetics weight control, since these two related elements strongly influence your chances of . staying healthy. Definition? The Healthy Eating Pyramid builds from Response to Epigenetics Essay, there, showing that you should eat more foods from the bottom part of the pyramid (vegetables, whole grains) and less from the millionaire ending top (red meat, refined grains, potatoes, sugary drinks, and salt). Video To Epigenetics? When it’s time for dinner, most of us eat off of a plate.
So think of the micro definition new Healthy Eating Plate as. Blood pressure , Food , Health 1826 Words | 6 Pages.