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bleak house essays Bleak House In-Class Essays. In Charles Dickens' Bleak House , Dickens' brings monstrous life to fog, using it metaphorically to represent the Lord Chancellor and "fog" by carl the chancery negatively with the use of detail and diction. The setting takes place in London and the Lord Chancellor sits high and mighty in the Lincoln Inn Hall sometime in November. The story then drifts into the town, weather, and its people. What covers the town is a fog. A fog which seems to consume the d2l wcupa, people's everyday lives, bringing only darkness, really no hope for sandburg, a change. The fog blinds people and the mud makes them slip and slide, and it can't be stopped. Dickens uses detail to bring this fog into every spact of the townspeople's lives. There is fog everywhere. Fog up the river.
Fog down the river, just about everywhere. It consumes the people, this fog, and it maeks them weak with their lack of sight, lack of direction towards the future. Dickens' uses diction by bringing life to the fog by vs determinism, describing the fog as commiting actions only a cruel and lazy person would commit. Fog creeping . fog lying Fog cruelly pinching the toes and fingers of his little 'prentice boy on deck, all clearly depicting an organization devoted to sandburg deception and hurting people's lives by the promise of a future, but a lack of action by just lying as the appropriately children, city goes into ruins, and that organization being the chancery. The Chancery being the heart of this fog which happens to be everywhere. Dickens is not fond of the Chancery, and by calling it a leaden-headed old obstrution and by carl leaden-headed old corporation, and expressing feelings of frustration over the stupidity of the Chancery, and the mere fact that Dickens also uses old after leaden-headed, channels a sense of stubbornness in the Chancery for its refusal to break old habits. It seems like the Chancellor's rule has been corrupt for many years, holding its townspeople as prisoners. Buddhist Noble Truths? In Bleak House by Charles Dickens, the "fog" sandburg, persistent use of the word fog is used metaphorically to buddhist noble truths represent the dark influence that the Lord High Chancellor holds over the lives of everyone, clouding and permeating everything. At the end of our passage from Bleak House it is said that at the very heart of the fog, sits the Lord High Chancellor in his High Court of by carl sandburg, Chancery, and buddhist noble truths so designating the Lord High Chancellor as the source of the fog. The usage of fog as a metaphor for the High Chancellor's influence implies darkness, that his influence makes things clouded for these who fall under it, and by carl sandburg that while his influence is plainly seen it is not easily grasped. Eaerlier in this passage the author tells us fog everywhere, which tells the audience just how far the influence of the existentialism vs determinism, Lord High Chancelllor spreads.
The author is telling the "fog", audience that the influence of the Lord High Chancellor is green mile john not bound by distance or closed doors, but abounds as freely as fog. In Bleak House by Charles Dickens, Dickens uses the repetition of fog to convey the message that the Lord High Chancellor is at the root of all the problems caused by the fog which may represent a web of lies the chancellor has woven to cloud the perception of the "fog" by carl, people. His technique is to say where the fog is and what exactly it is doing over and over, making the reader realize that there is much more to green mile john coffey the fog than a weather phenomenon and leading the "fog" sandburg, reader deeper into the fog until the heart is reached, where the Lord High Chanellor sits. Dickens starts by describing the surroundings but then focuses on the fog aspect and leads the reader into the heart of it. The author states that fog is everywhere, that it is all-encompassing, and is in every place the people are. Fog handicaps peoples' vision, which could screw up their judgment. Impact Computers? The fog being everywhere is like saying that the people are limited every place that they go, that the sandburg, fog is unescapable and there is nowhere a person could go to d2l wcupa see clearly. In the "fog" by carl, novel Bleak House by Deckens, the author uses a style of rhyme to show that the Lord Chancellor and his court of Chancery are corrupt people by using a word to make the reader think of another using rhyme; the word specifically is corruption . The novel starts out with a description of London in November weather with implied season fog.
The author keeps talking about the thick fog all over the land, people, homes, and dogs. After talking about existentialism vs determinism this for some time, Dickens moves on to describe the Temple Bar by saying that the muddy streets are muddiest near that leaden-headed old obstrution, appropriate ornament for the threshold of a leaden-headed old corporation, Temple Bar. This is where Dickens' point can be found, for he uses the style of by carl, rhyme not so directly but makes the reader read it how he wants: he says that the Temple Bar is a leaden-headed old obstruction while later the in same sentence says leaden-headed old corporation. Now that the reader has read the word obstruction rather than read it as corporation one will think of another word in this case, corruption . Existentialism Vs Determinism? Because it sounds so close to obstruction and "fog" it also starts with a C, the reader will read this word and think this Temple Bar is evil or a place of corruption. By using the d2l wcupa, word obstruction Dickens was able to make the rader think this Temple Bar was corrupt and evil without saying it. In the novel Bleak House Dickens uses diction to describe how the Chancellor's lies are bilnding the town and hurting the people within. Dickens' use of the word fog describes how the town has been covered in the lies of the Chancellor. This blinding fog is not only keeping people from seeing the truth but is actually hurting the people of the village; it's in the eyes and in the throats of the people of "fog" sandburg, this town as almost to vs determinism silence and suffocate them. The mud that covers the town is a metaphor for the levels of bureaucracy and falsehoods one must go through to find the truth.
The defense around the Chancellor comes in levels much like adding new deposites to the crust upon crust of mud which means stepping through one level only leads you to a deeper, stickier level. "fog"? Together the essay on importance, fog and mud form an impossible barrier to the truth. It is obvious this is coming from the Chancellor's office. Dickens leads you to that conclusion with the raw afternoon is the rawest and the desnse fog is the desnest, and the muddy streets the muddiest near the leaden-headed old obstruction, which clearly states the closer you go the harder it becomes to move forward without losing your path, becoming stuck, or stepping in "fog" sandburg the mud. Finally, Dickens comes right out and says that the heart ofr this fog of lies is impact coming from the Chancellor himself.
Dickens leads you to "fog" by carl sandburg this conclusion with his use of diction and existentialism finally brings the answer to you in the last sentence of the paragraph.
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Local Citation Analysis of Graduate Biology Theses: Collection Development Implications. Science Engineering Librarian. Copyright 2011, Laura Newton Miller. Used with permission. MacOdrum Library is a central supporting body of Carleton University (Ottawa, Canada), a research-intensive institution that serves the academic needs of approximately 24,000 undergraduate and graduate students (Carleton University Library 2008). "fog" Sandburg. As Science and Engineering Librarian at Carleton University, the researcher wanted to mile john coffey make sure the Library was meeting the "fog" needs of the biology graduate students. Carleton's Biology Department offers undergraduate, masters, and existentialism, doctoral programs. In 2007/2008 the department had 109 graduate students enrolled in programs (77 in Masters and 32 in PhD) (Office of Institutional Research and Planning, Carleton University 2009). Although informal feedback from students and faculty is important, the researcher wanted more formalized evidence to support the "fog" by carl sandburg biology department's research needs. A survey was conducted in 2009 to assess the kinds of resources graduate students were using to find information for that appropriately adhd their research projects. This survey combined questions that focused on graduate students' perceptions of by carl, their library research needs and skills with questions that centered on the students' library research abilities (Newton Miller 2009).
A mixed-methods approach can look at an issue from a variety of angles (Beck 2008) and give more detailed information for essay on importance use in collection management (deVries, Kelley Storm 2009) and instruction. A local citation analysis was therefore conducted to examine what graduate students used in their research theses and how this could affect future collection development decisions. This paper will focus on the citation analysis of graduate masters theses from "fog" Carleton University's Biology Department. Citation analysis is the systematic, quantitative study of computers, works cited. It is part of the broader field of bibliometrics, the application of mathematical and statistical methods in the use of documents and publication pattern (Osareh 1996, as cited in Black 2001). In contrast to information use studies that ask students or faculty what journals they use for their research (Rolinson et al. By Carl. 1996 and green mile coffey, Brown (2005)), citation analysis is an unobtrusive method for journal collection evaluation purposes (Sylvia 1998). Citation analysis for collection development management can come in a variety of forms.
Some study specific journals or a group of journals to "fog" by carl sandburg determine a core collection for the library. In an early citation analysis, Gross and Gross (1927) researched the frequency of vs determinism, citations in the Journal of the American Chemical Society to ascertain what journals were needed most to sandburg help prepare students for advanced study and to research that appropriately children with support the "fog" by carl stimulation and intellectual development of the green mile john coffey faculty (Gross Gross 1927). By Carl. Budd (1988) analyzed the citations in three core education journals to determine how research is communicated within that discipline. Black (2001) collected citation information of two leading journals to form a base for a core collection in communication disorders. Delendick (1990) studied the citations within three prominent journals in vs determinism, plant systematics.
He found that although some of the citations referenced in the three journals appeared in Science Citation Index, many more citations were represented in "fog" by carl, Biological Abstracts. Has Found That Medicated Children Adhd. This helped the researcher determine that Biological Abstracts was the better tool for those studying systematic botany at by carl, that time. Journal Citation Reports is often used as a tool for collection development. Journal Citation Reports ranks journals by using citation frequency of journal articles to d2l wcupa measure the by carl journal's impact in a particular field (Thomson Reuters 2010a). This is a very useful tool for librarians to establish knowledge of beliefs four noble, core journals in a discipline, but it does not necessarily represent a local library's particular needs.
Crotteau (1997) examined the library's support for biological research by comparing the citations within faculty publications to rankings in Journal Citation Reports. He found that comparing two rank orders can be misleading when the ranks of individual titles could vary by as many as 60 to 80 positions. He discovered that it may be more useful to state that a journal is more or less cited by local faculty than by the wider scientific community (Crotteau 1997). Joswick and Stierman (1997) found significant differences between the ranking of journals used by students and faculty and rankings provided in Journal Citation Reports, revealing the importance of local citation studies in collection development. Some citation analyses focus on particular groups of users. Lascar and Mendelsohn (2001) and Crotteau (1997) examined the references within biology faculty papers. Lascar and Mendelsohn (2001) used citation analysis to study structural biology faculty from several institutions. Because structural biology is a multidisciplinary field, the authors discovered that it is important not to overemphasize the value of by carl sandburg, established, multidisciplinary journals. Narrow-focused, smaller periodicals also need to be considered within a collection budget (Lascar Mendelsohn 2001).
Another way to scrutinize faculty use of journals is by determining where they publish their papers. Stankus (2010) examined whether or not the placing of research that with, entomology faculty in different departments at various universities influenced where they published their work. Although many publish in the same journals, there are differences in where arts and sciences entomology faculty publish than those who work in agricultural departments. This is sandburg, helpful in prioritizing collection development and budgeting decisions (Stankus 2010). References used in honors undergraduate papers have been the focus of some citation analyses. These can be a great resource of information not only for libraries serving undergraduates, but also for noble those libraries trying to "fog" determine the needs of possible future graduate students. Leiding (2005) studied undergraduate papers from green mile a number of academic departments, which helped in ascertaining the different needs between various disciplines.
Kraus (2004) researched the citation patterns of advanced undergraduate biology students and in a later paper (Kraus 2005) compared the by carl differences between citation usage of undergraduates and impact computers, faculty in the biology department. Decisions regarding the purchasing of journal archive back files are important issues in collection development management. By Carl Sandburg. In order to determine the has found medicated children with adhd are: need to purchase specific back files, Nabe and by carl sandburg, Imre (2008) examined citations to resources dating before or after 1996 (many archival purchases have content before this particular year). Knowing the age of citation references can be another important factor in d2l wcupa, collection management. Graduate students are heavy users of library resources, and sandburg, theses and dissertations are often readily available (Brazzeal Fowler 2005). This makes them a well-known user group for citation analysis. On Importance Of Commerce Education. Williams and Fletcher (2006) studied the materials used by graduate students in "fog" by carl sandburg, engineering to direct library collection development decisions. Citation analyses often compare to past studies to build on the literature. The current citation analysis on graduate biology masters theses has the benefit of of commerce, citation analyses conducted by Kuruppu and "fog", Moore (2008) and by Walcott (1994). Both analyses focused on graduate biology theses, and both further broke down their rankings by subject specialties within biology. Buddhist Four. Pancheshnikov (2007) also studied graduate biology student theses and compared these to the literature citations in faculty publications as a way of making informed decisions regarding collection development management.
Collecting data using similar methods to past citation analyses makes them easier to compare with past studies (Kraus 2004). The researcher asked the following questions: What is the percentage of students' citations to journals? books? web sites? government documents? miscellaneous resources? What is the average number of citations per student paper? What are the top cited journals by number of citations? What are the top cited journals by number of "fog", citing authors?
What is the age range of journal citations? What percentage of journals is available in the Carleton Library catalogue? What are the reasons for not having a particular journal? What are the top cited journals for particular biological research areas? The researcher initially searched the impact Carleton University Library catalogue by by carl conducting a keyword search for biolog*, with a location theses and a year after 2006 and before 2010.
The search was further narrowed by locating theses with the added author Carleton University. Buddhist Beliefs Four Truths. Dissertation. Biology. Twenty-five Masters theses were found in total; 15 from 2008 and ten from 2007. When in doubt, the researcher went by the date of imprint on the thesis to determine the by carl year (in other words, when the thesis was published, as opposed to appropriately medicated children with when the student may have actually graduated).
Theses from "fog" by carl 2009 were not included in that appropriately medicated, the study as many were not yet available electronically or were in the process of being bound at the time of analysis. The researcher used Proquest's Dissertations and Theses at Carleton University (Proquest 2010) (a subset of Proquest's bigger Dissertations and by carl sandburg, Theses database) to print off the title page and existentialism, reference section of each thesis. Each dissertation was given a unique identification number. "fog" By Carl. Using a method used by other researchers (Kraus 2004) that was developed by Chandra G. Prabha (Prabha 1996 as cited in Kraus 2004), materials such as annuals, monographic series, and other irregular serials were not counted as journal articles. These were instead coded as B-annual and grouped as books. Each citation was given one of the following codes: Journals or magazines - J Books or book chapters - B Annuals or monographic series - B-annual Web site (non-governmental)- W Miscellaneous- MIS MIS - Gov Doc (even if it is a web site or database) MIS - Report (includes technical papers, protocols) MIS - Conference MIS - Software MIS - Thesis MIS - Other (includes data repository, article submitted to journal but not in review process, product (i.e., Roundup), newspaper, pamphlet, software manual, survey, personal observation, user's guide) To verify that a reference was a journal, the researcher checked citations in Ulrich's (Proquest Serials Editing Department 2009) and in Worldcat (OCLC 2010). Green John. If the title was not found in Ulrich's or Worldcat and "fog" by carl sandburg, the citation did not fall under another category, the researcher coded as MIS-other. The researcher made the existentialism vs determinism assumption that the materials the Library owned in 2010 (when the study was conducted) were also available to students while they were conducting research (i.e., 2006-2008). Although the researcher acknowledges that there is a chance database content may have changed in by carl, that time period, the task of determining dates of periodical acquirement was not feasible given the time to conduct the study.
Web of Science (Thomson Reuters 2010b) was used to check any ambiguous citation to get proper bibliographic information. (i.e. when citation had incorrect date or journal name). Ages of journal citations were determined by calculating the difference between the imprint year of the john coffey thesis and the age of a particular cited publication. For example, if a thesis was published in 2008 and a journal citation was from "fog" by carl 1998, then the difference between these two numbers would make the citation 10 years old. To determine whether or not Carleton University Library owned or had access to has found that children with a cited journal article, the "fog" sandburg researcher checked the green mile coffey library's catalogue. Students checking the catalogue for a journal title may find that the library has the "fog" sandburg title, but not the particular year the buddhist beliefs four noble student needs. In order to ascertain the specifics for not having access to a particular journal article, the citations were coded as follows: Don't have - Not found in catalogue at all. Sandburg. Never had subscription.
Used to Have - Had at one time but cancelled subscription. (Having a significant number of these could give reason to revisit a subscription). Of Commerce. Have now - Didn't have older copy but have current subscription. (This may give reason to purchase a back file). Don't have that year - This sometimes occurs when the by carl sandburg library has an older subscription that was cancelled and then repurchased. This also occurs when there is an embargo on a journal. Research Has Found That Appropriately With Are:. (The library may want to seek out copies that are missing in by carl sandburg, the years between subscriptions). Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation 2003) and IBM SPSS Statistics 18 (SPSS Inc. 2009) were used to tabulate results. The researcher calculated the frequency with which each journal was cited.
Williams and Fletcher (2006) point out that multiple citations of d2l wcupa, a title by a single author can greatly affect the ranking of a journal. By Carl Sandburg. For this reason, the researcher also used a unique thesis ID to calculate the frequency of authors citing a particular journal. To analyze theses by biological research area (as determined by the Carleton University Biology Department) (Carleton Biology Department 2009), the researcher examined Library of Congress Subject Headings from individual thesis catalogue records, and cross-referenced with subject headings used in Proquest's Digital Dissertations (Proquest 2010). All 25 theses were sorted into the following categories for further analysis. Cell Molecular Biology Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior Biochemistry and Physiology Biotechnology and Bioinformatics. Past studies have divided biological specialties in different ways (Kuruppu Moore 2008; Walcott 1994).
Because this is computers, a local citation analysis, it was important for the researcher to divide specialties into groups similar to how Carleton University's Biology Department references these research areas to ensure the information needs can be met as specifically as possible. There were a total of by carl sandburg, 2,783 citations in the 25 Masters theses analyzed for this study. The average (mean) number of citations per research that appropriately medicated with, thesis was 111 citations. The median was very close to the mean at 114 citations. "fog". The highest number of citations in a thesis was 191, and the lowest number was 44. Buddhist Four Noble. Journals accounted for 2,340 citations, or 84% of the total.
This seems to coincide with results of similar studies, including Kraus (2004) who found that 76.2% of biology undergraduate students' honors references were to journal articles. By Carl. McCain and Bobick (1981) found that 91% of citations were to journals in faculty publications and doctoral dissertations and Walcott (1994) discovered that graduate biology students cited journals in impact, the 80-95% range, depending on the subject specialty. Kuruppu and Moore (2008) determined doctoral students in "fog", agriculture and biology cited journal articles 80.5% of the time. Books (including annuals) accounted for 11% of total citations. Has Found That Medicated Adhd. Government documents accounted for 2% of total documents, web sites were 0.7% of total citations, and miscellaneous items accounted for 3% of the total citations. (See Table 1 and Table 2) Books (includes annuals) Table 2: Listing of Miscellaneous Citations.
For many researchers, especially in the sciences, Google is the "fog" first choice for beliefs noble truths information -- all kinds of information (Haglund Olsson 2008). The researcher ascertained from a local survey of biology graduate students that although they make use of traditional electronic databases (e.g., Proquest's Biological Sciences), Google Scholar and Google are used to a greater extent for theses research (Newton Miller 2009). The low number of web site citations may be the result of graduate advisors discouraging their students from citing web sites. Web sites that were from government departments were considered a government document (and not a web site). This may have changed the numbers slightly. Kraus (2004) also found a low number of by carl sandburg, web sites cited by undergraduate biology students. Kraus found that although many science faculty and students were using electronic resources to d2l wcupa access scholarly materials, they were not citing the use of web sites as sources, or the Internet as a means of sandburg, delivery of scholarly information (Kraus 2004). Title dispersion is research that appropriately medicated with adhd are:, determined as the degree to which the "fog" sandburg useful literature in a field is scattered through a number of books and journals (Walcott 1994). Buddhist Noble Truths. The journal title dispersion for this study is by carl sandburg, 546, which means that 546 individual journal titles were needed to cover 100% of the journal citations.
Walcott (1994) discovered a rather low number of 295 titles for her study of buddhist, graduate biology student theses citations, although with the proliferation of journal titles since that time, the difference in numbers is perhaps not that surprising. Many citation analyses, including Brazzeal and Fowler (2005), Pancheshnikov (2007) and Black (2001), demonstrate the 80/20 Rule, which suggests that 80% of the cited articles reside in 20% of the cited journals (Bradford 1953). In this study, the top 46 titles (8.4%) (by frequency of citation) cover 50.4% of all journal citations. Brazzeal and Fowler (2005), who researched the information usage patterns of graduate students in forestry, found that 7.0% of all cited journals accounted for 50% of all journal citations. In her study of "fog", graduate biology students, Walcott (1994) found that the top 22 titles covered 50% of all citations. The current research reveals a total of 77 journals (14%) accounted for 80% of all citations, which is very comparable to the findings of Brazzeal and Fowler (2005) who found that 70 journals accounted for 80% of the citations. The researcher found a total of 77 titles out of the 546 individual journals (14%) were cited only green coffey once. In her study of graduate students and "fog" by carl sandburg, faculty use of biological sources, Pancheshnikov (2007) found that 50% of journal titles in faculty publications and 45% from student theses were cited only essay on importance once. Ranking of Journal Citations- Frequency of Citation Versus Number of Authors Citing. When conducting a citation analysis, a well accepted method for determining core journal lists is to rank journals by frequency of citations (Kuruppu Moore 2008; Kraus 2005; LaBonte 2005; Walcott 1994).
However, Williams and Fletcher (2006) assert in their study of engineering graduate students' citations that multiple citations of a title by a single author can affect the rankings of journal. This study examined the rankings of journals by frequency and by number of authors citing and found variations in the order of rank. Table 3 includes the top 46 titles by by carl sandburg frequency of on importance education, citation (8.4%) that covers 50.4% of all journal citations in this study. The table also shows the percentage of by carl, total authors who cite a particular journal in the list. Table 4 includes a rank order of journal titles by number of authors citing. Table 3: Top Cited Journals Ranked by Total Number of Citations (some ties) Journal of Biological Chemistry. Proceedings of the essay on importance education National Academy of sandburg, Sciences. Journal of Experimental Biology. Environmental Toxicology and john coffey, Chemistry.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Journal of Comparative Physiology B. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and "fog", Aquatic Sciences. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, integrative comparative physiology. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. Genes and Development. Molecular and Cellular Biology. Plant Molecular Biology. Journal of Fish Biology.
Journal of Chemical Ecology. Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Journal of Ecology. Comparative Biochemistry Physiology A: Molecular Integrative Physiology. Nucleic Acids Research. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. Journal of Experimental Zoology. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences. Trends in Plant Science.
American Journal of Botany. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B. Table 4: Journals Ranked by Number of Authors Citing (total # authors= 25) Number of Citing Authors. Percentage of Total Authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Journal of Biological Chemistry. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Journal of Experimental Biology. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Genes and Development.
Molecular and existentialism, Cellular Biology. Journal of Comparative Physiology B. Nucleic Acids Research. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. In this study, a total of 333 (61%) of the sandburg 546 journals are cited by only one author, although they may be cited more than once by medicated children adhd are: that author. (See Table 5). Table 5: Number of Citing Authors Compared to Number of Cited Journals.
Percentage of Total Journals. Of the 2,340 total journal citations, the average (mean) age of journal citations for biology masters theses at Carleton University was 10.6 years. The median age was 8 years, and the mode (the most frequently occurring age) was 4 years old. This is very similar to the results of Kraus' study of undergraduate biology majors (Kraus 2004) where the average age was 10.65 years. "fog" By Carl Sandburg. Kuruppu and Moore (2008) stated results in a different way: 90% of the citations (all formats) were less than 24 years old, and the oldest citation was 173 years old. The oldest journal citation in this current study was 174 years old, and the youngest was 0. Essay On Importance Of Commerce Education. (i.e. citation was from the year the student published his/her thesis). Percentage of Journals Accessible by Carleton Library Catalogue. Crotteau (1997) examined the by carl sandburg citation patterns of buddhist beliefs, faculty in the Department of Biology at by carl, University of North Carolina. Of Commerce Education. He found that 65% of total journal citations had complete library holdings, 23% had partial holdings, and 12% had no holdings. Williams and Fletcher (2006) found local library holdings for 82% of journals cited in engineering theses.
This researcher decided to examine in more detail the reasons for a student not being able to locate a journal. In other words, instead of "fog" by carl sandburg, stating the library had partial holdings, the researcher studied just what a partial holding meant. When a journal article cited was not shown to be in the Carleton University Library catalogue, it was marked CU-N. Existentialism Vs Determinism. The citation was further marked as Don't Have, Used to Have, Have Now, and Don't Have That Year. The researcher found library holdings for 93% of the journal articles cited. Of the sandburg 2,340 total journal citations, there were 170 incidents (7% of total) where Carleton did not have the journal paper required. Of this 7% of incidents that Carleton University Library did not have in its catalogue, the researcher found the following: Don't Have that Year. The following table shows the frequency of the top five journal citations that were not found in the Library catalogue:
Table 7: Top Journal Citations Not Available in Library Catalogue. Frequency of CU-N. (out of 2340 total cit) Environmental Toxicology and essay on importance, Chemistry. Biochemical Society Transactions.
Cell Death and Differentiation. Top Ranking Journals by Research Area. Carleton University's Biology Department divides their research into four main areas: Cell and Molecular Biology; Ecology, Evolution and Behavior; Biochemistry and by carl sandburg, Physiology; and Biotechnology and buddhist beliefs four, Bioinformatics (Carleton Biology Department 2009). The following table breaks down the 25 graduate theses by research area: Table 8: Graduate Research Areas (Biological Sciences) at Carleton University. Cell Molecular Biology. Ecology, Evolution and Behavior. Biochemistry and Physiology. Biotechnology and Bioinformatics. Because biotechnology and bioinformatics were not represented in theses for masters students in the time period studied, the researcher will focus on the three remaining research areas. (Biotechnology and "fog" sandburg, bioinformatics was being studied by PhD students during that time period).
Because of the interdisciplinary nature of some of the theses papers, some dissertations could fall into more than one category which could skew the impact computers journal frequency results. (For example, theses that focused on the molecular biology of plants cited plant-specific journals, which may not necessarily always be labeled top-ranking in Cell and Molecular Biology). Presenting the number of authors citing these journals should help compensate for this bias. Table 9: Top Ranking Journals in Cell and Molecular Biology Theses. Journal of Biological Chemistry. Proceedings of the National Academy of "fog" by carl sandburg, Sciences. Plant Molecular Biology.
Table 10: Journals Ranked by Number of Authors Citing: Cell and Molecular Biology (8 authors total) (some ties) Number of has found medicated, Citing Authors. Percentage of Total Authors. Journal of "fog" by carl sandburg, Biological Chemistry. Proceedings of the d2l wcupa National Academy of Science.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Genes and Development. Molecular and Cellular Biology. Nucleic Acids Research. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Trends in Cell Biology. Table 11: Top Ranking Journals in Ecology, Evolution and Behavior Theses (some ties) Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry.
Journal of Experimental Biology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. Journal of Chemical Ecology. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and "fog" by carl sandburg, Aquatic Sciences. Journal of Ecology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Table 12: Journals Ranked by Number of d2l wcupa, Authors Citing: Ecology, Evolution and Behavior (9 authors total) (some ties) Number of Citing Authors (9 max) Percentage of Total Authors. Trends in Ecology and Evolution.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Journal of Applied Ecology. Table 13: Top Ranking Journals in "fog" by carl, Biochemistry and Physiology Theses (some ties) Journal of Biological Chemistry. Journal of Experimental Biology. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Proceedings of the impact computers National Academy of Sciences. Journal of Comparative Physiology B. Table 14: Journals Ranked by Number of "fog" sandburg, Authors Citing: Biochemistry and Physiology (8 authors total) (some ties)
Number of coffey, Citing Authors (8 max) Percentage of Total Authors. Proceedings of the sandburg National Academy of d2l wcupa, Science. Archives of "fog" sandburg, Biochemistry and Biophysics. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Biochemical Society Transactions. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Journal of research has found appropriately adhd, Biological Chemistry. Journal of Experimental Biology. Carleton University Library is doing well in terms of periodical library holdings. Having 93% is a very acceptable number but one must be cautious of that result.
Citation analysis only measures what students used in their formal research. It does not measure what a student may have informally consulted on a day-to-day basis (Swanepoel 2008). Citation analysis is unable to show what a student decided not to use because of its unavailability in the library. Because Carleton University is located in the national capital, further research should be undertaken to by carl examine how many journal citations unavailable in Carleton's library were obtainable at nearby University of Ottawa. Since graduate students frequently use Google and Google Scholar, and as the open access movement continues to grow, further research is needed to determine how many journal citations were available through open access or from an open archive. Although citation analysis is a useful tool for d2l wcupa determining collection development needs, it is by carl sandburg, not without its challenges. It became quite clear that a few students need more help creating their reference lists.
Verifying whether or not a citation was in the catalogue became more time-consuming than expected because of incorrect dates and incorrect or incomplete journal titles. Research Medicated With Adhd Are:. For example, a title with parts A, B and C can be in three different journals. Leaving some of the title information out of the citation necessitates more investigation by the researcher to get the correct reference. However, students were not always the ones at "fog" by carl sandburg, fault. The researcher compiled a list of library catalogue records that needed to be cleaned up.
This could mean anything from duplicate records to incorrect dates in the catalogue. Although these various delays were for research that appropriately adhd are: a small percentage of citations, it is "fog", important to take note of the potential time consumed for those interested in pursuing similar projects. Citation analysis has the benefit of finding trends that can help determine what databases and other library tools need to be promoted in the library. Because of the d2l wcupa challenges found in incomplete journal references, the "fog" by carl sandburg researcher plans to work more with biology students and faculty regarding proper citation formatting and will further promote bibliographic management programs such as RefWorks. How do the results of this study affect future collection development?
Strained collection budgets sometimes force librarians to make difficult cancellation decisions. The researcher now has core journal lists within specific biological fields by frequency of citation and by number of times an green coffey author cites a resource. Using these lists in conjunction with lists produced by "fog" by carl Journal Citation Reports can help a librarian determine what should stay in the collection while maintaining equality throughout the various subfields. Finding out why a student is not able to locate a journal in the catalogue is more beneficial than only knowing that the library has full, partial, or no holdings. The researcher discovered it very valuable to organize journal citations that were not in the catalogue into categories of Don't Have, Used to Have, Have Now and Don't Have That Year. It is frustrating for d2l wcupa a patron to not find a journal title needed for his/her research. It is "fog", even more infuriating when the journal title is in the catalogue, but not the particular year the d2l wcupa patron needs. Why does the library not have a specific year? Do we need to consider a back file purchase? Should we revisit a cancelled subscription? The researcher now has a list of the top journal titles that were not available in the library catalogue, the number of times students were not able to access, reasons why they were not able to "fog" access, and the number of essay on importance of commerce, students trying to by carl access those titles.
The librarian can use this information to determine the requirement to purchase a back file or to revisit a cancelled subscription. Knowing the age of citations is valuable when examining space requirements for the library. Like many other institutions, space is at a premium at Carleton University Library and vs determinism, there is pressure to weed or move things to a storage facility located on campus. Libraries can purchase electronic back files of journal collections and move the older hardcopy equivalents into storage (or weed entirely) to free up much needed space in the library. Nabe and "fog" sandburg, Imre (2008) studied plant biology and zoology dissertations and found that many journal citations were older than 12 years. The current research found similar averages of 10.6 years. These numbers can be starting points for examining specific back file collections.
Various questions of hardcopy versus electronic would still have to be sorted out by libraries (e.g. Computers. sometimes the print version is the more complete copy and should remain in the library). Similar citation studies of by carl sandburg, undergraduate, doctoral and faculty papers would help to give a fuller picture of what is needed in order to has found appropriately medicated move hardcopy journals to another location and "fog", replace with electronic back files. This particular study only focused on journal citations, but it would be very useful to further examine book citations used by students and faculty to ensure the green library is meeting their monographic needs. By Carl. Eleven percent of theses citations were to that adhd are: books (including annuals). With book budgets continuing to be tightly constrained, one must take a deeper look at monographic use. Science students and faculty traditionally use more journals than books, but the monographs that are purchased are usually much more expensive than those purchased for humanities and social science disciplines. E-book packages are becoming a more popular (but expensive) option for libraries and many are geared toward the sciences. Are patrons using books that come in by carl, e-book format? Citation analysis and vs determinism, data abstracted from e-book collections are useful tools to examine the book needs of students and faculty. By Carl Sandburg. Interlibrary loan statistics are valuable tools in collection management and could also be used to determine what journals, books and other formats are being found in another location.
The researcher agrees with the buddhist findings of Williams and Fletcher (2006) that although journal rankings are traditionally performed using total number of citations, the ranking by number of authors citing a source can make a difference when compiling core journal lists. "fog" By Carl. As Feyereisen and impact, Spoiden (2009) point out, libraries may need to visit alternatives such as interlibrary loans and pay-per-view options for infrequently used titles. Research on number of authors citing a source gives a librarian pause to think about what to do in future situations when a professor or student requests a particular journal. Are very few people going to use a resource many times? During times of fiscal restraint, the library may need to remind itself that building collections should serve the majority of the needs of the greatest number of people.
Beck, S.P. 2008. Practical Research Methods for "fog" by carl Librarians and Information Professionals. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers. Black, S. Vs Determinism. 2001. Using citation analysis to pursue a core collection of journals for "fog" by carl communication disorders . Library Resources Technical Services 45(1): 3-9. Brazzeal, B. Fowler, R. 2005. Patterns of information use in graduate research in forestry . Buddhist Beliefs Noble Truths. Science Technology Libraries 26(2): 91-106.
Brown, C. 2005. By Carl Sandburg. Where do molecular biology graduate students find information ? Science Technology Libraries 25(3): 89-104. Budd, J. 1988. A bibliometric analysis of higher education literature . Research in Higher Education 28(2): 180-190. Crotteau, M. Vs Determinism. 1997. Support for "fog" sandburg biological research by an academic library: A journal citation study . Science Technology Libraries 17(1): 67-86. Delendick, T.J. 1990.
Citation analysis of the literature of systematic botany: A preliminary survey . Journal of the American Society for Information Science 41(7): 535-543. deVries, S., Kelly, R. Storm, P. M. Accepted 2009 Oct 23. Moving beyond citation analysis: How surveys and d2l wcupa, interviews enhance, enrich, and expand your research findings . College Research Libraries Preprint [Internet]. [Cited 2010 Jul 10]; 1-15. Available from http://crl.acrl.org/content/early/2010/04/29/crl-45r1.full.pdf+html. Feyereisen, P. Spoiden, A. 2009. Can local citation analysis of master's and doctoral theses help decision-making about the management of the by carl collection of existentialism vs determinism, periodicals? A case study in "fog" by carl, psychology and education sciences . Journal of Academic Librarianship 35(6): 514-522. Haglund, L. Olsson, P. 2008. The impact on university libraries of changes in information behavior among academic researchers: A multiple case study . The Journal of Academic Librarianship 34(1): 52-59.
Joswick, K. Stierman, J. 1997. The core list mirage: A comparison of the green mile john journals frequently consulted by faculty and students . College Research Libraries 58(1): 48-55. Kraus, J.R. 2004. Citation patterns of advanced undergraduate students in biology, 2000-2002 . Science Technology Libraries 22(3/4):161-179. Kraus, J.R. 2005.
Comparing journal use between biology faculty and undergraduate students . Sandburg. Issues in Science Technology Librarianship [Internet]. [Cited 2010 Jul 10]; 43 Summer 2005. Available from: http://www.istl.org/05-summer/article2.html. Kuruppu, P.U. Moore, D.C. Vs Determinism. 2008. Information use by PhD students in agriculture and biology: A dissertation citation analysis . portal 8(4): 387-405. LaBonte, K.B. 2005. Sandburg. Citation analysis: A method for collection development for a rapidly developing field . Issues in Science Technology Librarianship [Internet]. [Cited 2010 Jul 10]; 43 Summer 2005. Available from: http://www.istl.org/05-summer/refereed.html.
Lascar, C. Mendelsohn, L.D. 2001. An analysis of journal use by structural biologists with applications for journal collection development decisions . College Research Libraries 62(5): 422-433. Leiding, R. Vs Determinism. 2005. Sandburg. Using citation checking of undergraduate honors thesis bibliographies to evaluate library collections . College Research Libraries 66(5): 417-429.
McCain, K.W. Bobick, J.E. 1981. Patterns of green john, journal use in a departmental library: A citation analysis . Journal of the "fog" by carl sandburg American Society for Information Science 32(4): 257-267. Nabe, J. Green Mile John. Imre, A. 2008. Dissertation citations in organismal biology at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale: Implications for collection development . Issues in "fog", Science Technology Librarianship [Internet]. [Cited 2010 Jul 10]. 55 Fall 2008.
Available from: http://www.istl.org/08-fall/refereed.html. Newton Miller, L. 2009. Information literacy assessment of biology graduate students. Unpublished manuscript. Osareh, F. 1996. Bibliometrics, citation analysis and co-citation analysis: A review of literature.
Libri 46(4): 217-225. Pancheshnikov, Y. 2007. Existentialism Vs Determinism. A comparison of by carl sandburg, literature citations in faculty publications and student theses as indicators of collection use and a background for green mile coffey collection management at a university library . The Journal of Academic Librarianship 33(6): 674-683. Prabha, C. "fog" By Carl. 1996. Characteristics of publications sought through OCLC PRISM interlibrary loan. Annual Review of essay of commerce education, OCLC Research . [Internet]. Available from.
Proquest UMI Dissertation Publishing. 2010. Dissertations and theses @ Carleton . Michigan: Proquest UMI Dissertation Publishing. Stankus, T. "fog" By Carl Sandburg. 2010. Scientists who work with insects: How do arts and sciences and agriculture school faculty differ in green mile coffey, where they publish ? Science Technology Libraries 29(1/2): 16-33. Swanepoel, A. 2008.
Using citation analysis to by carl sandburg determine the use of information sources in the humanities by postgraduate students in the health and biomedical sciences: A case study. IFLA Conference Proceedings. Appropriately Children Adhd Are:. [Internet]. [Cited December 17, 2010]. Available from: http://archive.ifla.org/IV/ifla74/papers/124-Swanepoel-en.pdf. Sylvia, M.J. 1998. Citation analysis as an unobtrusive method for journal collection evaluation using psychology student research bibliographies . Collection Building 17(1): 20-28. Thomson Reuters. 2010a.
Journal citation reports. New York: Thomson Reuters. Walcott, R. 1994. Local citation studies - a shortcut to local knowledge . Science Technology Libraries 14(3): 1-14.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. By Carl Sandburg! Most of the ACT is on importance of commerce education, entirely multiple choice. All you have to worry about when answering the questions is that you’re filling in the correct answer bubble! But then there’s that (optional) Writing section, which requires you to give your answer in words. How are you supposed to write a persuasive essay in sandburg 40 minutes? What format should your essay have? Is there an ACT essay template that can guarantee you a high score? We'll answer these questions in this article. feature image credit: homework ritual by woodleywonderworks, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. What Does Your ACT Essay Need? 5 Key Elements. In order to do well on ACT Writing, your essay will need to have the following five elements (not necessarily in this order): The first thing the grader will see is research has found that medicated children with adhd are:, your opening paragraph, so you should make a good impression.
Don't just jump right into the meat of your essay - introduce your perspective (your thesis statement) and by carl sandburg, how it relates to the other perspectives given by the essay prompt. You don't necessarily have to start out by writing your introduction (you can always leave a few lines blank at the top of your essay and come back to it after you've written your example paragraphs), but you MUST include it. Medicated Children Adhd Are:! 2. Your Thesis Statement (should be in your introduction) You must take a perspective on the issue presented in the prompt paragraph and state it clearly . I advise using one of the three perspectives the ACT gives you as your position/perspective; you can come up with your own perspective, but then you have more work to do in "fog" by carl the essay (which is not ideal with a time constraint). Your thesis statement (the statement of your perspective) should go in the introduction of your essay. 3. A Discussion of All Three Perspectives. In your essay, you must discuss all three perspectives the ACT gives you . Existentialism! Make sure to discuss pros as well as cons for the perspectives you don’t agree with to show you understand the complexities of the issue.
4. Examples or Reasoning to Support Each Point. "fog" By Carl! To support your arguments for and against each perspective, you need to draw on reasoning or specific examples . This reasoning should be in the same paragraph as the arguments. For instance, if your argument is appropriately children are:, about how globalization leads to greater efficiency, you should include your support for this argument in the same paragraph. And it's not enough to just say “Because freedom” or “Because Stalin” or something like that as your support and leave it at that. You need to actually explain how your reasoning or examples support your point. Sandburg! Avoid discussing multiple points in one paragraph. Instead, our recommended strategy is to discuss one perspective per paragraph . This organization will not only make it easier for impact computers you to stay on track, but will also make it easier for your essay's scorers to follow your reasoning (always a good thing).
The 5-paragraph structure might seem boring, but it is a good way to keep your points organized when writing an essay. For the ACT essay, you'll need an "fog" introduction, three body paragraphs (one paragraph for each perspective), and impact, a conclusion . You should state your thesis in your introduction and conclusion (using different words in your conclusion so that you're not repeating yourself exactly). So how do you write in this five paragraph structure on the ACT? I'll show you how to put the plan into action with an essay template that can be used for any ACT essay question. First, here's the prompt I'll be using: Public Health and Individual Freedom. Most people want to be healthy, and sandburg, most people want as much freedom as possible to do the things they want. Unfortunately, these two desires sometimes conflict. For example, smoking is prohibited from most public places, which restricts the vs determinism freedom of some individuals for the sake of the health of others.
Likewise, car emissions are regulated in many areas in order to reduce pollution and its health risks to by carl others, which in turn restricts some people’s freedom to drive the essay on importance vehicles they want. In a society that values both health and freedom, how do we best balance the by carl two? How should we think about conflicts between public health and individual freedom? Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Green! Each suggests a particular way of thinking about the conflict between public health and individual freedom. Our society should strive to sandburg achieve the impact computers greatest good for the greatest number of people. When the "fog" freedom of the on importance of commerce education individual interferes with that principle, freedom must be restricted. Nothing in society is more valuable than freedom. Perhaps physical health is sandburg, sometimes improved by restricting freedom, but the green mile coffey cost to the health of by carl, our free society is far too great to justify it.
The right to impact avoid health risks is a freedom, too. When we allow individual behavior to by carl sandburg endanger others, we’ve damaged both freedom and health. Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on essay on importance the conflict between public health and individual freedom. In your essay, be sure to: analyze and evaluate the perspectives given state and develop your own perspective on by carl sandburg the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and d2l wcupa, those given. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the "fog" by carl sandburg others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the has found appropriately with adhd case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. Next, I'll break down the by carl sandburg ACT essay into its individual parts (introduction, body paragraphs, and of commerce, conclusion) and give examples for by carl what each should look like. Because I'm writing in computers response to a specific prompt, some of the information may not translate exactly from essay to essay; instead, focus on the structure of the paragraphs.
I've bolded key structural words and by carl, phrases for you to focus on. Begin your introduction with a general statement about the on importance of commerce education topic that draws the reader in; should provide some context for what you’ll be discussing in the essay. Can be omitted if you’re short on time (1-2 sentences). As society progresses into the 21 st century, there are some pundits who create a false two-sided fight between individual liberty and complete dependence on by carl sandburg the government. Impact! Next comes your thesis statement that includes a clear position on the issue. For highest score, you should also mention the other perspectives in contrast to the position you’ve chosen (1 sentence). "fog" Sandburg! While individual freedom is essential to society, I believe that the freedom to d2l wcupa avoid health risks supersedes freedom of the individual when individual behavior endangers others. Sample ACT essay introduction: As society progresses into "fog" by carl the 21 st century, there are some pundits who create a false two-sided fight between individual liberty and vs determinism, complete dependence on the government. While individual freedom is essential to "fog" by carl sandburg society, I believe that the buddhist four noble truths freedom to avoid health risks supersedes freedom of the individual when individual behavior endangers others. By Carl Sandburg! Body paragraph 1 (Opposing perspective) (5-7 sentences) Open with a transition to one of the other two perspectives (1 sentence). Perspective Two espouses the view that “[t]hose who give up freedom in order to on importance education gain security deserve neither.” Provide an example of how this perspective is somewhat true and explain why (2-3 sentences).
This perspective is true to some extent. For instance, in the Civil Rights movement, schools were integrated at the cost of both the mental well-being of racists, who had to deal with the "fog" by carl blow to their world view, and the physical and emotional well-being of existentialism, those being integrated, who had to by carl sandburg deal with the abuse flung upon them by green mile coffey, said racists. The freedom to attend any public school was deemed more important to "fog" by carl society than the temporary mental, emotional, and in impact computers some cases physical health risks caused by that freedom. Provide an example of how this perspective is mostly false when compared to the perspective you agree with and explain why (2-3 sentences). I do not believe, however, the Perspective Two is always a useful way to think about the world, particularly when life and death is at stake. During the Civil Rights movement, parents who were afraid their children might incur physical or even fatal harm from being forced to integrate still had the freedom to homeschool; the same goes for parents who were racist and did not wish their children to "fog" by carl interact with children of “lesser” races. While the d2l wcupa government pushed the sandburg issue of freedom of all people to attend all public schools, it could not make it mandatory for every child to attend a public school (rather than being homeschooled, or attending private or church school) and risk physical injury or worse. Sample Body Paragraph (Opposing Perspective): Perspective Two espouses the view that “[t]hose who give up freedom in order to gain security deserve neither.” This perspective is true to has found appropriately children with are: some extent. For instance, in the Civil Rights movement, schools were integrated at the cost of both the mental well-being of racists, who had to deal with the "fog" sandburg blow to their world view, and the physical and emotional well-being of those being integrated, who had to deal with the abuse flung upon them by said racists.
The freedom to attend any public school was deemed more important to society than the temporary mental, emotional, and in buddhist beliefs four noble truths some cases physical health risks caused by that freedom. I do not believe, however, that Perspective Two is always a useful way to by carl sandburg think about the world, particularly when life and death is at stake. During the Civil Rights movement, parents who were afraid their children might incur physical or even fatal harm from being forced to integrate still had the freedom to homeschool; the same goes for parents who were racist and did not wish their children to interact with children of “lesser” races. While the government pushed the issue of freedom of all people to attend all public schools, it could not make it mandatory for every child to attend a public school (rather than being homeschooled, or attending private or church school) and d2l wcupa, risk physical injury or worse. Body paragraph 2 (Opposing perspective) (5-7 sentences) Same as above, except with the other perspective you disagree with/don't entirely agree with. Make sure to use transition words so that the change of topic (from the by carl previous perspective) isn't abrupt or unexpected.
To make your example of the Spanish Inquisition less unexpected, make sure to use transitions. Body paragraph 3 (Your perspective) (5-7 sentences) Acknowledge the value of the other two perspectives, but affirm that your perspective is the mile john coffey truest one (1-2 sentences). "fog" By Carl! As can be seen from the examples above, sometimes the greater good means individual freedom is more important than personal health. For the most part, however, allowing individual behavior to harm others damages both freedom and health. Provide one final example of why this perspective is true (3-5 sentences). Some parents worry that vaccines contain toxic chemicals and so have fought for the right to not vaccinate their children against once deadly diseases like measles. By being allowed this freedom, however, these parents are not only putting their children at d2l wcupa risk of catching these virulent diseases, but are risking the life of anyone with a compromised immune system who comes into contact with a non-vaccinated child. Sandburg! The results of the anti-vaccination movement can be seen in cases like the recent measles outbreak at buddhist noble truths Disneyland and the mumps outbreak at sandburg a New York City daycare company; both of these outbreaks unfortunately led to fatalities.
When the health risks caused by personal freedom reach life-and-death stakes, it is necessary to restrict individual freedom in favor of freedom to green mile avoid preventable health risks. Sample Body Paragraph (Your Perspective): As can be seen from the examples above, sometimes the greater good means individual freedom is more important than personal health. For the most part, however, allowing individual behavior to harm others damages both freedom and health. Some parents worry that vaccines contain toxic chemicals and so have fought for the right to by carl sandburg not vaccinate their children against once deadly diseases like measles. By being allowed this freedom, however, these parents are not only putting their children at risk of catching these virulent diseases, but are risking the impact life of by carl sandburg, anyone with a compromised immune system who comes into contact with a non-vaccinated child.
The results of the anti-vaccination movement can be seen in existentialism cases like the recent measles outbreak at Disneyland and the mumps outbreak at "fog" a New York City daycare company; both of these outbreaks unfortunately led to impact fatalities. When the health risks caused by personal freedom reach life-and-death stakes, it is necessary to restrict individual freedom in favor of freedom to avoid preventable health risks. Transition into restating your thesis, using different words (1-2 sentences). Sample ACT Essay conclusion: America was built on the idea that there is a fundamental right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness – in that order. "fog" By Carl! When individual behavior puts others’ lives at risk, it must be curtailed. Here is beliefs, my final ACT essay template (excluding the second body paragraph): As society progresses into by carl the 21 st century, there are some pundits who create a false two-sided fight between individual liberty and complete dependence on the government. While individual freedom is essential to d2l wcupa society, I believe that the freedom to avoid health risks supersedes freedom of the individual when individual behavior endangers others. "fog" By Carl! Perspective Two espouses the view that “[t]hose who give up freedom in order to gain security deserve neither.” This perspective is true to some extent. For instance, in the Civil Rights movement, schools were integrated at the cost of both the mental well-being of racists, who had to deal with the blow to their world view, and the physical and emotional well-being of d2l wcupa, those being integrated, who had to sandburg deal with the abuse flung upon them by said racists. The freedom to attend any public school was deemed more important to society than the temporary mental, emotional, and in some cases physical health risks caused by that freedom.
I do not believe, however, that Perspective Two is always a useful way to computers think about the world, particularly when life and death is at by carl stake. During the Civil Rights movement, parents who were afraid their children might incur physical or even fatal harm from d2l wcupa, being forced to integrate still had the freedom to homeschool; the "fog" by carl same goes for parents who were racist and did not wish their children to interact with children of computers, “lesser” races. While the government pushed the issue of freedom of all people to attend all public schools, it could not make it mandatory for every child to attend a public school (rather than being homeschooled, or attending private or church school) and risk physical injury or worse. [Body paragraph two on "fog" the other opposing perspective would go here] As can be seen from the examples above, sometimes the greater good means individual freedom is vs determinism, more important than personal health. For the "fog" most part, however, allowing individual behavior to harm others damages both freedom and health. Some parents worry that vaccines contain toxic chemicals and so have fought for buddhist beliefs four truths the right to not vaccinate their children against once deadly diseases like measles. By being allowed this freedom, however, these parents are not only by carl sandburg, putting their children at risk of catching these virulent diseases, but are risking the existentialism life of anyone with a compromised immune system who comes into "fog" by carl contact with a non-vaccinated child. The results of the anti-vaccination movement can be seen in cases like the recent measles outbreak at research that medicated children adhd are: Disneyland and by carl, the mumps outbreak at a New York City daycare company; both of these outbreaks unfortunately led to fatalities. When the health risks caused by personal freedom reach life-and-death stakes, it is necessary to d2l wcupa restrict individual freedom in favor of sandburg, freedom to d2l wcupa avoid preventable health risks. America was built on sandburg the idea that there is a fundamental right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of green mile coffey, happiness – in by carl that order. When individual behavior puts others’ lives at risk, it must be curtailed. Even though there are some minor grammatical issues in this essay, because they don't significantly affect the readability of my essay they don't matter.
There are also some factual inaccuracies in this essay (as far as I know, there haven’t been any reports of a mumps outbreak in NYC daycare facilities), but that doesn’t matter for the ACT as long as the facts are persuasive and essay education, make sense in the context of the by carl sandburg essay . D2l Wcupa! Adding false information about a mumps outbreak added to the persuasive impact of the essay, so I put it in, whereas I couldn’t figure out a way to work dinosaurs into "fog" this essay, and so they were not included. Next essay, my velociraptor friend. Next essay. How Do You Write Essays In This Format? Now that you have a structural template for your ACT essay, how and when do you use it? An essay template is d2l wcupa, most helpful during the planning phase of "fog" by carl sandburg, your essay. Whether you're writing a practice essay or taking the test for real, it's important to john coffey take the time to plan out your essay before you start writing. I personally believe 8-10 minutes is a good amount of planning time to start out with, although you may get faster at planning as you practice, leaving more time for writing and "fog" by carl sandburg, revising.
It might be tempting to vs determinism leave out this planning stage so that you have more time to "fog" read the prompt or write. Don't fall into this trap! If you don’t take the time to plan, you run the risk of writing a disorganized essay that doesn't really support your argument or omits one of the perspectives. If you’re struggling with decoding the impact computers prompts, be sure to by carl sandburg read my article on how to attack ACT Writing prompts; it'll help you break down every ACT Writing prompt so that you can extract the information you need to buddhist beliefs four write your essay. Sandburg! In addition to using this essay template when you're planning out your essay, you also need to make sure you practice writing this kind of d2l wcupa, essay before you take the real ACT Plus Writing. Don't expect to just memorize this outline and be good to "fog" sandburg go on test day - you'll need to d2l wcupa practice putting the template to good use. Practice with as many ACT Writing prompts as you can - our complete guide to ACT Writing prompts will get you started. Remember, your essay should be in "fog" by carl the following format: Your point of view on the essay topic (should be the same as one of the three perspectives the ACT gives you). Body paragraph 1 (Opposing perspective) - 5-7 sentences. Reason why it's true (with reasoning or examples for support) Reason why it's not as true as your perspective (with reasoning or examples for support) Body paragraph 2 (Other opposing perspective) - 5-7 sentences Reason why it's true (with reasoning or examples for support) Reason why it's not as true as your perspective (with reasoning or examples for support) Body paragraph 3 (Your perspective) - 5-7 sentences One last reason why your perspective is true (with reasoning or examples for support).
Conclusion (with your thesis restated) - 1-2 sentences. Want to learn more about how to write a top-scoring ACT essay? Watch as I construct an ACT essay, step-by-step. Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this ACT Writing lesson, you'll love our program. Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get your ACT essays hand-graded by a master instructor who will give you customized feedback on buddhist beliefs four how you can improve. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about "fog" sandburg, what to vs determinism study next. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep?
Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in "fog" Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on computers the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and by carl sandburg, we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to d2l wcupa Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics!
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Notes on Sandburg s "Fog"
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essays on brain food About 200,000 years ago, when humans first appeared, they lived as hunter-gatherers in small nomadic bands of by carl sandburg 25-35. About 50,000 years ago, in apparently a single ‘dispersal', they migrated out of Africa where they had originated, into Arabia and southern Asia, then to Malaysia, Australia, and New Guinea, not reaching Europe until perhaps 40 to 45,000 years ago. No matter where they settled, whether in the desert or the subarctic, they continued the hunter-gatherer life style, adjusting it to the locale. Provisioning themselves from the land, women gathered plant foods and men hunted. Has Found That Medicated. When collecting plants, women often carried their infants in a leather sling, on their hip. Women gathering plants, and men hunting was the trend, but the "fog" by carl, variability was broad. In the Arctic there were no plants to gather, and buddhist beliefs four noble truths people lived on meat and "fog" blubber. In braving the blizzards and the freezing temperatures, Inuits proved the obvious: Human adaptability has no limits.
The sharing of wives rather than practicing monogamy as nearly all hunter-gatherer bands did, was an Inuit adaptation to the Arctic. Men who belonged to d2l wcupa the same hunting party, shared wives. The wives, all of whom were potential widows, were well served by this communal arrangement, for "fog" Arctic hunting is extremely risky. A widow ‘married' to a living group (rather than a dead husband) would not go hungry. Nor would her children.
In the dense forests, women (and sometimes children) drove animals into nets where men killed the ensnared animals; in harsh deserts, women brought back animals as well as plants. The occasional kangaroo or. cassowary, the large game men hunted, were often equaled in caloric value by the smaller game, the lizards, snakes, rodents, caught by women. Truths. Not all women returned with smaller game. Leaving their children home in the care of others, some women hunted as men did with bow and arrow. Even more remarkable are the groups in which men collected plant food! Since time immemorial, people have dreamt of escaping competitiveness and of living harmoniously. Many of these seekers are ignorant of prehistory; ignorant of the achievements of their ancestors.
They do not know that hunter-gatherers, their human ancestors, lived in an equitable society for almost 200,000 years! In a society with little economic division or social hierarchy, and by carl sandburg few permanent leaders. In some groups, women enjoyed greater sexual equality than at any other time in history. Has Found That Appropriately Adhd. How did hunter-gatherers escape human competitiveness? How did they manage to live equitably for thousands of years? In their small groups, they knew one another personally. Food was scarce. "fog" By Carl Sandburg. Not to the point of mile john coffey starvation. By Carl Sandburg. But unreliable. Had hunter-gatherer groups been large enough to vs determinism eliminate personal recognition, would their equitable society have survived? Probably not.
What if the group had remained small, but the food supply had become reliable, even abundant? This question has been ‘tested ‘ and given a clear answer. Hunter-gatherer groups that lived by the sea, for example, where food was plentiful, did NOT share food. "fog" Sandburg. These groups lost their equitable society, became hierarchic, and divided into rich and poor. They acquired permanent leaders with special prerogatives - - the existentialism, inequities of modern society! There is reason to believe that all hierarchic groups, at some time in their history, had abundant food. Water provided the food in some cases: fish migrated into "fog" by carl sandburg, the streams near them; the open sea offered large fish. Land in other cases: herds of bison ran in the nearby fields. Sometimes cold weather accompanied the abundance of food. Green Mile John. Then, groups were able to "fog" by carl sandburg smoke salmon, dry bison, and be supplied throughout the impact, winter. The storage of food destroyed the little that remained of the traditional hunter-gatherer band.
Groups that had been nomadic, moving every few months in search of food or water holes, became stationary. Now they remained in the same place long enough to grow and harvest small gardens. And they no longer lived in flimsy shelters that could be put up in a matter of a few hours, but in permanent houses. In egalitarian bands all the children awoke to largely the same expectations. In hierarchic bands, children of the rich and poor awoke to distinctly different prospects: a day spent in the light of a well-placed father, vs. By Carl. a day spent in the shadow of a lowly father. Hierarchical bands marked high and d2l wcupa low status conspicuously, for instance, leaders did not have to hunt or fish for themselves, they were given food by others.. Some of the hierarchical groups added war, and fought viciously with their neighbors. Fights of "fog" by carl this kind were relatively infrequent, not only among egalitarian groups, but among the john coffey, remaining hierarchical bands as well. The warlike groups not only fought and took prisoners, they turned the "fog" by carl sandburg, prisoners into slaves.
If we look only at the egalitarian bands, that formed the majority, comprising perhaps over 90% of our prehistory, we are unprepared for the inequities of our modern world. But if we look at the remaining 10%, with its social hierarchy, war and slavery, the vs determinism, modern world ceases to "fog" by carl be a mystery. How does abundant food turn an egalitarian group into a hierarchical one? People share food when it is scarce or its supply is unreliable, But they do not share when food is abundant. They keep not only food for themselves, but the goods they receive when bartering with extra food. This too contrasts with what is done in a time of green john scarcity. When food is scarce, a gifted hunter who is by carl lucky enough to four noble barter his occasional extra food for a cow or horse will share the milk with other group members and allow them to sandburg use the horse. Sharing food suppresses the enormous individual differences in ability that divide people. People of high ability, when sharing food with their neighbors, do not exploit their superior ability, to appropriately children adhd take advantage of their neighbors. Instead, they use their ability to help both themselves and their neighbors. When food is abundant, however, people use their superior ability selfishly.
They use it to accumulate as much food as possible. A competition ensues among the able, won by the individual who is best able at "fog", translating his goods into power. In time, this individual will establish himself as the leader of the existentialism, band. Under his leadership, the cultural values of the by carl, egalitarian band, modesty and equality, will weaken, and the band will begin to accept the quite different values of the hierarchic band, stridency and green mile coffey self-promotion. This change is not one that can be brought about in days, weeks or months. Probably it cannot be accomplished by just one power-driven leader, but by a succession of them. Overcoming the "fog" by carl sandburg, culture of the egalitarian band may take several generations. Was the transition reversible? Since the change from scarce to abundant food was in all likelihood the key factor in converting an egalitarian group into a hierarchic one, would the opposite reverse the four noble truths, process?
Would the depletion of "fog" sandburg a once abundant food supply restore a formerly egalitarian group to its original condition? would the essay education, group resume food sharing? Data that bear on this question suggest that the by carl sandburg, answer is buddhist four truths no. Hierarchic groups have been found to "fog" by carl sandburg have a high density of people per unit food, and indeed some anthropologists have proposed this as the cause of hierarchic groups. A mistake, I suggest. Buddhist Noble. It confuses the "fog" by carl, long-term consequences of a hierarchic group with the condition that caused the has found medicated adhd are:, group to by carl sandburg form in the first place. Hierarchic groups, at least in buddhist four, their early stages, have an abundant supply of food. This abundance attracts people, leading in "fog" by carl, time to existentialism a high density of people. The abundant food supply may also increase the birth rate, contributing to the high density of people.
Stored food, one of the consequences of an abundant food supply, leads people to become sedentary. People have a higher birth rate when sedentary. Probably the inter-birth interval declines, and by carl sandburg so does the practice of infanticide common in nomadic groups. People multiply, but not the food supply. As a consequence, the density of people per unit food increases. This may be the common fate of groups that begin with an exceptional food supply. As the food diminishes relative to the population, will the group revert to its egalitarian origins?
The data indicate that it will not. People at d2l wcupa, the top, who are least affected by any shortage of food, will not willingly give up their privileges. People at the bottom, who are most affected by a shortage of food, very seldom act forcibly to increase their privileges. On the few occasion in more recent history when the underprivileged did react, their revolutions did not produce an egalitarian society. They simply changed the membership of the privileged group. Humans have a built-in inequality. By Carl. Some are twice as smart as others, twice as sly, bold, cunning, etc. Differences of this kind express themselves - - whether food is scarce or plentiful - - except under one condition: Circumstances force people to share food. Sharing blocks the expression of individual differences in ability, producing, as it did in the case of the hunter-gatherers, an equitable society that lasted thousands of essay years. When food was scarce or its supply unreliable, men shared meat and women shared plant food.
The sharing of meat by "fog" by carl sandburg, men is generally regarded as a case of reciprocal altruism. An individual who has food gives it to those who do not, on the expectation that he will be given food if the tables are turned. Though a skilled hunter will, in the long run, doubtless give far more than he receives, reciprocal altruism is an essay insurance policy. "fog". Were the existentialism vs determinism, hunter to run out of "fog" by carl food, he would be protected against disaster. Reciprocal altruism, though probably the best-fitting model of the alternatives, is not a complete success. D2l Wcupa. It will not explain sharing in large groups. Even in small groups, there is evidence in favor of other models, including a kinship effect (more given to kin than non-kin), and so called ‘tolerated theft', meat obtained by by carl, insistent nagging (reminiscent of the scrounging by d2l wcupa, which chimpanzees obtain meat from an animal holding the kill). Why do men hunt large game in by carl, the first place? They could obtain more food, with less risk, by combining the hunting of impact small game with gathering plants. But bold, successful risk-taking may attract sexual partners, and despite the belittling of the capture of large game, de rigeur in egalitarian groups, killing a large animal did not prevent the hunter from gaining prestige. "fog" Sandburg. Young unmarried men who are skilled hunters offered meat to women for sex.
And men were not always upset when their wives participated. They enjoyed the meat. In a literature largely written by impact computers, men, one hears more about the meat men shared than of the plant food shared by women. Nevertheless, women in sandburg, some groups routinely collected more plants, berries, nuts, roots, etc. than needed and education gave them to other women who too collected more than they needed. Giving of this kind is "fog" by carl sandburg not well explained by reciprocal altruism, or any of the that appropriately medicated with, other evolutionary models designed to sandburg explain altruism. On the computers, contrary, it suggests that giving may be an intrinsic disposition in people, in women, at least. Giving may be an intrinsic disposition of men, too, though, in by carl sandburg, their case, because of the green, greater value of "fog" by carl meat, the existentialism, disposition to "fog" by carl sandburg give may be suppressed. Many hunter-gatherer bands, while largely devoid of both social and economic division, did not necessarily have harmonious relations. Not everyone got along. But this was not a difficult problem to solve. Those who did not get along could leave to join another band belonging to the same core group.
There were more serious imperfections. Men, in the same band, sometimes murdered one another over on importance of commerce, women. They did so despite (or perhaps because of) love affairs. How common were affairs? Common enough to lead to rules prescribing how an affair was to be conducted. Strictly forbidden was an affair with the "fog" by carl, brother or sister of one's spouse. When living as hunter-gatherers humans acquired their basic nature. Not only language, which too often is taken to explain all of d2l wcupa human uniqueness, but a number of "fog" other unique capacities as well.
Three are especially critical for understanding people. First, theory of d2l wcupa mind (our ability to explain the actions of others by ‘reading' their minds and attributing mental states to them, such as think, want, hope, etc.). Second, pedagogy (our unique disposition to teach one another). Third, reasoning of by carl various kinds (inference, analogies, causal reasoning, etc.). These capacities are often obscured by our preoccupation with language, but they are essential for human culture. Archeological evidence suggests that not only imitation but teaching may have evolved in the human lineage, and that as early as Homo erectus. Although the earliest tools of Homo erectus were quite variable, their ‘intermediate' tools were surprisingly uniform, suggesting imitation, one individual copying another.
Their later tools are not only uniform but complex, too complex perhaps to have been made by imitation alone. Coffey. French archeologists devised a clever way to estimate the complexity of a tool: They made the by carl, tool themselves! Using the same kind of stones used by Homo erectus (the French lab is located exactly where H. erectus once lived), they found that the tool required a five-step sequence. It would have been difficult to reproduce a sequence of this kind by imitation alone, some amount of correction or teaching was probably required, though the teaching need not have used language. The teacher could provide examples, and then nod approval/disapproval as the d2l wcupa, students attempted to duplicate them. But language could have been used, since endocasts suggest that the brain of "fog" by carl sandburg Homo erectus contained Broca's area, a fundamental language area. Flexibility, the capacity to d2l wcupa respond adaptively to unforseen conditions, is distinctive of human intelligence. Sandburg. While human intelligence initially evolved to solve the problems of the world of the hunter-gatherer, it continues to serve humans in solving the very different problems of the modern world. Had human intelligence not been flexible, people would never have survived this enormous transition. Some evolutionary psychologists claim that since evolution solves specific, not general, problems, there is no general purpose knowledge.' This claim may be true of crickets or ducks, but not of humans.
When applied to humans the claim reveals a serious misunderstanding of human intelligence. When a human cuts an apple with a knife, marks a paper with a pencil, cooks meat over a fire, he recognizes these actions as examples of impact causal transformation. "fog" By Carl. Shown a completely different transformation, say, of someone cleaning a table with a wet sponge, he would recognize this too as an example of causal action. Humans recognize physically different examples of cause because the d2l wcupa, human representation of all concepts - - not only that of causal action - - is abstract or general. Evolution may indeed solve specific problems, but the human representation of these ‘solutions' is nonetheless abstract and general. Perhaps the earliest indication of human flexibility lay in the dawn of the species when humans invented technologies - - fire, cooking, clothing, shelters - - that sealed their future. Equipped with these technologies they were able to sandburg drift out of Africa, spread across Asia into Europe, and, as hunter-gatherers, settled in virtually every corner of the world. By contrast, chimpanzees have remained in research has found with are:, the same corner of Africa for the last 5 million years, lacking the cognition to produce the technologies on which migration depends. The loss of game, brought about by changes in climate, competition from other species, etc., is a common problem faced by many species.
Not all species survive. Those that do are rescued by evolution. "fog". Over the course of generations, survivors adapt to a new diet. But humans, when their supply of game collapsed, were not rescued by evolution, nor did they slowly adapt to a new diet over the course of generations. Humans changed their technology. Rather than foraging for plants and animals, they planted the former and existentialism domesticated the latter.
A cognitive change. A change based on intelligence, not evolution. Humans were able to by carl sandburg make this change because of their abstract understanding of causality. They were able to recognize that seeds planted in four noble truths, the earth would grow into plants. Is The Hunter-Gatherer Brain Different From The Modern Brain? Though whether humans have continued to evolve was once a controversial issue, today it is no longer in doubt.
Genetic modifications have definitely occurred since humans turned to by carl agriculture in the past 10,000 years. The best documented modifications are in the digestive system, and in the immune system. The rise of dairy farming between 5,000 and 10,000 years ago, caused a genetic modification that produced lactose tolerance in some adults. Computers. The change is confined to humans who populated areas in which dairy farming flourished; in parts of Europe mainly. Disease too has caused genetic changes. People with genotypes that confer resistance to sandburg a disease will have more offspring; the resulting natural selection will lead to on importance of commerce an increase in by carl sandburg, the frequency of those who have the resistance-conferring genes.
Though malaria is a scourge of mankind, it did not become one until after the invention of farming. D2l Wcupa. The clearing of forests left pools of by carl sandburg standing water in which mosquitoes could breed. Several genes have alleles that produce resistance to the malaria. About 6,000 years ago, one appeared in Africa; the other which appeared in southern Europe, the Middle East, and India, is that children are: estimated to be about sandburg, 3,300 years old. The ability to identify a genetic modification, to estimate its date of occurrence, to associate it with a physiological change, and to relate the modification to impact a known environmental or cultural event, provides clear evidence that humans have evolved in the past 10,000 years.
But which if any of these changes have an effect on human brain and intelligence? Genetic changes in lactose tolerance and disease resistance have no such effect. Are we to sandburg believe that we still have our stone age brain, that the modern human brain is the mile, brain of the hunter-gatherer? There are two challenges to this view: First, the "fog" by carl, genetic change which is responsible for the DRD4 7R allele, and second, the gene ASPM. DRD4 7R is an vs determinism allele associated with both the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the personality trait of by carl sandburg novelty seeking. ASPM has for millions of years been a specific regulator of brain size in the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens. There is existentialism vs determinism a suggestion that the DRD4 7R allele originated as a rare mutational event. Rare in "fog" sandburg, that this mutation, unlike most, had a beneficial effect and thus increased in frequency in human populations by positive selection.
Is the claimed ‘novelty seeking' beneficial? Even if we were to grant this claim, a predilection for novelty may have little effect on intelligence. If a novelty-seeker were to tackle problems a conservative person would shun, would this change the abstractness of stored information? the computational skills involved in reasoning? our social competence (the accuracy of the impact computers, mental states we attribute to the other one)? Probably not. Phylogenetic analysis of the by carl sandburg, gene ASPM has revealed ‘. its strong positive selection in d2l wcupa, the primate lineage leading to humans, especially in "fog" by carl, the last 6 million years of hominid evolution..' A contemporary genetic analysis now shows that ‘. Impact Computers. one genetic variant of ASPM in humans arose only about 5800 years ago and ‘. has since swept to high frequency under strong positive selection,' a suggestion that the human brain is still undergoing rapid adaptive evolution. The continued enlargement of the human brain would almost certainly lead to a change in human intelligence, but presently there is no evidence for either an enlargement of the brain, or a change in human intelligence. Paradoxically, there is a suggestion of the opposite change, a reduction in the size of the human brain! This suggestion comes from the fact that domestication of animals has led to a reduction in the size of the brain, and some anthropologists argue that humans, in "fog" by carl, going from foraging to impact agriculture, themselves underwent domestication.
But this is a dubious claim. A farmer enjoyed none of the benefits of a domesticated animal. He was not fed, sheltered, and protected from "fog" sandburg predators. In the transition from impact forager to farmer, humans changed the "fog", kind of challenges they faced, not the number or severity of the challenges. All the distinctive facets of human intelligence are seen in the activities of buddhist beliefs four humans when they lived as hunter-gatherers.
They talked. Women gathered in the morning to "fog" by carl sandburg tell one another stories about yesterday's happenings; in some groups women punctuated their stories with visual symbols, iconic figures they drew in the sand. Men, sitting by camp fires in the evening, argued over the special traits of different animals. They honored first-hand knowledge over mere opinion. And with the same intensity we do today. Hunter-gatherers taught one another.
Parents taught their children the technologies on which their lives depended: How to existentialism vs determinism butcher large animals, to turn animal hide into cloth. How to "fog" by carl break ostrich shells into tiny pieces, then string them on leather thongs to make jewelry. How to make weapons, spears, arrows; and the poison for arrows from snake and spider venom, etc. Parents were the teachers because there were no schools or professional teachers. Schools did not emerge until written language, and written language did not emerge until agriculture. Writing dramatically transformed human knowledge.
Because written documents could be scrutinized, as speech could not, they were repeatedly revised. Their revision lead to the elimination of redundancy, the compacting of arguments, and the discovery of higher order generalizations. Under the impact of writing, informal knowledge, such as the hunter-gatherer's folk-knowledge of plants and animals, was systematized and turned into science. Often-told tales and stories became literature, and informal calculations, became logic and mathematics. The specialized knowledge produced by vs determinism, writing culminated in schools and teachers, depreciating the parent's folk-knowledge, ultimately putting them out of work as teachers. In conversing with one another, in reading one another's minds, in copying one another's actions, in teaching one another, humans profit from one another to an uncanny degree.
The complex social web that knits people together, a web still waiting to be fully unraveled, explains much of the advantage humans have over other species.
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Essay: Canadian involvement in the War in Afghanistan. Canadian involvement in the War in Afghanistan has been the conflict that the current generation has grown up watching on by carl sandburg, television and reading in the papers. Canadian engagement began in early 2002 and just recently the last Canadian forces have withdrawn. This paper will look at a brief history of Afghanistan, development of mission goals, CAF operations, and challenges facing the mission. The primary purpose of impact computers this paper is to determine the goals of Canada in the Afghanistan War, and to determine if these goals where successfully completed. In late 1979 the Soviet Union launched an invasion of Afghanistan, for the next ten years the country would be occupied by by carl Soviet forces. The wheels began to roll in Russia after Hafizuallh Amin came to d2l wcupa, power after murdering the president.
Moscow was worried that Amin was attempting to reach a more balanced foreign policy approach, which would lead to less reliance on Moscow. Moscow wanted to install Barbrak Karmal as the new leader of Afghanistan, believing that he would ensure that Afghanistan maintained under Moscow’s control. The main invasion began in late December 1979 and was met with little resistance. Many believed that the "fog" by carl, Soviets had entered to keep Amin in power, but Soviet forces assaulted his palace and executed him. Karmal was quickly installed as the new leader, but need the Russian forces to stay around to be able to maintain control. Computers! The Soviet Occupation of by carl Afghanistan would last for another ten years. That Medicated With Adhd Are:! The Soviets as soon as the invasion began would be challenged by the Mujahidin, a rebel group. The Mujahidin would launch a holy war against "fog" the Russians, eventually forcing them out of the country. The U.S government secretly supported the Mujahidin, with the goal of forcing the Russians out of essay of commerce education Afghanistan.
By early 1989 the Russians had fully withdrew from Afghanistan, but this was just the "fog", end of one problem and the beginning of another. Soon after the withdrawal of Soviet forces Afghanistan would be launched into civil war. This civil war would last from 1989 until 1996; it would see the destruction of communism in Afghanistan, and the rise of the Taliban in Afghanistan. On September, 11th 2001 two planes flew into the World Trade Center in New York. The 9/11 attacks would forever change the shape of the world around us, but is the catalyst that would force the War in Afghanistan. Taliban control Afghanistan had become a safe-haven for Al Qaeda, which claimed responsibility for the 9/11 attacks. The UN and NATO quickly went to impact computers, work after these attacks, and within weeks NATO Coalition forces where on the ground fighting in Afghanistan. "fog" Sandburg! In November 2001 the Taliban regime in Afghanistan had collapsed, which resulted in has found medicated the launch of ‘Operation Enduring Freedom.’ This U.S-led coalition was created to support the reconstruction of the Afghanistan Government. Operation Enduring Freedom would be the beginning of Canadian involvement in Afghanistan, which would eventually become the International Security Assistant Force (ISAF) The question arises to why Canada would engage itself into a conflict half way across the world. The goals of the Canadian Mission in Afghanistan have changed multiple times since 2001.
After the terrorist attacks of 9/11 NATO launched a U.S-led international coalition composed of forty countries into "fog" by carl Afghanistan. Canada being an active member of NATO, and a long-time ally of the United States supported this coalition. Also the Canadian Government understood the unprecedented threat to global security and d2l wcupa peace, if a Taliban controlled Afghanistan was ignored. By Carl! A Taliban controlled Afghanistan would continue to act as a staging ground for terrorist groups such as Al Qaeda, if left alone. Canada also had the obligation to enter Afghanistan on humanitarian and impact development means. "fog"! Being one of the richest countries in the world we could not just idly stand by, while one of the poorest countries in the world suffered.
These are the reasons that pushed Canada into buddhist beliefs four noble the War in Afghanistan. From 2002-2006 the goals of the Canadian Mission was to assist Afghans in governance, security, and development. These are broad ranging topics, with many factors which could affect success. By Carl! In 2006 to ensure that the 40 countries participating in vs determinism the Afghanistan Mission where on the same page the "fog" by carl sandburg, ‘Afghanistan Compact’ was signed in London. Impact Computers! This document declared the three areas of focus for all countries involved in Afghanistan. These three areas of focus were security; governance, rule of law, and Human Rights; economic and social development. Roughly 40 objectives where stated with timelines, to determine the success of this agreement. This document was meant to guide the mission until the end of the "fog" by carl sandburg, 2011.
The CAF would follow this document until it expiration in 2011. With the War in Afghanistan nearing an end the Canadian government released its own four priorities to guide the CAF until withdrawal in 2014. The four priorities stated for the CAF mission in Afghanistan where education and health; security; regional diplomacy; development. The CAF where deployed in Afghanistan for over ten years. Existentialism Vs Determinism! This paragraph will briefly provide insight into the operations conducted by the CAF over that period, and their objectives. CAF engaged in seven major operations over the course of its engagement in Afghanistan. Operation Apollo was the deployment of the Canadian battle group to "fog" by carl, Afghanistan, under the US-led Operation Enduring Freedom. Existentialism Vs Determinism! This was the first operation conducted by the CAF and was the beginning of the Canadian Mission. After the deployment of the CAF, Operation Athena was launched. This had Canada leading the way in making the international mission reflect more NATO values in Afghanistan and Kabul. Following Operation Athena Canada launched Operation Angus.
Operation Angus involved Canadian expertise providing guidance to the Afghanistan Government on the creation of a national development plan. These three operations were largely focused on humanitarian and development issues. Operation Archer involved the CAF taking command of the Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) in "fog" by carl Kandahar province. Appropriately Medicated Adhd Are:! The PRT worked to correct and identity major issues plaguing Kandahar Province Operation Athena II was the "fog" sandburg, counterinsurgency mission that was mounted by CAF. It goal was to insure limited disruption to beliefs four truths, humanitarian and "fog" sandburg development projects in Kandahar. One of the beliefs four, final operations executed by the CAF was Operation Attention, which shifted the priorities of the mission. The CAF began to act in a more advising and "fog" mentorship role for the Afghan National Army, which would take over all combat operations in Afghanistan. These operations and objectives where not without challenges though. In 2007 the Canadian Government released a document outlining thirteen problems facing the CAF and the mission in Afghanistan.
Problem one is the warrior culture in Afghanistan. Impact Computers! For the "fog" by carl, roughly the has found that appropriately children, last two centuries the country has been in a state of by carl sandburg war, which has developed a tolerance to killing, and being killed in Afghan culture. Problem two and that appropriately with are: three are the advantages that the sandburg, locals have over NATO forces and d2l wcupa the disadvantages that the visiting NATO forces have as being foreigners. Problems four and "fog" five are related to green coffey, how limited time, difficult geography, and easily accessible safe heavens happens the effectiveness of the CAF. Problems eight, ten, eleven, and thirteen all deal with the cultural aspects and societal effects on attempted reform. By Carl! If a negative view is perceived of the CAF, and corruption still dominates Afghan politics no progress can be made. Problem seven is that we are fighting a rich enemy, who has the ability to easily bribe and recruit the existentialism vs determinism, large majority of the population. Problems nine and eleven deal with the civilian cost of the war, and "fog" by carl sandburg how it is too high.
Also if Afghanistan is the test for john, the newly reform NATO, it is truly testing the alliance to its limits. The report also outlines what criteria needs to be used to "fog" by carl, identify the success of the CAF when dealing with these problems. Stability needs to be created in Kandahar Province to allow for economic and political development. Improved governance and crackdown on corruption needs to occur to counter many of buddhist beliefs truths these problems. The Canadian military mission in Afghanistan officially ended in March of 2014.
158 Canadian solders lost their lives over the twelve year conflict and war has estimated to have cost taxpayers nineteen billion dollars. Critics and sandburg scholars began to beliefs noble truths, debate if the cost of the War in Afghanistan was worth it, and if Canada was successful with its goals. Understanding the historical context of Afghanistan, reasons for Canada’s entrance into the Afghanistan War, development of mission goals, and challenges faced by the mission allows the determination of "fog" by carl what Canada wanted to accomplish in Afghanistan. The 3D approach, or also referred to as the ‘whole of government’ approach best outlines the grand overall mission goals of Canada. The 3D approach places focus up defense, diplomacy, and development. These goals are evident in how goals of the Canadian mission have developed over the course of the war.
They would focus on different specific areas, but would always return to fall under the 3D approach. The three ‘signature’ projects launched by the Canadian government show the on importance education, focus on development in the Kandahar region. Each one focuses on a different area of development. The first signature projects places a focus on infrastructure and economic developed. The revitalization of the Dahala Dam irrigation and canal system will allow for the development of jobs for locals. Also it will aid in by carl the development of sustainability and agriculture in essay on importance of commerce education Kandahar Province. The second signature project places focus upon education for the population of Kandahar Province.
Revitalization, expansion, and construction of "fog" sandburg fifty schools in crucial Kandahar districts will allow for better education of the population especially youth. The final signature project focused upon the health of the residents in Kandahar Province. Expanded support for has found appropriately children with are:, immunization across the Province, with the goal of eliminating polio within Kandahar Province. The success of Canadian diplomacy needs to be examined with Afghanistan, and with the larger international framework that Canada operated under in Afghanistan. "fog" Sandburg! Canada participated within two inner NATO conferences and played an active role in d2l wcupa pursuing more support for the War in by carl Afghanistan.
The Brussels Conference ran from February 17th-19th 2008 and involved roughly one-hundred NATO delegates. Canada strongly pushed for more international troops in d2l wcupa Afghanistan, especially after it was a key recommendation in the recently released Manley report. The delegates at the Brussels conference dodged bring up increased support, with troop deployment and placed more focus on "fog", development and reconstruction of Afghanistan. Research Has Found That Medicated Adhd! Canada continued to push for increased NATO allied state support even after the end of the conference. The Bucharest Summit, which was held from April 2-4 and "fog" by carl sandburg involved the same delegates present in Brussels. Unlike Brussels though the focus on this summit was the increased troop support being offered by green mile NATO states, specifically France and the United States in support of the mission within Afghanistan. On are more national level, Canadian relations with Afghanistan have been reinvigorated. Canada first began diplomatic relations with Afghanistan in the early 1960s until roughly 1979. Sandburg! With the Soviet invasion of d2l wcupa Afghanistan, Canada cut all diplomatic ties with the country. Even after the withdrawal of the Soviet forces, Canada still had not formal diplomatic relations with Afghanistan, due in part to "fog" sandburg, disagreement with the Taliban regime placed in charge.
After the terrorist attacks of 9/11, Canada became engaged in the War in Afghanistan, which Canada understood would require diplomatic relations with Afghanistan. In January of 2002 Canada officially reestablished diplomatic relations with the Afghanistan government. The Canadian diplomatic presence plays a crucial role in existentialism vs determinism the 3D approach, as it fully supports and enables the development and defense goals. Also working closely with the Afghanistan government to aid the "fog", objects of the essay, PRT requires the diplomatic presence of Canadians diplomats to help coordinate on a governmental level. These accomplishments show the success of the Canadian diplomatic mission within Afghanistan and can lead to future prosperity. They often most popular item in the media is defense, or security. CAF troops were deployed to Afghanistan and have played a crucial role insuring the by carl sandburg, mission success. The CAF played a crucial role in Kandahar Province, by counter the Taliban forces operating within that area.
Without these troops the PRT would have not been able to focus on development within the has found appropriately medicated with, province. Also the CAF acted as the public face of Canada, building stronger relationships with the local populace. The achievements of the Canadian mission in Afghanistan in the three areas of defense, development, and diplomacy have shown the success of the "fog" sandburg, 3D approach. Since 2001 Canada and the world have been working hard within Afghanistan to impact computers, improve the country. By Carl! Without them though Afghanistan would be in shambles, and not a better country as it is today. Currently looking at the situation the education, Canadian mission within Afghanistan can be considered a success, but five or ten years down the line we can’t predict. It is too early to "fog" sandburg, say if the Canadian mission was truly successful, or only a short term fix. Afghanistan over the last thirty years has gone through extremely drastic changes, from soviet invasions to an international security force entering the country for over a decade.
Canada made sacrifices to support Afghanistan, and had stated goals to achieve. Canada’s mission in Afghanistan produced results that demonstrate that the mission was successful. Development projects, diplomatic relations, and improved security where all accomplished in essay on importance various degrees. Currently we can call the Canadian mission a success, but we must wait and see to be able to call it a long-term success. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Miscellaneous essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. "fog" By Carl! Each of us is qualified to a high level in computers our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Miscellaneous work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Miscellaneous essay was submitted to us by a student in order to by carl, help you with your studies.
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