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oedipus essay joke Ed Friedlander, M.D. This website collects no information. Essay? If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on and Cons of Ethanol Renewable Source of Energy example, to any third party, unless required by law. Essay Outline? I have no sponsors and do not host paid advertisements. Working? All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. Informative Outline? This page was last modified April 1, 2010. . pluck out the heart of my mystery. -- Hamlet.
This page is for victorian, high school and informative outline college students, or anyone else. Everybody brings a different set of experiences to a book, a theater, or a classroom. Although I've tried to help, ultimately you'll need to decide for yourself about Shakespeare and Hamlet. I hope you have as much fun as I have! Once you get past the minor difficulties posed by the language, you'll probably enjoy Hamlet -- and not just for its action. Hamlet is the first work of literature to look squarely at the stupidity, falsity and sham of everyday life , without laughing and wings book 1 without easy answers. In a world where things are not as they seem, Hamlet's genuineness, thoughtfulness, and sincerity make him special. Hamlet is no saint. But unlike most of the other characters (and most people today), Hamlet chooses not to compromise with evil. Dying, Hamlet reaffirms the tragic dignity of a basically decent person in a bad world . Hamlet is the first work of informative outline literature to show an philip 2 of spain, ordinary person looking at the futility and wrongs in essay outline, life, asking the toughest questions and coming up with honest semi-answers like most people do today. Unlike so much of victorian class popular culture today, Hamlet leaves us with the informative, message that life is indeed worth living, even by imperfect people in an imperfect world.
Shakespeare's Hamlet is full of talk about uprising, death, dead bodies, murder, suicide, disease, graves, and so forth. And there is no traditional Christian comfort or promise of eventual justice or happiness for the good people. Essay Outline? But the message is ultimately one of hope. You can be a hero. Aristotle wrote that in a tragedy, the protagonist by definition learns something. Whatever you may think of Aristotle's reductionist ideas about serious drama, Shakespeare's heroes all develop philosophically. (You may not agree with everything they decide.) As you read the play, watch how Hamlet -- who starts by uprising wishing he was dead -- comes to terms with life, keeps his integrity, and strikes back successfully at informative what's wrong around him. So far as I know, it's the first time this theme -- now so common -- appeared in world literature.
Revenge should know no bounds. -- Claudius. Hamlet, our hero, is the son of the previous king of Denmark, also named Hamlet (Old Hamlet, Hamlet Senior as we'd say), who has died less than two months ago. Working Class? Hamlet remembers his father as an informative essay outline, all-around good guy, and as a tender husband who would even make a special effort to shield his wife's face from the cold Danish wind. The day Hamlet was born, Old Hamlet settled a land dispute by wings of fire 1 killing the King of Norway in personal combat. How old is Hamlet? We have contradictory information. The gravedigger mentions that Hamlet is thirty years old, and that the essay, jester with whom Hamlet played as a child has been dead for twenty-three years. A thirty-year-old man might still be a college student.
However, Ophelia is unmarried in benefits of qualitative data, an era when girls usually married in their teens, and several characters refer to Hamlet's youth. So we might prefer to think that Hamlet is in outline, his late teens or early twenties. And many people have seen Hamlet's bitter, sullen outlook at the beginning of the play as typical of Values youth. You'll need to outline decide that one for yourself. (I think thirty might be a mistake for Studies, twenty. Richard Burbage, who played Hamlet first, was older than twenty, and perhaps the informative outline, editor thought twenty must be wrong. You decide.)
Hamlet was a college student at Wittenberg when his father died. (Of course the historical Hamlet, who lived around 700, could not have attended Wittenberg, founded in benefits data, 1502). The monarchy went to his father's brother, Claudius. (Shakespeare and the other characters just call him King.) Hamlet's mother, Gertrude, married Claudius within less than a month. Old Hamlet died during his after-lunch nap in his garden. The public was told that Old Hamlet died of outline snakebite. The truth is that Claudius murdered Old Hamlet by pouring poison in benefits of qualitative data, his ear. Old Hamlet died fast but gruesomely. The ghost describes the king's seduction of the queen (the garbage passage) just prior to describing the actual murder. This makes the most sense if the queen actually committed adultery before the murder, and that the informative outline, affair was its actual motive. Even in philip, our modern age, if a twenty-plus-year marriage ends with the sudden death of one partner, and the survivor remarries four weeks later, I'd believe that there had probably been an adulterous affair. And everybody at the Danish court must have thought the informative, same thing. If you don't know this, you're naive.
It's not clear that Gertrude actually knew a murder was committed, and we never get proof that anyone else knew for philip, certain, either. But everybody must have been suspicious. And nobody was saying anything. Young Hamlet is essay, very well-liked. He is a soldier, a scholar, and a diplomat. We learn that he's the glass of fashion and the mould of form, i.e., the young man that everybody else tried to imitate. He's also loved of the distracted multitude, i.e., the decembrist uprising, ordinary people like him, and informative if anything were to happen to him, there would be riots. Exactly why Claudius rather than Hamlet succeeded Old Hamlet is not explained. Hamlet refers (V.ii) to 2 of spain the election, i.e., the choosing of a new king by a vote of a small number of warlords (as in Macbeth). (By Shakespeare time, it was the Danish royal family that voted.) Interestingly, the essay, Norwegian king is class, also succeeded by his brother, rather than by his own infant son Fortinbras. Or the royal title may have gone to Claudius simply because he married the informative outline, royal widow, who he calls our imperial jointress. Some people may tell you that in the Dark Ages, Jutland may have practiced matrilineal descent, i.e., a society where family identity and inheritance is uprising, passed through the female line.
Since this is historical fiction, and since the essay outline, historical Hamlet's uncle simply held a public coup, this seems moot. Matrilineal descent is known among some primitive people in our own century, and is attested to by ancient writers on various cultures. The advantage of this system is that the best men tend to get picked for benefits of qualitative, hereditary positions of power. With male-line succession, the old king is followed by his oldest son, who may be stupid and get himself killed quickly. Essay? Under matrilineal descent, the old king picks the man who will actually wield power after he is gone, but still preserves his own genes. In spite of what anybody else may tell you, we know of no human culture where the men, who are physically stronger and do the fighting, let the women make the wings book, laws and the big decisions (a matriarchy). You may decide this is unfortunate.
A real anthropologist, Eric J. Smith [link is now down] at U. Wash., points out that its checks-and-balances system made the Iroquois government the closest thing to informative a matriarchy ever described. The play opens on the battlements of the castle. It's midnight. (Shakespeare anachronistically says 'Tis now struck twelve.) Francisco has been keeping watch, and Bernardo comes to philip spain relieve him. Neither man recognizes the other in the darkness, and each issues a tense challenge. Francisco remarks, It's bitter cold. and I am sick at heart. This sets the scene, since Shakespeare had no way of darkening his theater or showing the weather. The fact that each guard suspects the other of being an intruder indicates all is not well, even though Francisco does not say why he is sick at heart.
Francisco leaves, and Marcellus arrives to share Bernardo's watch. Bernardo is surprised to see also Hamlet's school friend Horatio (who has just arrived at the castle; we never really find out why he's here) with Marcellus. Marcellus and Bernardo think they have twice seen the ghost of Old Hamlet. Horatio is skeptical. The ghost appears, the men agree it looks like the old king, and Horatio (who is a scholar and thus knows something of the paranormal) tries to talk to it. The ghost turns away as if driven back / offended by the word heaven (God), and essay it disappears. The men talk about Old Hamlet. They also talk about the unheralded naval build-up commanded by the present king. This is in response to of fire an expected military invasion by the Norwegian prince Fortinbras, who wishes to informative regain the wings of fire book, territories lost by informative essay outline his father's death.
The men wonder whether the ghost is returned to warn about military disaster. The ghost reappears. The men try to talk to it to find out what it wants. They try to strike it. It looks like it is about to working class speak, but suddenly a rooster crows (the signal of morning) and the ghost fades away. (As usual, Shakespeare is telescoping time.) Marcellus relates a beautiful legend that during the Christmas season, roosters might crow through the night, keeping the dark powers at bay. Claudius holds court. This is apparently his first public meeting since becoming king.
Also present are the queen, Hamlet, the royal counselor Polonius, Polonius's son Laertes, and the Council -- evidently the warlords who support his monarchy. Essay? Hamlet is still wearing mourning black, while everybody else (to please Claudius) is Essay on in Urban, dressed festively. Claudius wants to show what a good leader he is. He begins by talking about the mix of sorrow for his brother's death, and joy in his new marriage. He reminds the Council that they have approved his marriage and accession, and thanks them. Claudius announces that Fortinbras of Norway is essay, raising an army to try to take back the land his father lost to of qualitative data Old Hamlet. Essay? Claudius emphasizes that Fortinbras can't win militarily. Claudius still wants a diplomatic solution and sends two negotiators to wings book Norway. Next, Laertes asks permission to informative essay return to France.
The king calls on Polonius. When Polonius is on Values in Urban, talking to the king, he always uses a flowery, more-words-than-needed style. Polonius can be played either for humor, or as a sinister old man. Informative? (Sinister, evil people can still do foolish things -- like getting themselves caught spying on someone who is very upset.) Either fits nicely with the Essay Values in Urban Studies, play's theme of informative essay outline phoniness. Polonius says he is agreeable, and the king gives permission. This was rehearsed, and benefits data Claudius is taking advantage of the opportunity to look reasonable, especially because he is about to informative essay outline deal with Hamlet, who wants to return to college. Claudius calls Hamlet cousin (i.e., close relative) and son (stepson), and asks why he is still sad. Hamlet puns.
His mother makes a touching speech about victorian working, how everything must die, passing from nature to eternity, i.e., a better afterlife. She asks him why he is still acting (seems) sad. Hamlet replied he's not acting, just showing how he really feels. Claudius makes a very nice speech, asks that Hamlet stay at the court, and reaffirms that Hamlet is heir to his property and essay outline throne. Hamlet's mother adds a nice comment, and Hamlet agrees to stay.
He may not really have a choice, especially since Claudius calls his answer gentle and unforced. Does Claudius really care about Hamlet? Maybe. Philip? The meeting is over, and informative essay Claudius announces there will be a party, at which he'll have the philip spain, guards shoot off a cannon every time he finishes a drink. Hamlet is left alone. He talks to himself / the audience. Informative Outline? Today's movie directors would use voice-overs for such speeches (soliloquies if they are long and the speaker is alone, asides if they are short and there are other folks on stage.) He talks about losing interest in life and how upset he is by his mother's remarriage and its implications. (In Shakespeare's era, it was considered morally wrong to 2 of marry your brother's widow. Henry VIII's first wife had been married to Henry's older brother, who died, but the marriage had not been consummated. This puzzle sparked the English reformation.) Hamlet is trapped in a situation where things are obviously very wrong.
Like other people at informative such times, Hamlet wishes God hadn't forbidden suicide. Interestingly, he does not mention being angry about not being chosen king. Horatio, Marcellus, and philip 2 of spain Bernardo come in. Hamlet is surprised to see his school buddy. Horatio says he's truant (not true), and that he came to see the old king's funeral (not true -- he's much too late). Hamlet jokes that his mother's wedding followed so quickly that they served the leftovers from the essay, funeral dinner. (I think Horatio probably came to Elsinore out of concern for Hamlet, spoke with the guards first, and was invited at in Urban Studies once to see the ghost.
Some guys don't say to another guy, I came to see YOU even when it's obvious.) You'll need to decide what Hamlet means when he says that he sees his father in his mind's eye. Sometimes, bereaved people notice their eyes fooling them -- shadows forming themselves in essay outline, the mind into an image of the philip 2 of, deceased. Other mourners report even more vivid experiences that they do recognize to be tricks of perception. Or perhaps Hamlet is simply thinking a lot about his father, or holding onto his good memories. Essay Outline? The friends tell Hamlet about the ghost. Essay On Studies? Hamlet asks what the ghost looked like -- skin color and beard colors -- and agrees they match his father.
Hamlet asks the informative essay, men to keep this a secret and to philip 2 of let him join them the next night, hoping the ghost will return and talk. Afterwards he says he suspects foul play. Everybody else probably does, too, even without any ghost. Laertes says goodbye to outline Ophelia, his sister. He asks her to write daily, and urges her not to get too fond of Hamlet, who has been showing a romantic interest in her. At considerable length, he explains how Hamlet will not be able to marry beneath his station, and explicitly tells her not to have sex (your chaste treasure open) with him. The Pros And Cons As A Renewable Essay Example? Ophelia seems to be the informative essay outline, passive sort, but she has enough spunk to urge him to live clean too, and philip not be a hypocrite. Laertes suddenly realizes he has to leave quickly (uh huh). Polonius comes in and lays some famous fatherly advice on informative essay outline, Laertes.
It's today's self-centered worldly wisdom. Listen closely, and and Cons Renewable Essay example say less than you know. Think before you act. Don't be cold, but don't be too friendly. Spend most of your time with your genuine friends who've already done you good. Choose your battles carefully, and fight hard. Dress for success. Don't loan or borrow money. And most important -- look out for Number One ('Above all -- To thine own self be true.') I get quite a bit of mail about Polonius's advice, especially about essay outline, To thine own self be true. Some people see this as Shakespeare's asking us to be totally honest in our dealings with others.
Others have seen this as a call to mystical experience, union with the higher self. Decembrist Uprising? I can't see this. The key is to thine own self. In Shakespeare's time, the expression true to informative meant be loyal or look out first for the interests of. ; it also meant fidelity to a romantic relationship. This usage recurs in the Beatle' song All My Loving. Essay On In Urban? To be false implies making a promise or a pretense and informative essay not delivering. If it's clear up front that you don't do favors without expecting something in return, nobody can complain about being misled.
The rest of Polonius's advice is otherwise totally worldly, practical, and amoral (though not immoral) -- what one would read in a self-help book. Polonius is not the model for scrupulous honesty. Polonius tells Reynaldo to lie. Polonius lies to the king and queen, claiming he knew nothing of Renewable of Energy Hamlet's romantic interest before he saw his love letters. And Polonius tells his daughter that everybody puts on a false front. Hearing this actually makes the king feel ashamed. When Laertes leaves, Polonius questions Ophelia about her relationship with Hamlet. One can play Polonius as kind and jocular with his son, rough (even cruel and obscene) with his daughter. He calls her naïve, orders her not even to talk to informative essay Hamlet, and demands to see his love letters to philip her.
Contemporary readers who are puzzled by this should remember that in Hamlet's era (and Shakespeare's), a father would probably get less money from his future son-in-law if his daughter was not a virgin. Polonius, of course, pretends he cares only about Ophelia's well-being. Hamlet, Horatio, and the guards are on informative essay, the walls just after midnight, waiting for the ghost. The king is still partying, and trumpets and cannon go off because he's just finished another drink. Hamlet notes that this is a custom more honored in decembrist, the breach than [in] the observance, now a popular phrase. (This was a Danish custom in informative essay outline, Shakespeare's time too. The Danish people's neighbors make fun of them for wings of fire, this. Old Hamlet may not have engaged in the practice, hence the breach.) This fact inspires Hamlet to make a long speech, So, oft it chances. , about how a person's single fault (a moral failure, or even a physical disfigurement) governs how people think about them, overriding everything that is good. Of course this doesn't represent how Hamlet thinks about Claudius (who he detests for lots of reasons), and it's hard to explain what this is doing in informative essay outline, the play -- apart from the fact that it's very true-to-life. You may decide that Hamlet is restating the play's theme of wings appearance-vs.-reality. The ghost enters.
Hamlet challenges it. He asks whether it is good or evil, his real father or a devilish deception. He asks why it has returned, making us think about the unthinkable and unknown (so horridly to shake our disposition / with thoughts beyond the reaches of our souls). The ghost beckons Hamlet. Horatio warns him not to essay follow, because the 2 of spain, ghost might drive him insane. Horatio notes that everybody looking down from an unprotected large height thinks about jumping to informative essay outline death (a curious fact). Hamlet is determined to follow the ghost, and probably draws his sword on his companions. (So much for the idea that Hamlet is psychologically unable to take decisive action.) Hamlet says, My fate cries out, i.e., that he's going to his destiny.
He walks off the stage after the ghost. Directors often have Hamlet hold the handle of of qualitative his sword in front of his face to make a cross, holy symbol for protection. Marcellus (who like everybody else surely suspects Claudius of foul play) says, Something is informative essay outline, rotten in the state of uprising Denmark (usually misquoted and misattributed to Hamlet himself.) Horatio says God will take care of essay outline Hamlet (Heaven will direct it). Nay, says Marcellus, unwilling to leave the supernatural up to God, let's follow him. The scene change is to indicate that the place has changed, i.e., Hamlet and the ghost are higher up.
Hamlet demands that the ghost talk, and he does. He claims to The Pros as a Source of Energy Essay example be Old Hamlet. Informative? Because he died with unconfessed sins, he is going to of fire book 1 burn for a long time before he finds rest. He gives gruesome hints of an afterlife that he is not allowed to informative describe. (Even the more fortunate dead returning to philip earth are fat weeds.) He then reveals that he was murdered by Claudius, who had been having sex with the queen. Essay? (At least the ghost says they were already having an affair. Before he describes the decembrist, murder, the ghost says that Claudius had won to his shameful lust the affections of the outline, seeming-virtuous queen.) The ghost's account now becomes very picturesque. Old Hamlet says that Claudius's natural gifts were far inferior to as a Source example his own, i.e., that Old Hamlet was much better looking, smarter, nicer, and so forth. Claudius was a smooth talker (wit) and gave her presents.
Old Hamlet says that lust, though to a radiant angel linked / Will sate itself in a celestial bed / And prey on outline, garbage. Of Fire Book? In plain language, Gertrude was too dirty-minded for a nice man like Old Hamlet. She jumped into bed with a dirtball. Claudius poured poison in the king's ear. Old Hamlet tells the grisly effects of the poison. It coagulated his blood and caused his skin to crust, killing him rapidly. His line O horrible, O horrible, most horrible! is probably better given to Hamlet. Outline? The ghost calls on decembrist, Hamlet to avenge him by essay killing Claudius. He also tells him not to kill his mother. (Taint not thy mind. doesn't mean to think nice thoughts, which would be impossible, but simply not to and Cons as a Source Essay think of killing her.) The ghost has to leave because morning is approaching. Hamlet says he'll remember what he's heard while memory holds a seat [i.e., still functions] in this distracted globe.
By distracted globe, Hamlet probably means both my distraught head and this crazy world. Informative? (The name of the theater, too.) Hamlet already has made up his mind about decembrist uprising, Claudius and his mother, without the ghost's help. So before considering whether the ghost is telling the truth, Hamlet calls his mother a most pernicious woman, and says of Claudius one may smile, and smile, and essay be a villain. We all know that from uprising experience -- most really bad people pretend to be nice and friendly. When Hamlet's friends come in, he says, There's never a [i.e., no] villain in all Denmark. He probably meant to say, . Essay Outline? as Claudius, but realizes in midsentence that this isn't the philip spain, thing to say. Outline? He finishes the sentence as a tautology (Villains are knaves.) Hamlet says he thinks the ghost is victorian working, telling the truth, says he will feign madness (put an antic disposition on -- he doesn't explain why), and (perhaps re-enacting a scene in the old play) swears them to secrecy on his sword and in several different locations while the ghost hollers Swear from below the stage. It's obvious that Hamlet's excitement is comic, and outline the scene is funny. Victorian Working? Hamlet calls the informative essay, ghost boy, truepenny, and old mole, and says to his friends, You hear this fellow in the cellarage. It seems to me that Shakespeare is parodying the older play, and even making fun of the idea of ghosts, and that he's saying, Don't take this plot seriously, but listen to the ideas. Horatio comments how strange this all is, and Hamlet (who likes puns) says that they should welcome the ghost as a stranger in need. There are more things in of qualitative, heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in informative essay outline, your philosophy. (Ethan Hawke has our philosophy.
I wonder if this might be what Shakespeare actually wrote.) In Shakespeare's era, philosophy means what we call natural science. Notice that Horatio, who is skeptical of ghosts, is the one who suggests trusting God when the ghost appears, and who will later talk about flights of angels carrying Hamlet's soul to heaven. Shakespeare's more rational-minded contemporaries (and probably Shakespeare himself) probably did not believe in working class, ghosts. But scientific atheism (scientific reductionism, naïve naturalism) wasn't a clearly-articulated philosophy in Shakespeare's era. Some time has passed.
From Ophelia's remarks in III.ii. (which happens the day after II.i), we learn that Old Hamlet has now been dead for four months. Shakespeare telescopes time. We learn (in this scene) that Ophelia has (on Polonius's orders) refused to outline accept love letters from Hamlet and told him not to come near her. We learn in the next scene (which follows soon after) that the decembrist, king and queen have sent to essay outline Wittenberg for Hamlet's long-time friends, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern (two common Danish surnames), and that they are now here. Hamlet has been walking around aimlessly in working class, the palace for up to four hours at a time. Polonius, in private, sends his servant Reynaldo to spy on informative essay outline, Laertes. Polonius reminds him of how an effective spy asks open-ended questions and tells little suggestive lies. Polonius likes to spy. Ophelia comes in, obviously upset. She describes Hamlet's barging into her bedroom, with his doublet all unbraced (we'd say, his shirt open in front), his dirty socks crunched down, and uprising pale and informative essay knock-kneed, as if he had been loosèd out of hell / to speak of horrors. Or, as might say, as if he'd seen a ghost.
Hamlet grabbed her wrist, stared at her face, sighed, let her go, and wings of fire 1 walked out the door backwards. What's happened? Hamlet, who has set about to feign mental illness, is actually just acting on his own very genuine feelings. Hamlet cares very much about Ophelia. He must have hoped for a happy life with her.
Now it is painfully obvious that they are both prisoners of informative outline a system that will never allow them to have the happiness that they should. If you want to write a good essay, jot down in about 500 words what Hamlet was thinking while he was saying nothing. Here's where we really see him starting to be conflicted. Of Fire? Will he strike back, or just play along with Claudius and perhaps marry the woman he loves and outline be happy? What kind of a relationship can a man who's trying to be upright have in a bad world? Hamlet says everything and says nothing, just as the skull will do later. When Hamlet acts like a flesh-and-blood human being showing authentic emotions, people like Polonius will say he is insane. And Polonius suggests Hamlet is lovesick. Wings Of Fire Book 1? Maybe Polonius really believes this. Maybe he just realized that perhaps his daughter might be the next Queen of Denmark.
The king and queen welcome Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Informative? Claudius says that except for the death of Hamlet's father, he's clueless as to why Hamlet is upset. (Uh huh.) He asks them very nicely to try to figure out The Pros of Ethanol Source example what's wrong so Claudius can help. (Now Claudius might well be sincere.) Gertrude says she wants them to make Hamlet happy, and that the good and generous king will reward them well. Both say how much they appreciate the opportunity, and Claudius thanks them. Often a director will have Claudius call each by the other's name, and Gertrude point out essay which is which (lines 33-34). They go off to find Hamlet. Polonius comes in and announces that the ambassadors from Values in Urban Studies Norway have returned, and that after their report he will tell them why Hamlet is acting strange. Gertrude thinks that Hamlet is simply distressed over informative essay his father's death (which Claudius thought of) and her remarriage (which Claudius pretended he couldn't think of.) The ambassadors are back from Norway. Fortinbras was indeed mounting an army to attack Claudius's Denmark.
The King of Norway was sick and supposedly thought Fortinbras was going to invade Poland instead. (Uh huh.) When he learned the 1, truth, the King of Norway arrested Fortinbras, made him promise not to invade Denmark, and paid him to outline invade Poland instead. The King of Norway now requests that Claudius let Fortinbras pass through Denmark for the invasion. (Denmark is on the invasion route from Norway to Poland if the Norwegian army is to cross the on in Urban, sea to Denmark. And we know a sea-invasion was expected from the amount of shipbuilding mentioned in I.i.) This all seems fake and for essay, show, and probably Claudius (who doesn't seem at all surprised) and the King of on in Urban Norway had an understanding beforehand. As before, Polonius can be a foolish busybody or a sinister old man. (Foolish busybodies do not usually become chief advisors to warrior-kings.) Polonius launches into a verbose speech about finding the cause of essay outline madness, prompting the philip, queen to tell him to informative get to the point (More matter with less art; the benefits of qualitative data, queen actually cares about informative essay outline, Hamlet.) He reads a love letter from Hamlet. Working? It's about the genuineness of his love. Polonius asks the king, What do you think of me? The king replies, [You are] a man faithful and honorable. Now Polonius tells a lie. He emphasizes that he had no knowledge of Hamlet's romantic interest in Ophelia until she told him and gave him the love letter. Informative Essay? Polonius then truthfully tells how he forbade Ophelia to see or accept messages from Hamlet. However, Polonius does not mention the wrist-grabbing episode.
He then reminds the on Values Studies, king of how reliable an advisor he has always been, and says Take this from this (my head off my shoulders, or my insignia of office from me; the actor will show which is meant) if this be otherwise. He finishes, If circumstances lead me [i.e., allow, the actor could say let], I will find / Where truth is hid, though it were hid indeed / Within the center [of the earth]. He suggests he and informative essay the king hide and of qualitative data watch Ophelia and Hamlet. Polonius likes to spy. At this time, Hamlet (who may have been eavesdropping), walks in reading a book. Polonius questions him, and essay Hamlet pretends to be very crazy by giving silly answers. Philip? They are pointed, referring to outline the dishonesty of Polonius (To be honest, as this world goes, is to be one man picked out of ten thousand.) Once again, simply being sincere and working class genuine looks to informative outline the courtiers like being crazy.
Hamlet is well-aware that Polonius has forbidden Ophelia to see him, and book 1 he refers obliquely to this. Polonius notes in an aside (a movie director would use a voice-over), Though this be madness, yet there is method in it -- another famous line often misquoted. The speech of the essay outline, insane, as Polonius notes, often makes the best sense. Why is uprising, Hamlet pretending to outline be comically-crazy? He said he would put an antic disposition on just after he saw the ghost. Victorian Working Class? You'll have to think hard about this, or suspend your judgement. Shakespeare was constrained by informative outline the original Hamlet story to on in Urban Studies have Hamlet pretend to essay be comically insane, and for benefits of qualitative, the king to try to find whether he was really crazy or just faking. But Hamlet is also distraught, and informative essay the play is largely a study of his emotional turmoil while he is forced to endure a rotten environment. You might decide that Hamlet, knowing that his behavior is going to be abnormal because he is under stress, wants to mislead the court into of qualitative data, thinking he is simply nuts rather than bent on revenge. (Of course, this is completely unlike his motivation in the original story, where he pretends to be insane so that people will believe he poses no threat.) I've never been able to decide for myself.
Polonius leaves, and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern (who have been watching) enter. Hamlet realizes right away that they have been sent for. Essay? They share a dirty joke about Lady Luck's private parts that would have been very funny to uprising Shakespeare's contemporaries, and Hamlet calls Denmark a prison. Informative? When they disagree (Humor a madman), Hamlet says There is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so. Decembrist Uprising? To me it is a prison. Hamlet is making fun of how naive his fake friends are, and perhaps wishing he knew less than he did. (Note that Hamlet is outline, obviously not referring to decembrist the idea that there are no moral standards common to the whole human race -- as do certain contemporary multiculturalists. The theme of right and wrong pervades the play.) The idea that attitude is everything was already familiar from informative outline Montaigne, and from common sense. Again we have the theme of the play -- Hamlet chooses NOT to ignore the evil around him, though everybody else has, or pretends to have, a good attitude toward a terrible situation. The spies suggest Hamlet is simply too ambitious.
This is ironic, since they are the ones who are spying on their friend for a king's money. Hamlet replies, O God, I could be bounded in a nutshell and count myself a king of uprising infinite space, were it not that I have bad dreams. The friends continue to informative essay outline play on the idea that Hamlet's ambitious are being thwarted, sharing some contemporary platitudes about the vanity of earthly ambitions. But it seems (from what will follow) that Hamlet's remembering the time when the victorian working class, world seemed like a much happier place -- before he saw the informative outline, wrongs as they are. Hamlet then questions the men again about the purpose of their visit. If they actually cared, they would say, Your family asked us to come. We are all very worried about you. Values? Instead, they pretend they just dropped by to visit, which is stupid. Only when Hamlet asks them by the rites of our fellowship (i.e., by our secret fraternity ritual) do they have to essay outline tell the truth. (In my own college fraternity, we have the same understanding and a nearly-identical formula.) Hamlet levels with his friends. There was a time when the benefits of qualitative data, beauty of the earth, the sky, and the thoughts and accomplishments of the human race filled him with happiness. (All of this is outline, good Renaissance thought, and familiar from many times and places -- and I hope you've felt this as well.) Now he has lost his ability to derive enjoyment, though he knows the earth, sky, and in Urban Studies people should still seem wonderful.
They seem instead to be the quintessence of dust. Anyone who's experienced depression knows the feeling. Informative? Quintessence (fifth essence; compare Bruce Willis's Fifth Element) was an idea from prescientific thought -- a mystical substance that made fire, air, water, and earth work together, and supposedly what the planets and stars were made of. The two friends then tell Hamlet that some traveling entertainers will be arriving that evening. They used to have their own theater, but some child-actors became more popular (a contemporary allusion by benefits Shakespeare to the late summer of 1600), and the adult actors took to informative outline the road. Hamlet compares the public's changing tastes to the way people feel about his uncle. (Q2 omits the reference to the child actors, but without it, the The Pros as a Renewable Essay example, transition between the actor's losing popularity and the new king gaining popularity makes no sense, so it cannot be an interpolation.) Hamlet quickly and obliquely tell his friends he is only faking (I am but mad north-north-west.
When the wind is southerly, I know a hawk from a handsaw.) The players arrive, heralded by Polonius, who Hamlet calls a big baby. Hamlet fakes madness for Polonius's benefit. He pretends he was talking about something else with his friends, refers obliquely to Ophelia, and gives a Bronx cheer (Buzz buzz). When the players arrive, Hamlet drops the essay, pretense of madness, and greets old friends. One actor repeats a bombastic speech on spain, the fall of Troy, overacting with tears in his eyes. Hamlet asks Polonius to essay outline treat the actors well. Polonius says he'll treat them as they deserve -- actors were considered undesirables.
Hamlet says, [Treat them] better. Use every man after his desert [i.e., deserving], and who shall [e]scape whipping? Hamlet gets an idea. 2 Of Spain? He asks for a performance of The Murder of informative outline Gonzago, with a short speech by Hamlet himself added. Class? (Don't try to figure out what happened to informative this speech.) Everybody leaves. Hamlet soliloquizes. He calls himself a rogue and a peasant slave.
A rogue was a dishonest person; a peasant slave was an oppressed farm worker. He talks about how the philip, actor got himself all worked-up over something about which he really cared nothing (the fall of Troy). Hamlet contrasts this with his own passiveness in outline, both word and deed. What does Hamlet really mean? He reminds us, at the end of the soliloquy, that even though he thinks the ghost is Essay on in Urban, telling the truth, he needs to be sure this is not a demonic deception. In the informative, meantime, though, he hates Claudius with a silent hatred that contrasts with the actor's fake show. Uprising? Hamlet calls himself gutless (I am lily-livered and outline lack gall). Some commentators have taken Hamlet at his word, and philip spain thought he is informative outline, obsessing and/or depressed, both of which interfere with action. But it seems to me that this is simply a human response to being unable to do anything -- we blame ourselves instead of circumstances. Especially, Hamlet is upset that he needs to make compromises with the world in which he finds himself.
Perhaps this is confusing -- since Hamlet still doesn't know for sure that the king is victorian class, guilty. But it's true to the human experience, and the ideas that Shakespeare has been developing. I hope you'll think about this, and decide for yourself. The next day, the two spies visit with the king and informative queen, as well as Polonius, who has brought Ophelia. They say what everybody knows -- Hamlet's crazy talk is crafty madness to hide a secret, and that he really is upset about 2 of, something. They invite the informative, royal couple to Essay Values the play, and the king seems genuinely glad that Hamlet's found something he will enjoy. The king sends the queen and the spies away. Informative? Polonius gives his daughter a book, plants her where Hamlet will find her, and The Pros and Cons example tells her to pretend she is reading. Informative Essay? Polonius tells her (or to the king?), It's all right, dear, everybody pretends. (With devotion's visage / and pious action we do sugar o'er / the devil himself.) The king sees the application to himself, and says, No kidding. (How smart a lash that speech doth give my conscience!) This is powerful -- we suddenly learn that the king feels horrible about his own crime.
Maybe this surprises us. If Polonius is a sinister old man and uprising knows all about the murder, the king says this directly to him as they are out of earshot of Ophelia. Polonius can grunt cynically in response -- there's nothing really to say in reply. If Polonius is essay, a foolish old man, the king says this as an aside. We have just learned that the king really does hate his crime, and Renewable Source Essay example suffers under a heavy burden. Hamlet's famous speech on whether it's worthwhile living or doing anything needs little comment. He says it seems to essay outline him that life is not worth living, mostly because people treat each other so stupidly and badly. We also suffer from disease and old age -- even living too long is a calamity. Wings Of Fire Book? But Hamlet foregoes suicide because something after death might be as bad or worse, if we've taken our own lives or haven't lived.
He's saying what many people have felt, especially those who do not assume that the Christian account of the outline, afterlife is true -- or even that there is any afterlife. Notice that Hamlet says that nobody's returned to tell of the working, afterlife -- the informative essay, ghost notwithstanding. Shakespeare seems to be saying, loud and clear, Don't focus on the story. Focus on the ideas. Some people have been puzzled by the lines Thus conscience does make cowards of us all; / And thus the native hue of wings of fire book resolution / Is sicklied o'er with the essay, pale cast of The Pros Renewable Essay thought, / And enterprises of great pitch and moment / With this regard their currents turn awry / And lose the name of action. Not only is informative, Hamlet talking about actual suicide -- he's also talking about lifelong suicide by as a Renewable Source of Energy Essay doing nothing, choosing the essay, easy passive approach to life. Compare this to Essay on Values Hamlet's calling himself gutless merely because he can't kill the king until he has all the facts and a good opportunity. Informative Outline? It's human nature to of qualitative feel cowardly and ineffective when you're unable (or too smart) to informative outline take decisive (or rash) action. Hamlet sees Ophelia, reading a book.
He assumes it's her prayer book (she is evidently not much of a pleasure reader), and asks her to pray for the forgiveness of wings his sins. Instead, she tries to essay give him back his love letters, saying he has prove[d] unkind, which is ridiculous. Hamlet immediately realizes that she has been put up to this. He responds like a thoughtful man of strong feelings. He generalizes his disappointment with the two women in 2 of spain, his life to informative all women -- I think unfairly. (Watch how his attitude toward women matures later in the play.) But the Olivier movie's torrent of book 1 loud verbal abuse seems wrong. Showing Hamlet's emotional turmoil and conflict seems better.
Rather, Hamlet sees Ophelia being corrupted by the world with which he feels he has already had to compromise. He doesn't want this to happen to the girl about whom he cares so much. Like most men during breaking up, he says I loved you and I didn't love you. More meaningfully, Hamlet talks about fakeness. He asks where her father is, and must know that she is informative outline, lying. Philip 2 Of Spain? (In Ethan Hawke's version, he finds a wire microphone hidden on Ophelia.) He wants Ophelia to informative remain good, even as he sees himself becoming compromised.
She would have an opportunity to renounce the world by wings of fire 1 joining a convent, and outline he urges her to do so. (Decide for yourself about anything anybody may tell you about nunnery being Hamlet's double-meaning for whorehouse. I can't make sense out of working class this in the present context.) In our world, even being beautiful drives people to be dishonest. Informative? Disgusted with the world, Hamlet suggests that there be no more marriages -- suicide for the human race. Ophelia thinks Hamlet, who she admired so much, is crazy. Philip? (Once again, being genuine looks like insanity.) But the king comes out and says that he thinks that Hamlet is neither in love, nor insane, but very upset about informative, something. Polonius decides he'll get Hamlet to benefits of qualitative talk to outline his mother next, while Polonius eavesdrops again. Polonius likes to spy. The king decides that he will send Hamlet to class England for the demand of our neglected tribute (i.e., to ask for protection money.)
Hamlet gives an acting lesson, mostly about being genuine. He wants to show people -- body and mind -- as they are. So does Shakespeare. He talks with Horatio, and we learn that Horatio is a poor boy who's had bad luck but who doesn't complain. He and Hamlet are genuine friends who know they can trust each other. Informative? (A stoical, kindly friend like Horatio is and Cons Renewable Source of Energy Essay, a good choice for the Hamlet who we first meet. After all, he's considering suicide -- a posture that he will outgrow as the play goes on.) Hamlet says, Give me that man / That is informative essay, not passion's slave, and Values Studies I will wear him / In my heart's core, ay, in my heart of informative essay heart, / As I do thee. Our society doesn't talk as much about male bonding as Shakespeare's did. Around 1600, guys -- including Shakespeare -- commonly wrote poems for each other, and nobody thought this was weird.
Hamlet tells Horatio to Values watch the informative essay outline, king as the players re-enact the murder of Old Hamlet. Hamlet jokes -- first bawdily, then about how his mother looks cheerful despite his father having died only two hours ago. (Ophelia, who is literal-minded and and Cons as a Renewable Source Essay example thinks he is crazy, corrects him.) The play begins with a dumb show, in which the story is pantomimed. The king and essay outline the queen profess love, the king falls asleep, and the villain pours poison in the king's ear and and Cons of Ethanol Renewable Source example seduces the queen. If Polonius is a sinister old man and Claudius's accomplice, he can glance at the king when the poison is poured in the ear. If Gertrude knows the details of the homicide (the director can decide), she can glance at the king when the poison is poured in the ear, or be outraged herself. Many directors will choose to omit everything after the essay, poison is poured in the dumb show, and have the King get upset and run out right now. Otherwise, the play proceeds, while Hamlet cracks dirty jokes and the king mentions that the story is offensive. Courtiers who are suspicious or in-the-know can shoot glances at the king during the production.
When the villain pours the wings of fire 1, poison in informative outline, the victim's ear, and Hamlet shouts You will see [next] how the murderer gets the love of [the murdered man]'s wife, the king stands up, shouts Give me some light! Away!, Polonius calls for torches (Somebody get the lights. Essay On Values In Urban Studies? ), and everybody runs out. It seems to me that the entire Danish court realizes (or will soon realize) that Old Hamlet was murdered by Claudius, and that Hamlet knows too. (Hamlet is about to break through his own mother's denial.) Hamlet and Horatio congratulate each other. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern come back in looking for Hamlet, telling him the essay outline, king is very angry (duh) and that his mother wants to uprising see him (king's orders). Outline? Hamlet gives them goofy answers, intending to insult them rather than deceive them. Guildenstern asks for straight answers. Rosencrantz says, My lord, you once did love me, and asks why Hamlet is upset. Hamlet's response is to tell his friends to play the recorders that the actors brought. Benefits Of Qualitative Data? Neither knows how. Hamlet says they should be able to, since it is as easy as lying. Informative Outline? When they still refuse, Hamlet tells them that they can't play him like they would an instrument.
Once again, Hamlet's genuineness looks like madness. Polonius comes in, and Hamlet, still talking crazy, gets Polonius to wings of fire 1 agree that a particular cloud looks like each of three different animals. (Appearance versus reality.) In an aside, he says to outline the audience that this is as good a job of as a Source example acting crazy as he can manage. Alone on essay outline, stage, Hamlet says, Now could I drink hot blood / And do such bitter business as the day / Would quake to look on. (Unfortunately for decembrist, everyone, he is about to do just that, by stabbing Polonius.) He says that he'll keep his temper and not hurt his mother physically. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are back with the king, who says Hamlet is dangerous and that he will send him with them to England with a commission. The two spies talk in Elizabethan platitudes about the sacredness of informative kingship, the benefits of qualitative, importance of informative essay stability in a monarchy, being holy and religious, and so forth. (Uh huh, uh huh.) The spies leave. Polonius enters and tells Claudius he is going to hide in benefits, the bedroom. Claudius thanks him.
Now Claudius is by essay outline himself. The play has really affected him. Uprising? He tries to pray. We get to listen. If this were a contemporary action movie (today's revenge plays), we would simply hate the bad guy and wait for him to informative outline get his just deserts in the end. Shakespeare probably inherited this scene from his source, but he's done something special and unexpected. By giving Claudius real substance and depth, Shakespeare has at once imitated life, increased Hamlet's own stature by on Values in Urban giving him an enemy with real character, and outline reinforced the theme of appearance against reality.
Hamlet wants to take decisive action, but can't. It turns out that Claudius cannot, either. And it's Claudius -- not Hamlet -- who is prevented from acting by his own inner turmoil. He hates his crime. He wants to Essay on Studies repent. He realizes he could come clean, confess all, and part with his crown. and his queen. He realizes that until he is informative outline, willing to do this, he cannot find forgiveness from God. But he is afraid of the afterlife (where, unlike this world, money cannot defeat justice).
And he is Studies, disgusted by the murder itself. Claudius is trying hard, and calls on God's angels to help him get up the courage simply to pray for God's grace. Hamlet enters, sees the king unguarded. Perhaps following the plot of the old play, Hamlet spares him, since if he's killed during prayer his soul might end up going to heaven. Informative Essay? The actor can say, And so he goes to h. [long pause, he meant to say hell], uh, heaven. Somebody will ask you to say that Hamlet is a very bad person for wanting to wait for his revenge until the king is of fire book, more likely to informative outline end up going to hell. It seems to me that this scene probably was known from the older Hamlet play. Whatever you make of it, the King's speech is Source Essay example, among my favorites. Informative Outline? Shakespeare has added a special irony that's apparent in Claudius's words -- he was not even able to pray, only struggling.
Polonius hides behind a curtain (arras) in the bedroom. Hamlet comes in. The queen yells at him. He yells back. Hamlet accuses her of killing his father (i.e., complicity, perhaps just not thinking about working class, what she should realize her first husband was murdered). Of course, there is no evidence she actually knows. (In the quarto version, she says she has no knowledge of the murder.) Gertrude seems puzzled. Notice that Hamlet doesn't even mention that he is watching his mother in the Mousetrap scene; of course, she would pass the test.
Gertrude gets frightened and yells Help! Polonius behind the curtain yells Help! In the stress of the moment, Hamlet stabs him to death through the curtain. Essay Outline? (As a pathologist who's seen plenty of real-life murder, this fits perfectly with the most common scenario. Someone who is already very upset feels their basic dignity and personal space has been violated. And Polonius has done this to Hamlet.) Trying to victorian working avenge a murder and informative outline set things to right, Hamlet has just committed another murder -- this one senseless. But Hamlet is so focused on his mother that he does not even pause to see who he has killed before he accuses his mother of 2 of spain complicity in informative essay outline, the murder of benefits of qualitative his father. (Hamlet doesn't know for sure.) When Polonius's body falls out from behind the curtain, Hamlet remarks he thought it was the king (who he was just with, someplace else), and talks about how being a busybody is dangerous. He turns immediately back to informative outline his mother, who is baffled and evidently is The Pros of Ethanol Essay, just now realizing herself that Claudius is informative essay outline, a murderer. (In the quarto version, the Source Essay, queen says something to the effect that she has just now learned of Claudius's guilt. Perhaps some of the original text of the play has been lost from the folio version.)
Hamlet's speech to his mother has less to do with the murder and how it is wrong than with her sexual misbehavior and her not mourning her loving first husband. Many of informative us today will see this as a sexual double-standard from Shakespeare's own time. Maybe this is true; in any case, I'm old enough to remember the double standard and how wrong it was. Instead, focus on the queen's adultery and ingratitude, wrongs against her former husband. The ghost enters, visible to Hamlet but not to the queen.
Elizabethans believed ghosts might be visible to one person but not to another. Perhaps the queen is too morally debased to see the ghost, or perhaps Shakespeare didn't want to clutter his story by having the philip spain, ghost and the queen have it out between themselves. Informative? As Hamlet says he expects, the wings of fire 1, ghost is there to reinforce how important it is that Hamlet take revenge. But the ghost also asks Hamlet to step between [the queen] and her fighting soul, and help her in this moment of crisis to make the right choice. The queen thinks Hamlet is crazy. The ghost leaves. Hamlet tells the queen not to dismiss what he has said about her as the result of madness, and says how ironic it is that virtue (his blunt talk to his mother) has to informative essay outline ask pardon for its bad manners.
Hamlet tells his mother to victorian confess herself to heaven and to informative essay repent, and not to have sex with the king. Assume a virtue if you have it not is good advice -- as we'd say today, Fake it 'till you make it, or To be brave, act brave. Carrying out Polonius's body (as in the sources), Hamlet remarks that he's become heaven's scourge and minister against a corrupt world. He also says it has pleased heaven (God) -- in his killing of the old man -- to The Pros and Cons as a Essay punish Polonius for his mean-minded, foolish spying, and to punish Hamlet, who will have to outline take the consequences of his nasty-and-stupid act. He tells the queen not to victorian working reveal that he's feigning madness. He also indicates that he already knows the spies are going to do him mischief on the English trip, and that he has a counter-plan that will destroy them.
Exiting, he remarks that for outline, once, Polonius doesn't have anything to say. Decembrist? We never do figure out outline why Gertrude cannot see the ghost (if there is a reason). Nor does the scene focus on her realizing that the king is a murderer. Probably Hamlet couldn't persuade her since he still doesn't have the evidence; she'll only on in Urban realize this at the climax when she drinks the poison. Hamlet talks to her, as he does to others (Ophelia, the spies, Horatio) about informative, not being sullied by a crooked, corrupt world. Gertrude has not shown any signs of guilt beforehand, but afterwards, especially in philip, the scenes with Ophelia, she will speak of her guilty conscience.
Now that Hamlet has killed Polonius, he has become himself a murderer and the object of essay Laertes's just quest for revenge. No reasonable person would consider Hamlet either as culpable as Claudius, or excuse him entirely. (A jury today might be understanding, and even a prosecutor might say, Justifiable homicide.) Just recently, we heard Hamlet talk about his own patient merit. Now Hamlet is all-too-human. But there's something else. In this scene, Hamlet and his mother reaffirm their love for one another. Philip? From now on, Hamlet will no longer talk about life not being worth living. Perhaps this is the real turning-point of the play. The queen tells the essay, king what has happened to working class Polonius, and that Hamlet is insane. Informative Outline? The king says he will need to of fire book 1 send Hamlet off immediately, make some kind of excuse for him, and think how to protect the king's own good name (uh huh). Outline? Line 40 is defective. It should conclude with something about slander.
Hamlet has hidden Polonius's body, and when the spies question him, he talks crazy-crafty but says clearly that he knows they are working for the king and against him. He warns them that this is dangerous. By now the two spies do not even pretend they care about on Values in Urban, Hamlet. The king and essay two or three of his courtiers enter. Benefits Of Qualitative? The king says he cannot arrest Hamlet for fear of riots, but that the public would accept sending him away. The two spies bring Hamlet in. He talks crazy, commenting that everybody ends up dead in the end -- fat kings and lean beggars end up both food for worms, simply different menu items.
The king tells Hamlet he just go to England, and gives sealed letters to the two spies. Informative Essay? He tells them, Everything is sealed and done. It sounds as if the spies know the contents of the letters; a director who wishes to make this clear can have the king show the letters to decembrist uprising the spies first. The spies leave with Hamlet. The king, alone, tells the audience that the letters instruct the King of essay England to kill Hamlet upon his arrival. Fortinbras's army crosses the stage, and Fortinbras drops a captain off to visit the Danish court.
The captain meets Hamlet, Rosencrantz, and Guildenstern. 2 Of Spain? Hamlet asks about the army, and informative essay outline the captain says that Norway and Poland are fighting a stupid war over a worthless piece of land. Two thousand people are going to get killed over this nonsense. Hamlet says this is the result of rich people not having enough to do, a hidden evil like a deep abscess rupturing into the blood. Alone on wings of fire book 1, stage, Hamlet contrasts himself to Fortinbras. Hamlet has something worth doing that he hasn't yet done. Fortinbras is outline, busy doing something that isn't worthwhile. Values Studies? Hamlet reaffirms his bloody intentions. You may be asked to comment on this passage. You'll need to decide for yourself exactly what it means. If you've made it this far, you're up to the challenge.
A courtier tells the queen and outline Horatio that Ophelia is semi-coherent, talking about her dead father and wings book 1 that the world is full of deceptions (There's tricks in the world!) The queen does not want to essay outline talk to her; in an aside, she says it will trouble and expose her own guilty conscience. Since the benefits, scene in her bedroom, the queen has felt guilty. She speaks of her own sick soul and of sin's true nature; she also worries if she can keep her own composure with her own bad conscinece (So full of artless jealousy is guilt, it spills itself in fearing to informative outline be spilt.) Horatio suggests that the queen should see Ophelia just for of Ethanol Renewable of Energy, political reasons. Ophelia comes in, singing a song about a dead man, then one about essay, premarital sex. When she leaves, the king talks to the queen about all the wrong things that have happened -- Polonius killed and quietly buried without a state funeral, Hamlet sent (just[ly]) away, the people confused and upset, and Laertes on his way back, angry. (The king is, as usual, a hypocrite; everybody knows how the trouble really started.) Just then, Laertes (at the head of a mob) breaks down the wings of fire book 1, castle door. The mob wants Claudius deposed and Laertes crowned king. Laertes runs in, armed, and faces off with Claudius. He is doing exactly what Hamlet considered doing, and didn't do. Informative? Gertrude risks her own life by wrestling Laertes down.
Claudius tells her to wings of fire 1 let him go, because God protects kings (uh huh). Laertes yells, and outline Claudius asks for The Pros and Cons as a Source, a chance to essay explain. Crazy Ophelia comes in, preposterously arrayed with wild flowers, and wings 1 making half-sense. Laertes notes that her madness talks more clearly than ordinary words (This nothing's more than matter.) She sings another song about a dead man, and informative essay passes out philip symbolic flowers. You can have fun trying to figure out who gets the rosemary (remembrance, thinking of you -- weddings and funerals), who gets the pansies (thoughts, a pun on pensées), who gets the fennel (flattery / infidelity) and columbines (unchastity), who (with Ophelia) gets the rue (repentance / sorrow; probably Gertrude gets it, as she must wear her rue with a difference as to informative outline distinguish two coats of arms, since they have different reasons to be sorry), and who gets the of Ethanol Renewable Source of Energy Essay example, daisies (unrequited love; you know the essay outline, game with the benefits, daisy, She loves me, she loves me not). Ophelia regrets there have been no violets (faithfulness and essay outline friendship) available since her father died. Later, Laertes will ask violets to grow from Ophelia's body. Horatio gets a letter from The Pros and Cons of Ethanol Source example Hamlet. Supposedly he boarded a pirate ship during a sea scuffle.
The pirates are bringing him back home, knowing they'll get some kind of favor in the future. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are on informative essay, their way to philip 2 of spain England and outline Hamlet will have more to say about them. The king explains to Laertes that he couldn't arrest or prosecute Hamlet because the queen loves him and he's popular with the common people. He's about to tell Laertes that his revenge is imminent (Don't lose any sleep over that -- l. 31), though he probably plans to tell Laertes the details only after Hamlet is killed in England. Just then a letter comes from Hamlet announcing he's back in Denmark.
The king already has Plan B. The king says it's such a good plan that even his mother won't be suspicious. (Uh huh. The plot that Shakespeare inherited has some credibility problems, and Shakespeare does not seem to care.) He will have Laertes have a fencing match with Hamlet. Laertes will accidentally choose a weapon that is actually sharp, with which he'll kill Hamlet. (Hamlet is most generous, And free from all contriving, so he won't check the uprising, swords.) Laertes mentions that he has some blade poison. He must have bought it to use on informative essay, Claudius (who he thinks is the murderer of Polonius). Even a scratch will kill. (Uh huh, nobody will be suspicious?) Now the king decides that for backup (in case Laertes is unable to uprising stab Hamlet and outline make it look like an accident), he will have a poisoned drink ready, and Hamlet will want some when he's thirsty. Philip 2 Of Spain? (Uh huh, nobody will be suspicious?) Before you decide that you cannot suspend your disbelief, think about what's really going on. The king knows that the informative, court knows that he's already a murderer, and that they don't care. So nobody will do anything even when the king and benefits of qualitative Laertes kill Hamlet treacherously in plain view. The queen comes in, crying. Ophelia was hanging chains of flowers on trees. She climbed a willow that hung out over a river.
She fell into informative outline, the river, simply continued singing, and drowned when her clothes waterlogged. Victorian Working Class? Please note that this is obviously an informative outline, accident, not a suicide -- just as when a crazy person walks in front of a bus nowadays. 2 Of Spain? I think Claudius gives it out as a suicide just to inflame Laertes. We don't know who saw Ophelia drown, or why nobody tried to save her. Perhaps an observer from the castle battlements, or perhaps her last acts were reconstructed from the scene, or perhaps we are asking the wrong question. Two men are digging Ophelia's grave. One asks whether someone who tries to go to heaven by the short route (suicide) can be given Christian burial.
In Shakespeare's time (as Hamlet already mentioned in I.ii.), suicide was considered a sin, and sometimes even unforgivable. Suicides would ordinarily be buried in informative outline, unconsecrated ground without a Christian service. Sometimes they'd be buried at a crossroads (as a warning to everybody not to do the same), and and Cons Renewable of Energy Essay sometimes with a stake through the essay, heart (to prevent them from rising as undead, of course.) The men joke about how politics has influenced the coroner's decision to philip 2 of spain allow Christian burial. They parody lawyer talk (Maybe the water jumped on her, instead of her jumping into the water.
Or maybe she drowned herself in her own defense.) They say what a shame it is that, in our corrupt world, rich people have more of a right to commit suicide than do poor people. Hamlet and Horatio walk in. The gravedigger sings a contemporary song about having been in love and making love, and thinking it was great, but now being dead and in a grave as if he'd never lived at outline all. The marks -a- signify his grunting as he shovels. He tosses up a skull. Hamlet (incognito) asks who is to be buried, the in Urban Studies, men exchange wisecracks about death and Hamlet's insanity.
The gravedigger says he has been working at this trade since the very day that Hamlet was born. (Thus the informative essay, gravedigger comes to stand for philip spain, Hamlet's own mortality.) Hamlet asks about dead bodies, makes a four-way pun on the word fine, and jokes about chop-fallen (in the living it means frowning, but the skull has lost its chop, i.e., jawbone.) Loggits is the game we call horseshoes. Let her paint an inch thick is a reference to the new fashion of essay outline women wearing make-up. Even the jester couldn't make someone laugh about the working, fact that -- makeup or no -- death and essay its ugliness are inevitable. The gravedigger tells him which skull belonged to the court jester, Yorick. Hamlet also remembers Yorick's jokes and his kindness.
But there is more. In the medieval and renaissance world, it was the special privilege of the court jester to tell the truth. He could do this without fear of reprisals. Of Ethanol Of Energy Essay Example? In Shakespeare's plays (notably Twelfth Night, As You Like It, and King Lear), the jester's role as truth-teller is central. Hamlet has dealt with the informative, themes of honesty, dishonesty, and truth-telling. In this most famous scene of of Ethanol as a of Energy Essay example all, Yorick tells the truth without saying a word. We all end up in the same place, dead. The funeral party comes in, and Hamlet recognizes maimed rites, i.e., much of the informative essay, era's normal Christian burial service is eliminated because of the suspicion of suicide. Hamlet and Horatio hide. Benefits Of Qualitative Data? Laertes protests the fact that the essay outline, service is limited.
The pastor's reply is organized religion at philip its worst. Informative? Laertes says the priest is the one who will go to hell. He jumps into the grave, picks up the corpse and embraces it, and launches into a bombastic speech. The Pros And Cons Of Ethanol Renewable Source Of Energy? Hamlet comes out and jumps into the grave too. He calls himself Hamlet the Dane, claiming the informative essay, royal title. (In Shakespeare's era, a monarch was called by uprising the name of essay outline his country for short.) Shakespeare's heroes all develop as people, and many people (myself included) dislike Hamlet's attitude toward women as evidenced in the first half of the play. Studies? But in striking contrast to the nunnery scene, he now proclaims boldly, I loved Ophelia. Laertes drops the corpse and starts choking Hamlet.
Separated, Hamlet parodies Laertes's bombastic speech. Outline? Horatio takes Hamlet off and the king says to Laertes, Good. Now we have an excuse for a duel right away. Hamlet is explaining to Horatio about how he substituted his own letter to the King of England, ordering the execution of the spies. (He used flowerly language, though he hated doing it -- he even mentions that he was trained to write like that, and worked hard to forget how. Again, this is the theme of sincerity.) Hamlet already had a pretty good idea of what the English trip was all about, so his having a copy of the royal seal, and some wax and wings paper, is informative essay, no surprise (as he already indicated at the end of the bedroom scene.) Surprisingly, Hamlet talks about reading and changing the letters on an impulse, and has a famous line, There's a divinity that shapes our ends / Rough-hew them how we will. Essay Values? Rough-hew was to carve the basics of a woodcarving or sculpture, with the informative essay outline, fine-shaping to follow. Philip 2 Of Spain? Horatio (who seems more inclined to faith in God than do the other characters) agrees: That is most certain. Since this doesn't make perfect sense with the informative outline, plot, Shakespeare probably placed it here for philosophic reasons, especially given what is about to happen -- coincidences (Providence?) are going to work events out for Hamlet's cause. There seems to working be some mysterious design behind life that makes things work out and gives life its meaning. Unfortunately for outline, Hamlet and other decent people, it doesn't always bring about altogether happy endings.
Still, it's grand being part of things. Uprising? One can find similar ideas in Montaigne, Proverbs 16:9, and the modern Christian saying, A person proposes, God disposes. Bring your own life experience -- do you know of anyone who had been considering suicide who was comforted and perhaps dissuaded by the notion that somehow the universe (if not a personal God) would somehow work everything out? Do you think this is true? I can't answer. Horatio remarks that it'll only be a short time before the king finds out about the execution of the spies.
Hamlet says life itself is short (The interim is mine, / And a man's life's no more than to say 'One'.) Osric brings Laertes's challenge, Hamlet accepts. The king has bet heavily on Hamlet, probably to divert suspicion. Don't try to figure out the terms of the bet -- the two accounts contradict each other. Hamlet admits foreboding to Horatio, and both suspect foul play is imminent. But Hamlet decides to go forward anyway. We defy augury -- Hamlet is not going to essay let his apprehensions interfere with his showing courage and doing what he must.
There is of fire, special providence in the fall of essay a sparrow. Of Ethanol Renewable Essay? This is an allusion to the gospel. God knows every sparrow that falls. Mark Twain (The Mysterious Stranger) pointed out that the sparrow still falls. Hamlet is about to die, too, although God is watching. Hamlet notes that death is going to come, sooner or later.
The readiness is all -- being ready to live and die with courage and essay integrity is all the answer that Hamlet will find for death. Hamlet points out that nobody really knows what death is, so why be afraid to die young? Let be -- don't fight it. Is Let be the answer to To be or not to be? (!). The duel is 2 of spain, set up. In Q1 and Q2, they bring foils (long slender swords) and daggers; in Q2 and F foils and gauntlets (metal gloves). Informative? Hamlet puns on foil, a metal backing that made gemstones shine brighter; he will make Laertes look even more the champion fencer. Uprising? (Thanks to Hamlet, foil has come to mean any character who contrasts with the hero, showing up what kind of outline person the hero is.) Hamlet apologizes to Laertes, and blames his distracted mental state -- he wasn't himself. (There is a parallel in Romans 7-8). As the king expected, Hamlet is not at working all suspicious about the swords, and merely asks whether they're all the same length.
In the first round, Hamlet tags Laertes (who is thinking about the essay outline, poison and perhaps doesn't have his heart really in it). The king drops the poison in the cup, pretending he thinks it's a pearl. Philip 2 Of Spain? (Okay, this is silly.) Whether the essay outline, court thinks the pearl is to philip spain be dissolved in acidified wine and drunk (occasionally done as conspicuous-consumption), or is a gift to Hamlet, you'll need to decide for informative outline, yourself. The king probably takes a drink (from another cup, or he drinks before the poison is dissolved, or he just pretends to drink.) The queen mentions that Hamlet is fat and out of breath. Fat just means sweating, so she wipes his forehead. In the second round, Hamlet hits Laertes again. The queen grabs the cup and drinks despite the king's warning. We'll never know whether she has just realized what is going on, and wants to decembrist uprising save Hamlet's life and maybe end her own miserable existence. (She does realize quickly that the cup is poisoned. People who are really poisoned without their knowledge just think they are suddenly sick.) Laertes says in informative, an aside that he's having moral qualms about killing Hamlet by treachery. The third round ends in a draw (perhaps locked weapons), then Laertes reaches out and scratches Hamlet illegally when he is not looking. (When Laertes begins a round, he says Come; when he says Have at Essay in Urban Studies you now, it signals something illegal.) They scuffle (because of the outline, illegal blow, Hamlet is incensed).
During the scuffle, they exchange swords. Uprising? This was a recognized move in outline, fencing. One fencer would grab the other's hand with his free hand (usually with a metal glove) or strike it with his dagger. The right response was for the other fencer to do the same, and swords could then be exchanged. On stage, the exchange is Values Studies, usually done by having Hamlet disarm Laertes with his sword, which flies up. Hamlet puts his foot on the sharp poisoned sword (he knows it's sharp, but not that it's poisoned, and essay outline he intended to scratch Laertes back). Hamlet gives his own sword to Laertes, fights again, and in Urban inflicts a deeper wound on him, explaining why Laertes dies quicker.
The queen announces the informative essay, drink is poisoned, and drops dead. Laertes tells everything, and of fire book 1 shouts The king's to informative essay outline blame! For the first time, Hamlet can kill the king and have people realize he was right. Hamlet stabs the king with the poisoned blade, then forces the poisoned beverage down his throat. Elizabethans pretended to believe that kings were sacred, so Shakespeare had to have everybody shout Treason, but nobody does anything. (If the on, director wishes, the guards and court can draw their own weapons and surround the king. Horatio can show the letters to England at this time, too.) Hamlet says he is dying, and Horatio offers to commit suicide like a Roman soldier when his side was defeated. Outline? Hamlet drinks the poison instead, to class ensure Horatio won't.
If Hamlet saw no reason to live, then Horatio has one -- to tell the informative essay, truth about Hamlet. In the class, final scene, Fortinbras happens by, as do the English with word of the spies' execution. In the last irony, Fortinbras has gotten his land back, and essay his own father's death avenged. Horatio says he'll tell about accidental judgments, i.e., people have gotten their just deserts through seeming accidents -- the theme of God working in decembrist, the world to make things right. Informative Outline? Fortinbras calls for The Pros of Ethanol Renewable of Energy, military honors to be shown Hamlet's body. Some people will see this recovery of ceremonial to mean things are right with the world again. Others will simply see one more example of power passing in an unfair world -- as it was in essay outline, the real Dark Ages. In Ingmar Bergman's production of Hamlet, Fortinbras's words, Bid the soldiers shoot! is The Pros of Ethanol Renewable Essay example, their signal to pull out their guns and outline slaughter Horatio and Essay on in Urban the rest of the informative essay, surviving Danish court. Shakespeare's Hamlet was a remake of an already popular play, based in turn on historical fiction, based in turn on an episode from the Dark Ages, the lawless, might-makes-right era that followed the collapse of Roman-era civilization.
The Historical Hamlet was the son of a Danish King of the Jutes, who lived during the Dark Ages. The warlord was assassinated and his crown usurped by working class his brother. This was a coup, not a secret murder. According to current superstition, anyone who killed a crazy person risked acquiring the same disease from the victim's spirit. Therefore, the murdered warlord's son pretended to be crazy, acquiring the nickname Amlothi, crazy person. Eventually he killed his uncle and became King of the Jutes in turn. Essay Outline? He ruled successfully, and the nickname stuck. The Geneologies [my link is now down] record Amleth, King of Denmark. They show that he married a Scottish princess named Herminthrud (Hermutrude). He was eventually killed in battle. He is buried in Denmark in a field called Ammelhede (Hamlet's Heath) to this day.
In a strange twist of fate, Herminthrud married one Viglek, also King of Denmark, the man whose army defeated and wings of fire 1 killed Hamlet. Michael Skovmand, Dept. of informative essay English at on Values U. of Aarhus, Denmark, shared this with me: There is outline, a Frisian runic inscription from about 700 AD to the effect that On a cliff Amleth put up resistance (translated from Danish: På en klint satte Amled sig til værge). There is a consensus that Amleth was a local prince in Jutland in the 7th century. Victorian Class? But there is more, albeit circumstantial evidence which points to a pre-Saxo Amleth.
A report from a vicar north of Aarhus in outline, Jutland from 1623 describes a locality called Ammelhede where according to local legend Amled lies buried. The Pros And Cons Of Ethanol Essay Example? The details of this report shows how Amled existed in popular memory, independent of Saxo which at that time had only existed in Danish a hundred years and had practically no readership beyond the clergy and a few academics. Ammelhede exists to informative essay this very day, and in 1933 the local tourist board put up a stone with this memorial inscription: Amled ypperste / Oldtids-snille / teed sig tåbe / Til H‘vnens time / Kaaret paa ting / Af jyder til konge/ H jsat han hviler / Paa Ammel Hede ( = Amled the Essay Values in Urban Studies, greatest / Craftiest of Old / Acted a fool / Until the hour of revenge / Elected at the Ting / by informative outline Jutes to be king / raised high he rests / at philip spain Ammel Heath [my translation]) So next time you visit Denmark, stop by Ammelhede, a few miles to the south-east of Randers -- don't even think about visiting the bogus 'Hamlet's Grave' between Elsinore and Copenhagen! In Saxo, Hamlet pretends to think that the beach sand is ground grain. This is ancient, being repeated explicitly in outline, an old Norse saga (the Prose Edda) that refers to the ocean-wave nymphs who ground Hamlet's grain. (Kennings sometimes alluded to victorian class other stories that the audience would know.) The ancient Roman, Lucius Junius Brutus, also feigned insanity while awaiting his revenge. This gave the informative essay outline, family its name (brute = unthinking animal), and it was passed along to the Brutus who killed Caesar. Decembrist Uprising? David (I Samuel) also once feigned madness to essay deceive Saul. Philip 2 Of Spain? In our era, organized crime leader Vincente Gigante is informative essay, said to victorian working class have feigned madness.
There is a historical novel, now hard to find, about the historical Hamlet entitled The War of Jutish Succession. Royal Deceit is a B-movie, not released in theaters, adapted from Saxo. I'd appreciate knowing of any good links. Amled -- Viking Theater play based on Saxo. Link is now down.
Prince of informative Jutland -- Danish movie based on Saxo. Christian Bale is Hamlet. Saxo Grammaticus Historia Danica , written around 1200, presents a highly-fictionalized (actually silly) version of the story. Horwendil, warlord of Jutland, kills the King of Norway in decembrist uprising, single combat and is given Gurutha, daughter of the King of Denmark. Their son is informative outline, Amleth. Horwendil's jealous brother Feng murders Horwendil and benefits marries Gurutha. Informative? The murder is no secret. Victorian? (The historical Macbeth killed an enemy in public, and promptly married his victim's wife, who became Lady Macbeth.) Gurutha is informative essay, happy enough, especially when Feng claims he killed Horwendil to protect Gurutha from impending mistreatment. Amleth pretends to be crazy. The Pros And Cons Of Ethanol Essay? Feng tries to find out whether he is really crazy, or just pretending. First, Feng puts an attractive woman in the woods where Hamlet will find her, and observes secretly.
Amleth is outline, warned of the plot, and takes the woman off for a private date. Benefits Of Qualitative? They have a great time, having been childhood friends, and she tells Amleth everything. Next, Feng hides a courtier under some straw to eavesdrop on Amleth's conversations with his mother. Amleth suspects a trap, pretends to think he is a chicken, jumps around on the straw, stabs the eavesdroper to death through the straw, cuts the body up, and tosses it into the sewer where it is eaten by the pigs. Amleth has a long speech in which he calls his mother a whore and makes her sorry. She agrees to help him. She begins weaving a net to entrap Feng's courtiers. Feng sends Amleth to King of Britain with two courtiers who carry sealed letters asking the King of Britain to execute Amleth. Amleth finds these and outline substitutes different letters asking for the execution of the courtiers and that Amleth be given the King of Britain's daughter in marriage. Again, this all works out for Amleth. Benefits Data? At the British court, Amleth demonstrates his abilities at essay outline psychic divination.
Amleth returns a year later. He arrives at Feng's court, where he again pretends to be insane. He plays with his sword and benefits data cuts himself, and outline the guests nail his sword to its scabbard. Decembrist? Amleth plays host, gets everybody drunk, flings a net woven by his mother over essay the drunken courtiers, and burns the king's house. Feng is asleep nearby. Amleth goes into Feng's bedroom, exchanges swords with the sleeping Feng, then awakes him and challenges him to single combat. Feng now has the sword that is nailed to the scabbard, and Amleth kills him. Amleth goes on to become a successful Viking looter and warlord, finally dying in battle. Saxo confirms that Amleth's Scottish wife betrayed him and married Wiglek (Viglek), the man who had killed him in battle. Belleforest's Histories Tragiques was a book of The Pros and Cons as a Source example stories in French from 1576. Belleforest adapted Saxo's historical fiction.
The queen committed adultery before the murder of essay Hamlet's father. Hamlet is melancholy and brooding. There is a lot of wings dialogue. Hamlet's very long speech in informative, his mother's bedroom is closely followed by victorian working class Shakespeare. There was an English translation in 1608, The History of Hamblet (sic.) ; it borrows Shakespeare's A rat! A rat!, and specifically makes the covering through which the spy is stabbed into informative essay outline, a wall hanging. My link to Belleforest in translation is now down. Please let me know if this ever reappears online. The Spanish Tragedy was a revenge play by Thomas Kyd with several similarities to Shakespeare's Hamlet. It may be a companion-piece to the original Hamlet play, that Kyd probably also wrote.
The background is class, one of outline international political intrigue. A ghost reveals a secret murder (but to the audience, not the hero). The hero (who learns of on a murder via a letter) must decide whether a murder was really committed, and by whom. The hero acts crazy; it is not clear how much of this is pretending. The hero upbraids himself for delaying, although his only problem is figuring out how to kill a king surrounded by guards. There is a play-within-the-play. The bad guys play roles, and are actually killed onstage. There are several records of informative essay outline a play, performed in 1594 at Newington Butts outside London, and decembrist uprising probably earlier, about Hamlet. It is described as a tragedy with a ghost crying Hamlet, revenge!. The play was evidently never published, and of course we do not have the manuscript.
Thomas Nashe wrote in 1589 in his introduction to a book by informative essay Robert Greene, English Seneca read by candlelight yields many good sentences -- as 'Blood is a beggar' and of Ethanol of Energy Essay example so forth; and if you entreat him fair on a frosty morning he will offer you whole Hamlets, I should say handfuls, of tragical speeches! Nashe is mostly spoofing Thomas Kyd, who wrote blood-and-thunder revenge plays. Informative Outline? So Kyd is probably the author of the first Hamlet play. In 1596, Thomas Lodge wrote about the ghost which cried so miserably at the theater, like an oyster wife, 'Hamlet revenge!'. We can assume that this play had the murder a secret, and a ghost to reveal it to Hamlet. Some people will tell you that this play must be the source of these plot elements, which fit with the genre: Hamlet's death and the surrounding circumstances. You can decide for class, yourself; we're not going to know whether these were introduced by Kyd (or whoever wrote the essay, first Hamlet play) or by Shakespeare. It contains elements that distinguish it from the other versions we have of Shakespeare's Hamlet.
They might perhaps come from the wings 1, older Hamlet play, via the actor's reconstruction. The spy is outline, called Corambis, not Polonius. His servant is Montano, not Reynaldo. The queen assures Hamlet she knew nothing of the murder -- but Hamlet hasn't even told her about it. The queen promises to conceal, consent, and working class do her best to aid Hamlet in essay, his revenge against the king. The queen warns Hamlet, via Horatio, of a plot. Whenever there is disagreement between Q1 and Q2 or F, Q1 is inferior -- making less sense, or not sounding so good. Some of the stage directions tell us things that we wouldn't know from other sources.
The ghost comes into the queen's bedroom in his pajamas (night gown); Ophelia plays the lute (an early kind of guitar) when she's crazy. When Hamlet and Laertes fight, they catch one another's rapiers. Here is Hamlet's most famous speech as it appears in the Bad Quarto. To be, or not to be, aye, there's the point, To die, to sleep, is that all?
Aye, all. No, to sleep, to dream, aye merry, there it goes, For in that dream of death, when we awake, And borne before an everlasting Judge, From whence no passenger ever returned, The undiscovered country, at those sight. The happy smile, and the accursed damned. But for this, the joyful hope of 1 this,
Who'd bear the informative essay, scorns and flattery of the world, Scorned by the right rich, the rich cursed of the poor? The widow being oppressed, the orphan wronged, The taste of hunger, or a tyrant's reign, And thousand more calamities besides, To grunt and sweat under this weary life, When that he may his full quietus make, With a bare bodkin?
Who would this endure, But for victorian working class, a hope fo something after death? Which puzzles the brain, and doth confound the sense, Which makes us rather bear those evils we have, Than fly to essay others that we know not of. Aye that, oh this conscience makes cowards of us all.
First Quarto (1603) -- visit here to see just how bad the bad quarto is. Warning: This link crashed my IE browser twice. Antonio's Revenge by John Marston, is mentioned by a contemporary source as 1601, and has a very similar plot to Shakespeare's Hamlet. The murdered man's wife marries his murderer, and the murdered man's ghost calls his son to revenge. The son pretends to 2 of spain be insane, and essay outline is melancholy. He walks around in black reading a book.
There is a play-within-a-play for no reason. The son foregoes an benefits data, opportunity to kill the murderer in essay, hopes of a better revenge later. The ghost speaks from beneath the stage, and reappears in decembrist, the mother's bedroom. The son's girlfriend dies of a broken heart. Probably Marston was using Shakespeare's plot, since Shakespeare has a literary source and Marston doesn't.
Der Bestrafte Brudermord (Fratricide Punished) is informative essay outline, a German play that is obviously an adaptation of philip 2 of Shakespeare's Hamlet, which it resembles in informative outline, contradistinction to Belleforest. A ghost appears to Francisco, Horatio, and on Values Studies the other guards at the beginning. Hamlet says he is sick at heart over his father's death and his mother's remarriage. Hamlet wants to go back to Wittenberg but the king asks him to stay in outline, Denmark. Corambus's son Leonhardus goes to France. The king gets drunk, as is his habit.
The ghost tells how he was killed by of qualitative having hebona poured in his ear. Hamlet makes Horatio and the guards promise not to tell what they have seen. Outline? They swear in several locations. Decembrist Uprising? The ghost calls on them to swear from below ground. Hamlet begins acting crazy. Outline? Corambus remembers his own youth, and and Cons as a Source of Energy example suggests that Hamlet is in love.
Hamlet tells Ophelia to go to a nunnery. Hamlet stages a play-within-a-play. The king's guilt is revealed by essay his reaction when poison is poured into philip, the player-king's ear. Hamlet comes upon the king at prayer, but spares him so that his soul will not go to heaven. Hamlet kills Corambus by stabbing him through a tapestry. Hamlet talks to his mother and is visited again by the ghost, who says nothing.
Ophelia goes crazy and commits suicide by jumping off a cliff. The two spies take Hamlet to an island off Dover, where they reveal their intention to informative shoot him. They stand on either side and let him give the signal. He ducks and they shoot each other. Hamlet finds that they carried letters instructing the of qualitative, English king to execute him if their plot fails. Hamlet, the king, the queen, and Leonhardus all die in the same ways as in Shakespeare's play. The king uses diamond dust as poison. (That won't work. -- Ed the Pathology Guy.). What's more, the scenes and narrative proceed in informative, the same order as in Shakespeare's play. Somebody will tell you that the old man's name being Corambus is decembrist, proof that Der Bestrafte Brudermord must therefore derive from the older Hamlet play. This seems silly to me.
I'd conclude, rather, that in informative essay outline, the first run of Shakespeare's Hamlet, Polonius and Reynaldo were named Corambis and Montano, and that Shakespeare changed their names for some reason. Der Bestrafte Brudermord has some other points of working agreement with Q1 against Q2, but even more with Q2 against Q1. So both seem to be adaptations of Shakespeare's original. So what did Shakespeare add? Shakespeare was constrained by informative essay his plot and genre to have Hamlet's revenge delayed, and to have Hamlet talk about wings book, being frustrated. Informative Essay? Belleforest provided the essential plot. The old Hamlet play, which we do not have, must have contributed other elements. Shakespeare adds more. The play is spain, very long, and informative essay outline must have been trimmed for production.
So Shakespeare must have written much of it to please himself. We also have another hint that Hamlet is uprising, Shakespeare's mouthpiece -- Shakespeare named his own son Hamnet. His neighbors in Stratford were Hamnet and Judith Sadler, and Hamlet's name was sometimes spelled Hamlet. Hamnet Shakespeare died in August 1596. To discern an author's intent, look for material that does not specifically advance the essay, plot, typify the genre, or have strong mass-audience appeal. Here is what Shakespeare added. Hamlet considers suicide, and talks about it in words to which most of us can relate. Mostly, it's people's stupid mistreatment of other people that makes him think life is not worth living.
The one extended reference to The Pros and Cons of Ethanol as a of Energy Essay Christianity (the rooster crows all night in the Christmas season) is a beautiful legend that is obviously not true. Hamlet's father, who he remembers so fondly, is burning in the afterlife for his sins. Either Hamlet's father was not such a fine person as Hamlet says, or the afterlife itself is as unfair as our own world. (Of course Shakespeare could not talk about this possibility openly.) Speaking of the afterlife. Outline? Hamlet, considering suicide, mentions that no one has ever returned from the afterlife with any details. This is despite the fact that we just saw him talking to a ghost. I think Shakespeare is benefits, saying, This story is fiction. The ideas Hamlet talks about are basic to human experience. The girl who is used as a spy on Hamlet is one about whom he cares very much, and informative essay who may be pregnant by him. In the original, the spy who gets killed in the bedroom is a nobody, a throw-away person killed as casually as in a bad action movie. Wings Of Fire Book 1? The spy who Hamlet kills in his mother's bedroom is not only somebody we have gotten to essay know -- he is the father of the woman Hamlet loves.
Hamlet stabs him just because he is distraught and not thinking clearly. Hamlet -- who lives in a bad world -- himself becomes culpable. Shakespeare does not allow us to overlook this. The two spies who Hamlet sends to their deaths are his college fraternity brothers. It is not absolutely certain that they actually intend Hamlet any harm.
It's just conceivable that they are too stupid to realize what's going on. Hamlet is interested in acting, and 1 coaches actors. Outline? One player over-acts, and Hamlet reflects on how people pay more attention to make-believe than to real life. In the prayer scene, Shakespeare lets us listen to wings book the King as he tries to informative essay outline repent his crime, and fails. The king gains much stature and some sympathy. Hamlet talks to a foot soldier who knows that the war is stupid and philip 2 of spain that he is likely to die for no good reason.
Hamlet reflects that this dumb war is the result of rich people having nothing to outline do. The gravediggers crack jokes about death and suicide, remarking on how a politics and money allowed the girl to receive a minimal Christian burial. The priest's remarks to Laertes show organized dogmatism at its most heartless. And Cons Of Energy Example? (In fact, this pathologist thinks Ophelia probably died accidentally.) Hamlet handles Yorick the informative outline, beloved jester's skull and Essay on in Urban meditates on how everybody ends up dead in the end. Hamlet likes the man with whom he fights his duel. Hamlet has wronged Laertes as Claudius has wronged Hamlet, and Hamlet knows it. Hamlet tells Horatio he think that perhaps there's a divinity that shapes our ends and this made him board the pirate ship. From time to time, Hamlet talks about a sense that he is God's agent, with his steps guided by divine providence. But the death-scene itself is explicitly without any Christian comfort.
In Q1 (recalled by the actor either from the essay outline, earlier play, or from what a good-guy hero might be expected to say), Hamlet's last words were, Heaven receive my soul. Instead, Shakespeare's Hamlet speaks cryptic last words: The rest is silence. Generally, Hamlet talks a great deal about death and disease, without any suggestion of an orthodox religious faith to make it meaningful or bearable. Almost all readers and viewers come away from Hamlet liking the prince very much. He is a thinker, and he is funny. We see into his own mind, and discover him to wings of fire 1 be genuine and sincere. We admire him for resisting the evil around him. But Hamlet is informative outline, both stupid and mean when he kills Polonius. Wings Of Fire Book 1? And it is hard to informative outline like his nasty, bitter outlook on Essay Studies, life in outline, the first half of the The Pros and Cons of Ethanol Renewable of Energy example, play. Especially, if you do not like everything about today's teenaged Goth culture (wearing black, being clever and informative disrespectful, playing with people's feelings, complaining that life seems meaningless and empty), you won't like everything about the Hamlet who we meet at the beginning.
If this were an action-movie or something by one of Shakespeare's contemporaries, the prince might be entirely sympathetic, and class his enemies altogether despicable. It's characteristic of Shakespeare's later tragedies that our sympathies are always divided. Some of the most powerful serious movies (Shane, Unforgiven, Hoodlum -- all are revenge plays) have the same moral ambiguity. You can find examples from classical tragedy as well (Agamemnon, Medea, many more). In Hamlet, Shakespeare explains why he writes in this way -- he intends to outline hold a mirror up to nature, to show us ourselves. I know not 'seems'. -- Hamlet. I'd already noticed when I was formally taught it in philip, my medical school psychiatry course.
For most twenty-year-olds, the biggest life-issue is, What has happened to essay outline most forty-year-olds that caused them to lose the ideals and the authenticity of youth? For most forty-year-olds, the biggest life-issue is, How did I lose the working class, ideals and authenticity that made me who I was when I was twenty? It's no coincidence that college Greeks profess high ideals. Essay? It's what makes them work. for people not yet corrupted by the world. Teenaged Holden Caulfield (Catcher in the Rye) described the philip 2 of spain, shams of the essay, phony society of the wealthy, and heard Hamlet had talked about the same theme. 2 Of Spain? He plans to read the essay, play eventually. In the 1970's, it was usual for people to call each other phony if they thought differently about something, and there was no defending against it. Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn uses another young person to comment on the falsity of adult society. Huck lives fairly well, as Hamlet does. Huck speaks only by in Urban his actions, without Hamlet's eloquence. Outline? Mark Twain uses humor and irony to show how much finer Huck is than his betters.
The king holds a ceremonious first-public-meeting in I.ii. Polonius is buried without ceremony. Ophelia gets a limited ceremony. At the end, Fortinbras holds a ceremonial memorial for Hamlet. In Macbeth, we are treated to a spectacle from the same era of warlords that gives the setting for Hamlet. Everybody knows Macbeth killed Duncan, and nobody intends to do anything to bring him to justice, preferring the stability provided by another capable leader. Of Qualitative Data? In Hamlet's court, everybody (not just Hamlet, and probably even his mother) must suspect Claudius to be a murderer. After the informative outline, play-within-the-play, it's obvious. Son: Dad, what's the benefits of qualitative, difference between ignorance and informative apathy? Dad: Son, I don't know and 2 of spain I don't care. -- Contemporary.
At the end, Hamlet's fideism, a vague faith in informative, God's ability to on Values Studies sort out the mess of this world without any more specific religious dogma, is the kind of faith that many honest, thinking people have reached in our own day. Informative Outline? Elizabethans talked of victorian class God's general providence (the goodness and informative essay outline intelligence that created and of fire book sustains the world) and God's special providence (God guiding events subtly to make things work out for the right.) You will need to decide for yourself whether special providence is at work in our own world, or whether Shakespeare actually believed so. Informative Outline? But Hamlet thinks it does. Hamlet sees himself as God's agent, and he tells this to his friends (O cursed spite. ) and 1 his mother (scourge and minister). Hamlet reflects on essay outline, God's providence (fall of a sparrow) after his life is saved from the The Pros of Ethanol Renewable Source, spies. Laertes sees his own death as God's judgment, and informative Hamlet as God's avenger. What is telling, though, is that this does not enable Hamlet to hope for, or expect, a better afterlife. Is Life Worth Living? If his chief good and data market of his time. Is but to sleep and feed?
A beast, no more. Informative Outline? -- Hamlet. Pathologists joke, Is life worth living? It depends on the liver!. Seriously, we've all asked this question. Shakespeare offers no pat answer, only Values in Urban Studies Hamlet's courage and dignity in accepting the human condition, saying No! to corruption, and in meeting his own task and his own death. In the informative essay, noir genre of hard-boiled detective fiction, the hero gradually learns about both public and private corruption. Nothing is as it seems. The hero strikes back, but the The Pros and Cons Source of Energy example, ending is never completely happy. Hamlet is called to his revenge by heaven and hell, i.e., something that Shakespeare thought of as more fundamental than the struggle between good and evil.
Hamlet talks a great deal about the nature of human beings, characterizes himself as indifferent[ly] honest and could accuse himself of things for which it would have been better if he hadn't been born. We are left to wonder what these are, but soon Hamlet becomes the villain in a revenge story that mirrors his own. Old Hamlet, supposedly a good man, is burning for a while in purgatory for unconfessed sins of the kind that ordinary folks commit. Claudius, who Hamlet considers a very bad man, shows us his true mind twice, and we see a struggle between his hunger for outline, divine grace and his need to data keep his wife's love. The morality plays that preceded Shakespeare showed examples of good and bad people, and informative heroes that had a clear choice and made it.
Shakespeare seems to be telling us in Hamlet that we can and should try to live well, but that both good and bad are inherent in the human condition. Growing up, we must come to terms with our inability to spain live up to our own ideals. (You may have trouble finding much on essay outline, life's gray areas in English literature before Shakespeare. Even Chaucer published a pious deathbed retraction for his freethinking.) Today we hear a lot about the usual five stages of coming to terms with death (impact, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance.) As a physician, I've noticed that the of qualitative, sequence often happens as described, though it's by no means invariable. (People with a living, mature religious faith often -- but by no means always -- simply accept.) At the end, Hamlet is no longer depressed, but accepts the human condition.
Whether he's right to do so is informative essay, something you'll need to decide. But it's a common experience for people growing up. And Shakespeare's shown it to us in Hamlet. If you find yourself wondering whether it's worth going on living in a world full of sham and wrong. perhaps you will find your own answers in unselfish love rather than in stoical acceptance. And perhaps you, too, can be a hero. Shakespeare was constrained by his plot. to have Hamlet pretend to be delusional; and. to have Hamlet kill the spy in his mother's bedroom. The principal scene in The Pros and Cons as a Renewable Source, which Hamlet pretends to be crazy (puts [his] antic disposition on) is the informative essay outline, one in which he teases Polonius, calling him a fishmonger (compare fleshmoner, or pimp. remember that Polonius wants money for his virgin daughter.) In the other scenes, Hamlet acts genuine and other people think he's crazy.
Ophelia describes Hamlet's silent visit and Polonius thinks it's craziness. Ophelia hears Hamlet telling her to get out of a bad world, and she thinks he's lost his reason. Hamlet's mother thinks Hamlet is crazy after becoming distraught at the end of the closet scene. After the play-within-the-play, the king knows Hamlet isn't crazy, but tells the rest of the court that he must be sent away to wings book England because of outline his mental illness. Notice how Shakespeare adds a new theme -- be yourself, be genuine, and a fake world will consider you to be deviant. Shakespeare's Hamlet is already distraught, and in times of emotional distress, we do wrong things without thinking. Afterwards, Hamlet (who is indifferent honest), blames his madness for philip, the killing of informative essay outline Polonius. The delusions are fake (as Claudius, and anybody familiar with real mental illness, will recognize). The irrational striking-out in a moment of emotional turmoil is very real.
Shakespeare's play focused on the mind of a man who's profoundly distraught and who is asking himself whether life is worth living. Having Hamlet also pretend to be insane was central to the old story, but not to Shakespeare's play. Hamlet uses his feigned madness to victorian working class point out to those around him how crazy and false the sane world is. Informative? There are themes and real controversies that you can explore further, based on your own experience of life. T.S.
Eliot, asked whether the madness of and Cons of Ethanol as a Renewable Source of Energy Essay example Hamlet was real or feigned, asked, Is the informative, madness of Hamlet's critics real or feigned? This sums it up for me. The nonsense about on in Urban Studies, Hamlet being unable to make up his mind begins with his own speeches after hearing the Player King's speech on Hecuba (he berates himself for informative essay outline, hesitating), and especially after talking to Fortinbras's soldier (thinking too precisely on the event -- i.e., people who obsess a lot are the ones who do the least). Obsessive-compulsive personality and neurosis are well-known, and mild variants have affected most bright people occasionally. Wings? Bradley points out that Hamlet seems depressed (melancholy) and that this will slow a person down; early 20th century writers influenced by psychoanalysis talked about a mother-fixation causing the depression. But the truth is that Hamlet has no opportunity to kill the king and informative essay outline then justify his action, until the final disaster, when Laertes reveals The king's to blame. In the case, providence provides the opportunity. Hamlet really does not delay his revenge any more than do Robocop or Nevada Smith. Heroes of earlier revenge plays soliloquize about having to delay, and criticize themselves for it.
But revenge plays require that the revenge take time and planning -- or there would be no play. Sam Coleridge (an obsessive who blamed the failure of his grandiose projects on his opium habit) talked about Hamlet thinking too hard. Coleridge identified with this Hamlet, but this isn't Shakespeare's Hamlet. Schlegel called Hamlet thought-sick. Goethe found Hamlet lovely, sensitive and without strength of nerve. Now, when Hamlet expresses regrets that he's not completed his revenge, he compares himself unfavorably to the Player King (who has just recited a ridiculous, bombastic speech) and to Fortinbras (who is getting thousands of philip people killed for no good reason at all -- I first became interested in Shakespeare during the informative, Vietnam war). It is no coincidence that both the Player King and Fortinbras are pursuing stupid, vain goals.
What is spain, Shakespeare trying to informative essay tell us? Hamlet's revenge isn't so much simply the killing of the philip, king, as it is the purging of all the rottenness in the Danish court. And although it costs him his life, he succeeds. At some time, we all consider how much wrong there is in the world. Hamlet gives us a chance to watch an ordinary person consciously choose to say No! to the world's wrongness and phoniness, and to informative essay strike back with intelligence and power. From the decembrist, bare-bones of an old revenge story, Shakespeare has held up the mirror to something in us that is precious.
I hear Hamlet saying, So many people put so much effort into doing things that are not worthwhile. It's a bad world, and I am far from a perfect human being. And we all end up dead in the end. Informative Outline? But I am going to do something worthwhile, and do it right. More on whether Hamlet has a tragic flaw. I believe that the whole there has to be a tragic flaw business was dreamed up by wings book 1 Aristotle, who got paid to tell young people that if they were really good, then bad things couldn't happen to them, and that people went to sad shows just to informative outline have a good cry (purge the emotions of pity and fear). If it is helpful, point out the benefits, obvious. Aristotle said that a tragic hero should have character flaws so that we wouldn't see bad things happening to totally-good people. Maybe the heroes of informative essay Shakespeare's tragedies are not all-virtuous because Shakespeare wants to show us life as it really is. Since Sophocles's ultra-coldblooded Electra, revenge plays have been among the favorite genre for Essay Studies, theater and movies. Why?
First, a revenge play presumes that to right a wrong, somebody is forced to take the law into his or her own hands. This showcases one of the most important and serious of essay outline human concerns -- how do we maintain good law (i.e., a government that really protects its people's lives and opportunities)? It's the central question of civilization. (The conclusion of Electra is chilling -- read Sophocles's answer.) Second, the revenger must overcome obstacles to Values revenge. The lead character has a strong purpose with which we can identify, and informative essay outline we can share his or her feelings and thoughts. There is victorian class, a satisfaction when revenge is informative essay, finally won. Shakespeare's philosophy? You decide!
One may find ideas similar to those in Hamlet in wings of fire book, Montaigne's essays (here's a top-flight college paper for informative outline, an eager student), in Ecclesiastes (Old Testament, of course) and in the following famous twentieth-century piece (sometimes stated to be much older). Go placidly amid the noise and haste, and remember what peace there may be in silence. As far as possible, without surrender, be on of fire book 1, good terms with all persons. Speak your truth quietly and clearly; and essay listen to others, even to the dull and ignorant; they too have their story. Avoid loud and aggressive persons; they are vexations to the spirit. If you compare yourself with others, you may become vain or bitter, for always there will be greater and lesser persons than yourself. Enjoy your achievements as well as your plans. Keep interested in your own career, however humble, it's a real possession in the changing fortunes of time. Exercise caution in your business affairs, for the world is uprising, full of trickery. But let this not blind you to what virtue there is; many persons strive for high ideals, and everywhere life is full of essay outline heroism. Be yourself.
Especially do not feign affection. Neither be cynical about decembrist uprising, love; for essay, in the uprising, face of informative essay outline all aridity and disenchantment, it is as perennial as the grass. Take kindly the counsel of the years, gracefully surrendering the Essay, things of youth. Nurture strength of informative outline spirit to shield you in sudden misfortune. But do not distress yourself with dark imaginings. Many fears are born of fatigue and loneliness. Beyond a wholesome discipline, be gentle with yourself. The Pros Renewable Essay Example? You are a child of the universe no less than the trees and informative essay outline the stars; you have a right to be here. And whether or not it is clear to you, no doubt the universe is unfolding as it should. Therefore be at peace with God, whatever you conceive him to be. And whatever your labors and aspirations, in the noisy confusion of life, keep peace in your soul.
With all its sham, drudgery and broken dreams, it is still a beautiful world. Be cheerful. The Pros And Cons As A Source? Strive to be happy. Contrast this with Polonius's advice to Laertes. Somebody will remind you that according to the Christian ethics of essay outline Shakespeare's era, revenge was considered wrong. A saint would forgive and bring about reconciliation. (As a Christian, I have discovered that this is possible more often than we might think.) Even ordinary people were not supposed to take the 1, law into their own hands. It's hard, though, to see this as a major theme of this revenge play. Somebody will tell you that Hamlet is about how it's difficult to know the right thing to do -- whether it's killing the king, how to deal with an impossible home situation, or whether life is worth living. Somebody else will tell you that the real tragedy is informative essay, that Hamlet kills the king, rather than forgiving him and class living in informative essay outline, love and harmony. In Hamlet's era, without effective birth control or stable democracy, bloody conflict was a fact of life. In an era of warlords, the best for which anyone could hope was a temporary truce and wings of fire book some justice.
Despite their individual virtues and essay their politically correct apologists, all real-life primitive societies are like this. Hamlet was fundamentally correct -- the world, by its very nature, is full of unpleasantness and working class wrong. How does Hamlet's attitude toward women change during the informative essay outline, play? Is this a major theme? (I think so -- it's not mentioned that often. Class? You decide.) Hamlet starts off very upset and claiming he wishes he was dead because of his mother's faithless to his good father's memory. He urges Ophelia to withdraw from a rotten world full of rotten women.
Later, at the end of the closet scene, he reaffirms his love for his mother despite her faults, and in informative essay outline, the graveyard scene affirms he loves Ophelia. If life has taught me anything, it's that people are to be loved along with (not just in spite of) their imperfections. Perhaps you believe this as well. Eric Jones MD came up with an idea in Hamlet and working class Oedipus. Hamlet cannot kill Claudius because he unconsciously identifies with him, due to Hamlet's old Oedpius complex, when he wanted to have his mother incestuously.
Jones notes that Shakespeare's own dad died around the time the play was written. Nowadays, almost all psychiatrists will tell you that Freud's psychoanalysis is of historical interest, having shown very limited ability to predict the essay outline, thoughts and actions of 2 of spain patients or to effect recovery. One of my own medical school psychiatry professors said, There's no 'Oedipus complex.' You can decide for yourself about Jones's claims. Is Ophelia pregnant with Hamlet's baby? Hamlet was romantically interested in Ophelia, and she in him, and they lived in the same castle. Hamlet jokes with Polonius about how his daughter might become pregnant, a pregnant rich girl might be sent for secrecy's sake to a convent (nunnery) and the child given for informative, adoption, and The Pros of Ethanol Renewable Essay Ophelia sings about lost virginity.
We aren't going to know. Supposedly there were two drownings in Shakespeare's community when he was younger. A lady named Alice suicided by jumping down a well when her family didn't approve of the man she loved. Another lady (Katherine Hamlet) accidentally fell into the river (she was carrying buckets). How these events may have affected Shakespeare's decision to have Ophelia drown must remain speculative. You've already noticed that Shakespeare follows a rule from informative essay his era -- the of Ethanol as a Source, highest-ranking person on informative essay outline, stage gets the first and last lines in each scene. An easy high-school paper can focus on uprising, how different characters approach the questions posted in the To Be or Not To Be soliloquy. Ophelia is mostly passive. People who go on to become schizophrenic are often quiet, passive people (schizoid). Shakespeare probably noticed this. Laertes is bold, forceful, and spouts lines from informative essay a bad Elizabethan revenge tragedy (I don't care if I go to hell -- contrast Hamlet's and Claudius's fear of damnation.)
Fortinbras bides his time, and grabs the opportunity. Horatio is a classic stoic with a Roman's sense of of Ethanol as a Renewable Essay honor and a Christian trust in God's power to informative outline help. Polonius is a manipulator. From Shakespeare's Era. If you are interested in The Pros as a Renewable of Energy, the English religious controveries of Shakespeare's era, you may decide that some are reflected in Hamlet. People who held to the Roman tradition might believe in Purgatory, a place of suffering where sins committed in life were burned away, and where sufferings could be eased by essay purchasing the ministry of the church. Before the Reformation, this had helped make the relgious orders wealthy, and also sparked the founding of schools and hospitals where the beneficiaries were asked to Essay Values Studies pray for informative essay outline, the sould of their benefactors.
People who still believed in the Roman doctrine of purgatory feared especially dying without the sacraments of the church, because the time in purgatory would be prolonged. The English government church forbidden even praying for the dead. Probably many people didn't like this. On the other hand, the philip 2 of spain, Puritans pressured for religious rituals to informative outline be even further curtailed. Uprising? In an era without religious freedom, this had generated a lot of bad feeling. Stories of ghosts returning from purgatory, which had been popular before the Reformation, were dismissed as diabolical deceptions. For purposes of the plot, there is really no reason for Old Hamlet to talk about his being in torment or having died with all his imperfections on his head (i.e., unconfessed sins). Hamlet swears by Saint Patrick, who is sometimes described as the patron saint of Purgatory. Of course, Old Hamlet is in essay, purgatory, which according to the the official government church doesn't exist.
When Laertes complains about the limited burial service given to his sister, people in the audience would have thought about the contemporary controversies. You can find out on your own what evidence exists to show that John Shakespeare, the author's father, was at least a Roman Catholic sympathizer who wanted prayers for his soul after he died. (Ask about documents found in Stratford centuries later.) But you'll need to decide for yourself whether Shakespeare is using an old plot, or expressing his secret beliefs, or (my choice) showing us ourselves. More For Students. Kronberg Castle, in 2 of, Helsingor (Elsinore), near Copenhagen, is supposedly Hamlet's castle. Informative? Photo. Commentary: T.S. Benefits Data? Eliot on informative outline, Hamlet and his Problems G Wilson Knight's remarks on Hamlet seem to be off-line today. Shakespeare always divides our sympathies. Knight sees Hamlet as more the villain than Claudius is.
Introduction to Hamlet Postmodernist. . or even perhaps to tell us that there is no truth, save for that truth given existence by a genius through theatrical devices, representation, illusion, and spain art. Uh? No Fear -- text along with 21st-century English translation. Sixty-Second Shakespeare -- Bloodbath at Danish Court -- 'Mad' Prince Hamlet Was Right All Along Trysto Hamlet -- extremely abridged, could be performed by small children. Oor Hamlet -- mock Scots ballad, very funny. Shakespeare's Sonnets. A remarkable sequence even by today's standards.
The site author is, like me, committed to making Shakespeare available to everybody, at no cost. Enjoy. Duane Morin -- an e-book is in preparation. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service.
The Undiscovered Country -- Hamlet site, promoting the author's e-book. Looks good. To the best of my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites. Essay Outline? In August 2000, the The Pros and Cons of Ethanol Source Essay example, operator of the outline, large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for a price in decembrist, the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and spare everybody from a lot of wasted time.
It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to essay outline help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. Benefits Of Qualitative? If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. Great PerformancesDavid Tennant / Patrick Stewart -- watch the informative essay, entire NC-17 play. Laurence Olivier -- introduction for children, well done. Royal Shakespeare Company -- David Tennant / Patrick Stewart; watch the play; highly recommended. Star Wars -- Hamlet and working Laertes trade weapons.
Jude Law -- talks about his Hamlet. Coventry -- Patrick Stewart as Claudius. Sam West -- Royal Shakespeare Company 2000. Public Broadcasting System -- gets NC-17 rating. Psychological thriller. Graphic violence. Scenes of a supernatural nature. In a time of conflict, a voice from the grave will take a vengeful man to a place beyond sanity where only conspiracy and informative essay death await. Ethan Hawke's Hamlet is set in contemporary New York City.
I liked it much better than most of the critics did. Bill Murry, who is always funny, plays Polonius and still shows up how cruelly he treats Ophelia. The popular movie Coraline quotes Hamlet's speech, What a piece of work. when the heroine, who is neglected by her parents, is tempted with false promises of a richer and more meaningful life. The theme of the wings of fire book 1, book and essay movie, which surely explains their popularity, is that if parents don't attend to their children's needs to benefits data grow emotionally and informative essay mentally, someone else will. Uprising? And it will probably be the wrong people. Oedipus the King -- including something about the tragic hero business. If you are asked to informative write about Shakespeare's tragic heroes or their tragic flaw or whatever, help yourself to my skeptical notes on Aristotle. You may find it more rewarding to focus on something at once more obvious and wings book 1 more profound. Shakespeare (unlike Sophocles) is writing about real-life, flesh-and-blood people (tragic flaws -- nobody always acts smart) who live in an imperfect world (tragic choices). In Shakespeare, our sympathies are usually divided among the characters.
For this reason, Aristotle's thoughts on tragedy (i.e., people are imperfect) really seem more useful in informative outline, discussing Shakespeare than in discussing Sophocles. In my pathology course and Essay Values in Urban here, my advice is the same -- focus on the human beings, the real-life, individual situations. You may also decide there are some common theme elements (real vs. fake friendship; bad government is bad for the country; despite what has happened to you, you can still be a hero). If you decide that the philosophical Hakuna Matata (Everything is fine) song is ironic, then the central theme of The Lion King is that life is by informative its nature full of troubles and wrongs, and you find its meaning in what you do about it this fact. Of course, compare and contrast papers are for beginners. (1) Look at the short story that provided the plot (click here. and notice how Shakespeare has portrayed racism as it really is in our world. Ordinary decent folks (i.e., the Venetian government) care only who a person is and what that person can do.
They consider Brabantio a jerk for accepting a person of another race as a friend but not as a son-in-law. Iago, who for benefits data, whatever reason has a chip on his shoulder, spews racial venom for his own dark reasons. Desdemona is originally frightened by someone who looks different, but quickly learns to love that person so that race become indifferent. (2) It is very common for special-forces operatives who return to civilian life and/or who try to informative outline sustain a marriage to have terrible difficulties. Victorian? Those who are successful deserve our special admiration.
Too many become terribly confused and end up in self-destructive behaviors, both loving and hating. It's one of essay our world's strangest ironies that romantic love is more treacherous and incomprehensible than war. I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and follow the links from there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks and of fire book parentheses. This became standard to protect fragile bits of movable type.
My practice lets me know I'm the informative essay, one who's typed a particular document. In one of the Bard's best-thought-of tragedies, our insistent hero, Hamlet, queries on two fronts about how life turns rotten. To be or not to be: that is the question; Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer. The slings and and Cons Renewable arrows of informative outrageous fortune.
Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, and get out of abusive relationships by Essay on Values Studies any means. Outline? Tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances or what feelings you really harbor -- get guidance from other adults if you need it, and decembrist remember Polonius's advice, which works often enough in outline, our crazy world). Essay On Values Studies? The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people. To include this page in informative, a bibliography , you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Hamlet by William Shakespeare Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/hamlet.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is decembrist, The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD.
Thanks for informative essay, visiting. Health and friendship. reset Jan. 30, 2005: Athar: Hamlet is post-Christian. Bleakers: Sigh. Hamlet didn't find meaning, because there isn't any, but he did find peace. Ciphers: Hamlet found out working he could act instead of brood. Doomguard: The court goes bad and everybody dies. Dust Folk: Hamlet finds peace in death.
Free League: There are many meanings here. Godsfolk: Hamlet develops as a person. Guvnurs: Nowadays with good forensic pathology, we could have proved the case against Claudius without Hamlet having to take the law into his own hands. Hardheads: See what happens when law and order break down. Mercykillers: We love a good revenge play. Revolutionaries: Authority corrupts. Sensates: Hamlet showcases powerful feelings. Signers: There is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so. Takers: Hamlet learned to quit moping and got what he wanted.
Xaositects: Crazy make sense people the most. Visitors send me this question from informative time to decembrist uprising time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on drugs profiteering. then the answer is probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, Is life worth living in informative, a world full of wrong? And can I live well? -- then the answer is maybe that Shakespeare deals with basic human issues. Click here to see the author's friend, Dr.
Ken Savage, do it right. Thanks for the memories and for your friendship. Give me that man That is not passion’s slave, and I will wear him In my heart’s core, ay, in my heart of heart.
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13 Creative Exercises for Photographers. Like the world’s tidal waters, photographic creativity ebbs and flows for many of outline us. Sometimes creativity can use a jump-start, an artificial method to get the photographer to start looking at the world in philip a new way in order to facilitate, restart, refine, or improve your photography. There are many ideas on how to get yourself to push through an artistic block or inspire you to further expand your boundaries. Not all of them involve the camera. Several websites and books publish a mix of assignments or exercises for the intrepid photographer. I prefer the exercises that 1) involve using your camera, 2) are less assignment-based, and 3) are fun! These are my versions of various exercises that have been passed down from one creative generation to another. If I have reproduced a favorite, I apologize in informative outline advance for the inability to credit the original artist/inventor of the exercise.
Pick a location. Stand in one spot and make 24 unique photographs while standing in decembrist uprising the same place. You cannot move your feet. The first time I did this, I hit a virtual brick wall after about 12 shots , and that was eye - opening in many ways. Informative Essay! It really pushes you to be creative with your gear and surroundings. Take 10 unique and/or abstract photographs of 1 small subject. Spain! The smaller the informative outline, subject, the data, more challenging this can be. A “small subject” should not be “New York City.” Choose one subject and place it, where it exists, in each corner of the frame for 4 images.
Can you go to the other side of the subject? Do the same. Shoot all four sides in all four corners if possible. See what you come up with! Exercise 4: Artificial Restrictions. Create restrictions for a day or weekend of shooting. Limits may include: One prime lens One location BW only informative 4-5 P.M. only Manual mode only 2 of Overexpose/Underexpose everything Spot meter only Photograph while sitting Only things above you Only things below you No people in the frame No structures in the frame Fill the informative outline, frame Negative space in Values Studies more than three quarters of the frame. Force yourself forward with restrictions. Go somewhere you have wanted to go to take photos but have been procrastinating about visiting.
With your digital camera, shoot a “Roll of 24 or 36 exposures.” After 24 or 36 exposures, you are out of “film.” Look and think before shooting, knowing you only have a finite amount of “film.” If this does not force you to make more critical decisions regarding your images, pretend you bought a roll of 12 exposures! When you are out of film, just walk around or sit and enjoy the place. Photograph a dozen abstracts of outline a common object. Depending on the size of the object, you may need a macro lens or telephoto. Similar to Exercise 2, but only allowing the benefits data, abstract, this exercise should force you to see deeper into informative essay outline an image. Carry a subject with you and philip spain, put it in essay the frame no matter where you are shooting. Wings Book! Think about the famous traveling gnome. Bring a favorite “thing” on your outing and figure out how to informative essay, include it in your images. Of Qualitative Data! Notice how it dictates framing and composition. Informative Essay Outline! Be creative with your placement of class your portable subject.
You have to informative, be inside every frame. This is uprising not a “selfie” exercise; so bring a tripod or alternative support. Compose, frame, and start the self-timer. Then, put yourself into outline the photo in a meaningful and thoughtful way. Drop many pieces of Essay in Urban scrap paper into a mixing bowl. Each piece should have a single word or phrase. Draw a piece of paper, grab your camera, and start shooting. Examples of what can be on the scraps of paper can be: You get the idea.
Try a different genre of informative outline photography. Are you a studio portrait photographer? Try street photography for a day or weekend. Architectural photographer? Shoot sports at working class a local park. Photograph these nine elements of a scene while in outline one location. Go to a street corner, park, or other location and make photographs showing the following: Bonus round? Also add: Want to make it more difficult? Only allow yourself one image per element. Uprising! Go for a walk somewhere you have always wanted to informative essay outline, photograph.
As you walk, stop and Values Studies, take a unique image after a predetermined number of steps. 10? 20? Your favorite number? Every city block? The world changes a lot in just a few feet. Stop to capture this. Two different fire hydrants do not two unique photographs make. Informative Essay! Put your camera somewhere safe.
Walk somewhere without a camera and look for photographs. When you reach your destination, walk back over and Cons of Ethanol the same route while still looking for photos. Finally, with camera in hand, retrace your steps for the third time and informative, capture those photographs. Spain! If in the field, leave your camera in your camera bag. Do not pull it out until you get back to the start.
No cheating. Be disciplined. Look hard. Be observant. Informative Essay Outline! Walk slowly. Your 180-degree perspective will reveal as much or more. Take bits and pieces from what is above or come up with anything that gets you to take creative images and break through walls. Share them with us and other photographic artists in the comments section! You can find a lot more tips online or in data books. Some of outline these take the shape of a photo assignment that takes you out of wings book 1 your comfort zone or introduces you to essay, something different than what you usually do.
Others are more creatively based. Beware of the creative exercises that focus on the technical workings of the camera—the goal should be to expand the creative mind. Getting bogged down in a camera’s menu is not likely the best path to this goal. Having said that, improving technical proficiency is always a good thing, but just keep your focus on the creative and less on the nuts and bolts of working a particular image. The images are important, but they are not critical. If you get a few “keepers” from essay your exercise, awesome!
If you come away with junk, but engage your mind and eye, then the mission is accomplished! Lastly, not only should a creative exercise be challenging and self-inspiring, it should be fun and never, ever feel like a chore. All photographs © Todd Vorenkamp. My daughter is going to take a digital photo class at her middle school (7th grade). These are some great ideas we can do together while learning concepts of composition and seeing photographically. Simple ideas can result in great images. Thanks. Thanks for philip, reading, Glen! I hope you all enjoy the exercises and outline, make great art! Lucky enough to stumble across this article.
Thanks:) they seem really fun ideas to start with!! especially the portable subject. Glad you found it, Nidhi! Thank you! Thank you for The Pros Essay, these ideas! I am setting up an event with some photography friends to try some of these out. Good luck, Ali! Let us know how it goes. :) Todd, what a wonderful dozen of tips. I will print them and drop them in outline my bag for my next photographic journey. Benefits Data! Thanks !! Good luck with the exercises!
I love all of these ideas. It really makes you think about taking more meanfully pictures instead of just snapping way. I am glad these resonated with you! Creativity is the informative essay, most fun part of photography for me! Thanks for reading! For a long time I've been trying to benefits of qualitative, capture photos on my own want angle, but the result is different from essay what's on my mind. And now I can say that I found the answer to my problem. Thank you to the creator of this blog. Benefits Data! Keep helping everyone! Thank you for reading, George!
Good luck shooting creatively! Those seem like some fun inspiring exercises. Thanks for sharing! If I can add one, I would add let someone else use your camera to take a few shots of something they would like to capture. Outline! Most people like using a camera every now and then, especially if it is Source different from their own which is probably their phone. Outline! Offer them a tip of philip 2 of your own, teach them something you know. Also take a moment to see what someone else happens to see while you are in the same spot. Of course you can add one! And, that is a great tip! For some workshops, the night before, I ask the informative essay, students to bring a photo of a fork with them to the class. Some photograph a stainless utensil, others get creative.
It is always interesting to see what people capture! I just a Samsung S8 phone. I want to do this with my phone. This is victorian working a test list. You can do these exercises with any camera, Benny! Good luck!
So very glad I stumbled across this article. I want to rush right out and get started but I don't think my boss would appreciate it. Informative! ;p That being said, it's almost the weekend and wings of fire book 1, it's the first weekend all year someone doesn't have something planned for me to do. Guess what I'm going to do? Thank you so very much for the awesome ideas. Your images are amazing and thought-provoking.
Happy shooting, Glenda! Need me to tell your boss you are heading out for a bit? :) Good luck and enjoy your creative weekend! I'm testing out a model 420 Polaroid that I rescued from a thrift store, and these are great exercises to get me acquainted with the camera! Thanks so much- recommending these to essay, my friends! Yep, these exercises are for any and all cameras! Enjoy the 420! I hate the cold. So I hate winter except for snow and ice. I' going to use all of these to force me to get out.
That way I 'll be that much better when it gets warm out again. Essay On Values Studies! THANKS. Here is a little secret. some of these you can do indoors! Good luck! Thanks for outline, stopping by! I'm so happy to find this. My best friend purchased a Sony a5100 for her 12 year old, saying he likes to take photos. I told her to get him something affordable to see what he can do without his iPhone, and I'd be over after Christmas to take him photo-hunting. Class! Now, with some of informative essay these ideas in hand, I don't have to spin in a circle trying to think of fun things to do. THANK YOU. :) Awesome! I am glad you found this and hope you had fun with the exercises!
Yeah, thanks for this exercise, will try this!! Let us know how they work for you, Pavitrha! Wish I could save this on The Pros and Cons as a Source of Energy Essay, Pinterest! You can always memorize it, Debra! Thanks for reading! Being 66 it seems like I live the rut more than not. But I have a passion with the camera that makes life keep going. If nothing else, just creating some special captures for my grandkids. Going to see if I can do all these; some will be easy, some more challenging.
But it's what I been looking for. Informative Essay Outline! Isn't it sad that creativity seems to diminish over time? As adults we rarely pretend to 1, be someone else and essay outline, we seem to, more and more, live lives of predictability and The Pros Renewable, pattern. I too need to get out and do all of these! Thanks for reading and informative, writing in! It's really helpful to have these exercises. On Studies! especially when you've been stuck in a rut,for several months. Needed a way out. BH rocks. Thanks, Shawn! I hope you got out of your rut and are rocking awesome photos!
Earlier this year I did exercise 13, Two Trips. I walked several blocks of an outline old historical part of town then crossed the street and 2 of, returned to the starting point. I said to myself, what is there to outline, take pictures of? Then I discovered that any photo of buildings, cars, or people are actually historical photos. Twenty years from now the businesses, the cars, and the fashions will be different. So look beyond lines and patterns. The fact that they don't build buildings this way anymore may reveal some interesting details.
Then when you process the images by converting them to black and white can make a new image look old. I am sorry for the delay. missed your post! Yes, every photograph is 2 of spain recording history. Documenting change in a neighborhood is a great way to essay outline, use photography! Sounds like a great outing and thanks for sharing some tips. Thanks for reading! Thank you so much.
I've been struggling to find constructive/productive ways to practice with my DSLR. These exercises are excellent ideas and i can't wait to get out and Essay on, try these. You are very welcome, Allen! Good luck and have fun! Thanks for reading!
I love the excercises . i teach video production/photography and this will be great for my students to develop their eye and ways to be creative. I hope your students enjoy the essay, exercises! Thanks for reading! Amazing! Exactly what I was looking for! With every exercise that is listed, I was literally jumping with excitement with all sort of Wow!!, Yessss!, I'm going to of Ethanol as a example, do THIS! kind of expressions. :D. Photography had started becoming a depressing hobby, because I was not able to break that visual/virtual brick wall. The pictures I clicked were just Good instead of essay outline being Awesome and I had no clue about how to go any further with my Photography. Now I know exactly what and decembrist, how to do it! Thanks a ton, Todd! You just saved my hobby :D :) I cannot wait to start implementing these.
Great to essay outline, hear the article was well received, Ash! Thank you so much for the words, and good luck with the Essay example, exercises! Great tips! Thank you for essay, your time - it was worth writing this, it will inspire many photographers I think :) Thank you very much for the kind words! I do hope it inspires many! Have a great day and thanks for philip 2 of, reading! Great ideas to get started again. Thanks so much for sharing them. You are welcome, Iris!
Thank you for reading! Awesome ideas. Look forward to getting started on these. Thank you. Thanks, Vickie! Good luck and thanks for reading! Awesome exercises! A friend told me to informative outline, check out your ideas, and uprising, I cannot wait to get started.
In fact, as a journalism teacher, I think I'm going to informative, have my photographers on my high school yearbook staff work on this with me. Victorian Working! Thanks so much! Thanks so much for essay outline, the compliment! I hope the yearbook staff knocks a few of these out of the park! Thanks for reading! Thanks, this is awesome. I want to start, but I currently have no tripod or support and working class, don't get home until after dark.
Any suggestions? You are welcome! A few things. 1. Add a tripod to informative, your holiday wish list! Regardless of the kind of photography you do, a tripod will someday be essential. Working! 2. These are creative exercises and are not designed to get you the perfect photo. So, go out in the dark without a tripod or support and find pictures knowing that they will be soft and movement will happen. Embrace the handheld long exposure and informative essay, use that to uprising, bolster your creativity.
If you are shooting digital, it is all free. If you are shooting film, skip your next expensive cup of coffee to compensate for informative essay outline, the cost! 3. Working Class! Or, start inside. A friend once told me to sit on a toilet and make great photographs. Pictures can be found, seen, and made anywhere!
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Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is outline your essay on religion, it’s meaning, nature, role and other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. It is found in decembrist, all societies, past and present. All the preliterate societies known to us have religion.
Religion goes back to essay, the beginning of the culture itself. Working Class! It is a very ancient institution. There is no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9d/Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg/1280px-Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg. Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the essay intellectual power of man in response to certain felt needs of men. While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies. It is the foundation on 2 of spain which the normative structure of society stands. It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon outline, political and Essay in Urban Studies, economic aspects of life. It is said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious.
Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the informative essay outline great religions of the world. Religion is concerned with the shared beliefs and practices of The Pros and Cons of Ethanol as a Renewable Source of Energy example human beings. It is the human response to those elements in the life and environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and informative essay, is found in nearly all societies. Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio. This is derived from two root words. The first root is Leg, meaning “together, count or observe”. The second root is Lig, meaning ‘to bind’.
The first root refers to belief in benefits of qualitative data, and practice of “signs of informative essay Divine Communication”. The second root refers to the carrying out those activities which link human beings with the supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of all religions. Central to of qualitative data, all religions is the concept of faith. Religion in informative outline, this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to their temporal and transcendental foundation. Wings Of Fire Book 1! By faith man is distinguished from other beings. It is essentially a subjective and private matter.
Faith is something which binds us together and informative outline, is therefore, more important than reason. Pfleiderer defined religion as “that reference men’s life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into a living union with it.” According to James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in “Powers superior to man which are believed to of qualitative, direct and control the informative outline course of nature and victorian, of human life”. As Christopher Dauson writes, “Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on informative essay external powers which are conceived as mysterious and The Pros and Cons of Ethanol Renewable Source of Energy Essay example, higher than man’s own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the root of worship and prayer.” Arnold W. Green defines religion as “a system of beliefs and symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and beyond the controllable.” According to Maclver and Page, “Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.” As Gillin and Gillin says, “The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs.”
Thus, there are numerous definitions of essay religion given thinkers according to their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to agree upon a definition. Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends. Sumner and of qualitative, Keller asserted that, “Religion in history, from the informative essay outline earliest to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites, rituals, observance and ceremony”. Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of mediations about man’s life; it is also a means of preserving the values of life. While it is possible to The Pros as a of Energy Essay, define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life.
According to Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and (b) psychological. The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the essay outline feet. The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and beliefs. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the victorian working class presence of a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the “religion thrill”. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and informative essay, (5) some method of salvation. The first basic element of religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers.
These powers are believed to book 1, influence human life and control all natural phenomena. Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods. There are even others who do not call them by essay, any name. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion. There are certain holy or sacred elements of of Ethanol as a Essay religion. These constitute the heart of the religion. There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred. Informative Outline! But a thing is holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of benefits of qualitative data thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of a tangible thing is informative essay not observable to the senses.
Sacred things are symbols. They symbolize the things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of animal the cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is imagined to represent. Religious ritual is on “the active side of religion. Essay Outline! It is wings behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and sacred- objects”. It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of special clothing and informative outline, the immersion in certain rivers, in data, the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in public. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Essay! Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. It is victorian class believed that the powers of the other world cherish these principles.
The violation of these principles creates man’s sense of guilty. It may also bring upon him the disfavour of the supernatural powers. If the behaviour is not in informative, accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the fifth basic element of religion. Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of life, the realisation of an inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life. The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha. Of Qualitative Data! The Buddhist hopes to attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana.
The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for man’s sins. In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. It is more or less coherent system of beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities. Religion is interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions. Prior to the advent of what may be called as “the age of reason”, religion has been the chief supporter of the spiritual and moral values of life. It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Hence, it is essay obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for the wider society. These functions of religion are discussed bellow. 1. Religion Helps in the Struggle for Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in The Pros and Cons of Ethanol as a Source of Energy Essay example, the struggle for informative essay societal survival. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and early development of seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean.
Religion in each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in The Pros and Cons Source of Energy Essay example, an unfavourable environment, by giving explanations to certain aspects of the informative outline human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world. This sense of security of the individual has significance for the society. Since religion helps man to forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in this life’, social dissatisfaction and Source of Energy Essay, social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration: Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in several ways. Religion plays an important part in crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and norms. It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour.
Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to informative essay, group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations. By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for Values in Urban Studies the values and this symbol becomes the rallying point for informative essay all persons who share the same values. The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to 2 of spain, Hindu society.
Religion performs its function of outline integration through social control. It regulates the conduct of individuals by enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against benefits data, them for violation. 3. Religion helps to knit the Social Values of essay outline a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. Uprising! The primary requirement of society is the common possession of social values by which individuals control the actions of self and others and through which society is perpetuated. These social values emanate from religious faith. Religion is the foundation upon which these values rest. Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion. It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and requires him to accept limitations upon his wants and desires.
All the religions have preached love and non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance. 4. Religions Acts as an Agent of Social Control: It is one of the means of informal means of social control. Religion not only defines moral expectations for members of the religious group but usually enforces them.
It supports certain types of social conduct by placing the informative essay powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of The Pros and Cons of Ethanol as a Renewable Source Essay example social behaviour as offences not only against society but also against God. Hence, any violation of the essay acceptable norm is punishable not only by God but by society. Hinduism gives sanction to decembrist uprising, the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to render services to informative, the needy and poor and promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of decembrist people. Help and assistance are rendered to poor and destitute persons due to religion inspiration. It is believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of religion by way of giving alms and assistance to the helpless and needy persons. In this way religion promotes the welfare of individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and culture.
The priests laid the foundations of medicine. Magic supplied the roots of observation and informative outline, experimentation from which science developed. It also inculcated the habit of charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to soothe the man in times of his suffering and disappointment.
In this world man often suffers disappointment even in wings book 1, the midst of all hopes and achievements. The things for which he strives are in some measure always denied to him. When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of condolence. On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. Faith in informative essay, God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to in Urban Studies, bear his frustrations and encourages him to informative, accept his lot on earth. 8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands one’s self to infinite proportions. Man unites himself with the infinite and feels ennobled.
Through unity with the infinite the self is made majestic and triumphant. Man considers himself the in Urban Studies noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and informative essay outline, his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions. Working! Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and family. Political institutions are often sanctioned by religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to rule by divine right. Religious rites are performed on many occasions in relation to vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and outline, so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and with political institutions. Religion is the central element in spain, the life of informative essay outline civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to working, humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the informative spread of education, the accumulation of capital and the creation of a leisure class.
For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and political life. The Pros And Cons As A Renewable Source Example! Even today religion is outline called upon to support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions. Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O’ Dea and others have pointed the Essay in Urban Studies dysfunctions of religion. The dysfunctions of religion are as follows. 1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes:
According to Thomas F. O’ Dea, religion inhibits protests and outline, impedes social changes which may even prove to Essay on Values in Urban Studies, be beneficial to the welfare of the society. All protests and essay outline, conflicts are not always negative. Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes. Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms.
2. Of Fire! Hampers the Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and norms emanate from religious faith. Some of the norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion. This can “impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to changing conditions.” For example, during the medieval Europe, the Church refused to grant the ethical legitimacy of money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of this activity in a situation of developing capitalism”. Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking. Similar social conflict is evident in the case of essay birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility.
For example, a good number of people in India prefer to take the advises of and Cons of Ethanol as a Source priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures. But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in outline, the field. In its course of development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the 2 of spain existing social structure. Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is this control function of religion that caused Marx to call religion as “the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions.
It is the essay opiate of the people.” By sanctifying norms and legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the source of many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to human being. Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. hinder the welfare of human beings. Religion results in working class, inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines. It is deeply related with conflicts. Wars and battles have been fought in the name of religion. Sumner and outline, Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of The Pros and Cons Renewable Source of Energy example money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings. Essay! It leads to waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people.
It creates a gap among them. In the name of God and religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and victorian working, other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to the reality. Informative Essay! They have faith without reasoning which is blind. Decembrist! On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Informative! Bigotry and class, fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and informative essay, misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions. It preaches submission to the existing conditions and maintenance of Essay on Studies status quo. Outline! Religion is not readily amenable to social change and progress. 12.
Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the scientists from discovering new facts. For example, it tried to decembrist, suppress the doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic. Essay Outline! They think that all events in life is due to some divine power and hence due to fate. As a result, his power and potentiality is undermined. Benefits Of Qualitative! Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion.
For Marx all that was fundamental in the science of society proceeded from the material and especially the economic sphere. For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Marx’s sense of the matter is more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough. The transformation of an entire social order is required, for informative belief is deeply rooted in on Values Studies, the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, “is the ‘self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world.
Man is the world of essay man, the of fire book 1 state, and informative essay, society. This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world. Religion is the compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification. 2 Of Spain! It is the fantastic realization of the human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to essay outline, God in the form of worship, he takes from himself. That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to a supernatural being. But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms – against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of existence. The abolition of religion as the “illusory happiness” of the people is required for The Pros and Cons Renewable Source of Energy Essay their real happiness, declared Marx. But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. “The demand to informative essay, give up the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion”.
Marx’s criticism of religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of right and the criticism of politics. As Marx put it… “The criticism of heaven transforms itself into the criticism of earth, the victorian working class criticism of religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics”. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for essay outline all who look up to religion for salvation. This is amply clear from on Values in Urban Studies his following observation: “The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the highest essence of essay outline man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in which man is debased, enslaved abandoned…” Change is the very essence of a living thing. Benefits Of Qualitative Data! A living religion must grow, must advance and must change. No form of religion is static. In some cases the change may be slow and minor, in others relatively rapid and major.
Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and eternal. Hence, there is also an element of censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from essay complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the gradual spread of Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of religion, specially of rituals and ceremonies. Benefits Data! Buddhism for instance, came as a revolt against the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and also beyond the common man’s reach. In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of Sophism.
It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism. Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by outline, Buddhism and Suphism. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of religion on man and his life changes. Essay On In Urban! In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of informative outline mankind, those concerned with the necessities of life, played a dominant part. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to Essay on Studies, control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions.
As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of informative outline God as a power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. In Europe, secularisation is held to be the on Values in Urban Studies outcome of the social changes brought about by urban, industrial society. Essay Outline! It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to decline in of fire, modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies. Religion in Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on dogma and more on social values. Informative Essay! It has tried to reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge.
As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is worth preserving and it must seek to organise. The masses and guide their activities for the benefit of the society rather than for the purpose of pleasing the God. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the benefits data dialectic of outline modern science and Protestantism, not from Values in Urban Studies simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. However, the process of secularisation has affected the domination of informative essay religious institutions and symbols. The process of Values in Urban secularisation was started in India during the informative essay British rule. Of Qualitative Data! But the process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and informative essay, reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and secular education gradually affected various aspects of benefits of qualitative religion in India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from religiosity to secular way of life.
But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society. First, organised Christianity plays an essay outline important political force in Europe and North America. Second, the vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and on Studies, communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the diversity of religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an informative individual matter and not a dominant feature of uprising social life. It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about secularisation. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the influence of informative essay outline religion on man and his life changes. Book! In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of informative outline mankind were very much influenced by it. Spain! As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to essay, control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of victorian God as power over man and his society loses its importance.
This movement is sometimes referred to informative outline, as secularization. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. ‘Secularisation’, in the words of Peter Berger, refers to ‘the process by which sectors of society and culture are removed from the domination of uprising religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and essay, a rational world view. Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional.
Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and social sciences. Wings Book! He says that this knowledge is based on informative reason rather than faith. He claims that science not only explained many facts of life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in practical results. The term ‘secularisation’ has been used in different ways. Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the meaning of the decembrist concept. Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of meaning attached to the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the informative outline word current in modern and modernizing India and even in the whole of data this subcontinent. One of the two meanings is found by consulting any standard dictionary.
But there is the outline difficulty in finding the other, for it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to uprising, believe, is typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the State. The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in the English-speaking West, for informative essay more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is not admitted. One can have religion in one’s private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within one’s home or at one’s place of worship. But when one enters public life, one is expected to leave one’s faith behind.
In contrast, the non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for on Values Studies all religions. In the Indian context the word has very different meaning from informative essay its standard use in the English language. It is held that India is not Europe and hence secularism in 1, India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe. What does it matter if secularism means something else in Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the word. Indian meaning of informative secularism is debated in its Western genealogies. New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in India.
The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and secularism in the Indian languages, by neologisms such as ‘Dharma-nirapekshata. This is translation of those English words and dharma-nirapekshata is used to refer to the range of meanings indicated by the English term. The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is standardly used in Essay Values, talking about the role of religion in a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the outcome of vested interests inherent in our political system. Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in terms of practice of any religion by any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over another. Informative! But this term is irrelevant in a democratic structure and it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in Essay Values Studies, the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to any religion and the principle of informative outline neutrality).
Indian secularism has been inadequately defined ‘attitude’ of goodwill towards all religions, ‘Sarvadharma Sadbhava’. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on the part of the State. Hence, the 2 of spain original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of references. Well-established and well-defined concept of essay secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model. To Herberg, ‘authentic religion’ means an emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the data theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and informative outline, values with those of the wings 1 wider society. If there is any trend of decline in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the process of secularisation. Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is subordinated to the American way of life. It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline. Secularism is taken to mean that one’s religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism.
There are other aspects of secularism. Secularism is related to rationalism and empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on men, elimination of outline some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs. In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole. There is the need to secularise the on Studies religious institutions. This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of informative outline change in the context of changing society. In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of ‘desacrilisation’ . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the world. The Pros And Cons As A Essay Example! Action is not directed by religious beliefs.
People in a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the benefit of religious interpretation. As a result there is a ‘secularisation of consciousness’. Berger argues that the ‘decisive variable for secularisation is the process of rationalisation’. That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the essay modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality.
Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of religion. It is based on working testing of arguments and beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by means of factors which can be quantified and objectively measured. Religion is based on faith. Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the basis of informative religion. It removes the mystery, magic and authority of religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the most important component of the process of modernisation is occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies.
Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for the welfare of mankind. Data! Finally, it is essay both a product and a process. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:
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How to Create the essay outline Best Powerpoint Presentations, With Examples. Some presentations are better than others. Some have gorgeous designs. Essay On Values In Urban? Some have insanely actionable takeaways. Some just give down-to-earth advice. But the outline best presentations represent all three. And if you're looking to get started making your own presentation, why not learn from the best of the best?
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