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bad academic writing The Philosophy and Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Literature Bad Writing Contest ran from 1995 to 1998. For an sample essay giving background on the contest, click here . We are pleased to announce winners of the fourth Bad Writing Contest, sponsored by the scholarly journal Philosophy and Essay Literature . The Bad Writing Contest celebrates the most stylistically lamentable passages found in scholarly books and articles published in the last few years. Ordinary journalism, fiction, departmental memos, etc. are not eligible, nor are parodies: entries must be non-ironic, from serious, published academic journals or books. Trouble: Feminism And The Subversion! Deliberate parody cannot be allowed in a field where unintended self-parody is so widespread. Two of the most popular and influential literary scholars in Essay, the U.S. Worked As A And! are among those who wrote winning entries in Clytemnestra Essay, the latest contest. Judith Butler, a Guggenheim Fellowship-winning professor of rhetoric and comparative literature at the University of California at Berkeley, admired as perhaps “one of the ten smartest people on the planet,” wrote the sentence that captured the contest’s first prize. Homi K. Reference! Bhabha, a leading voice in the fashionable academic field of postcolonial studies, produced the second-prize winner. “As usual,” commented Denis Dutton, editor of Philosophy and Literature , “this year’s winners were produced by well-known, highly-paid experts who have no doubt labored for years to Clytemnestra Essay write like this. That these scholars must know what they are doing is indicated by the fact that the winning entries were all published by distinguished presses and stephen academic journals.” Professor Butler’s first-prize sentence appears in and Aphrodite, “Further Reflections on the Conversations of Our Time,” an article in the scholarly journal Diacritics (1997): The move from a structuralist account in which capital is understood to structure social relations in relatively homologous ways to a view of hegemony in which power relations are subject to repetition, convergence, and rearticulation brought the question of temporality into the thinking of structure, and marked a shift from Essay about Little Black Dress a form of Althusserian theory that takes structural totalities as theoretical objects to one in Clytemnestra Essay, which the insights into the contingent possibility of structure inaugurate a renewed conception of hegemony as bound up with the contingent sites and strategies of the rearticulation of power. Essay About Dress! Dutton remarked that “it’s possibly the anxiety-inducing obscurity of such writing that has led Professor Warren Hedges of Southern Oregon University to praise Judith Butler as ‘probably one of the ten smartest people on Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, the planet’.” This year’s second prize went to stephen writing style a sentence written by Homi K. Bhabha, a professor of English at the University of Chicago. It appears in Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, The Location of Culture (Routledge, 1994): If, for a while, the Essay about Chanel's Little Dress ruse of desire is calculable for the uses of discipline soon the repetition of guilt, justification, pseudo-scientific theories, superstition, spurious authorities, and classifications can be seen as the desperate effort to “normalize” formally the disturbance of a discourse of splitting that violates the rational, enlightened claims of and Aphrodite, its enunciatory modality.
This prize-winning entry was nominated by John D. Chaucer And! Peters of the University of Iowa, who describes it as “quite splendid: enunciatory modality, indeed!” Ed Lilley, an art historian at the University of Bristol in Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, the U.K., supplied a sentence by Steven Z. Levine from an anthology entitled Twelve Views of Manet’s “Bar” (Princeton University Press, 1996): As my story is an august tale of fathers and sons, real and sample imagined, the biography here will fitfully attend to the putative traces in Manet’s work of “les noms du pre,” a Lacanian romance of the errant paternal phallus (#148;Les Non-dupes errent#148;), a revised Freudian novella of the inferential dynamic of paternity which annihilates (and hence enculturates) through the deferred introduction of the third term of Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, insemination the phenomenologically irreducible dyad of the mother and child. Stewart Unwin of the National Library of Australia passed along this gem from the Australasian Journal of American Studies (December 1997). The author is Timothy W. Luke, and the article is entitled, “Museum Pieces: Politics and Knowledge at the American Museum of Natural History”: Natural history museums, like the American Museum, constitute one decisive means for power to de-privatize and re-publicize, if only ever so slightly, the realms of death by putting dead remains into public service as social tokens of collective life, rereading dead fossils as chronicles of life’s everlasting quest for survival, and canonizing now dead individuals as nomological emblems of still living collectives in Nature and History. An anatomo-politics of human and non-human bodies is sustained by accumulating and classifying such necroliths in the museum’s observational/expositional performances. The passage goes on to explain that museum fossils and artifacts are “strange superconductive conduits, carrying the trouble: feminism and the vital elan of contemporary biopower.” It’s demonstrated with helpful quotations from Michel Foucault’s History of Clytemnestra, Sexuality. Finally, a tour de force from a 1996 book published by the State University of writer, New York Press. It was located by M.J. Devaney, an editor at the University of Nebraska Press. The author is D.G. Leahy, writing in and Aphrodite Essay, Foundation: Matter the Body Itself . Total presence breaks on the univocal predication of the exterior absolute the absolute existent (of that of sample, which it is not possible to univocally predicate an outside, while the equivocal predication of the outside of the absolute exterior is possible of that of Clytemnestra Essay, which the reality so predicated is not the reality, viz., of the dark/of the self, the identity of which is not outside the absolute identity of the outside, which is to say that the equivocal predication of identity is possible of the self-identity which is not identity, while identity is univocally predicated of the limit to the darkness, of the limit of the reality of the moral virtues self).
This is the real exteriority of the absolute outside: the reality of the absolutely unconditioned absolute outside univocally predicated of the dark: the and Aphrodite light univocally predicated of the darkness: the Essay Dress shining of the light univocally predicated of the limit of the darkness: actuality univocally predicated of the other of self-identity: existence univocally predicated of the absolutely unconditioned other of the self. Clytemnestra! The precision of the shining of the light breaking the dark is the reference sample other-identity of the light. Essay! The precision of the absolutely minimum transcendence of the academic dark is the Clytemnestra and Aphrodite light itself/the absolutely unconditioned exteriority of existence for stephen king writing, the first time/the absolutely facial identity of existence/the proportion of the new creation sans depth/the light itself ex nihilo : the dark itself univocally identified, i.e., not self-identity identity itself equivocally, not the dark itself equivocally, in “self-alienation,” not “self-identity, itself in self-alienation” “released” in and by “otherness,” and “actual other,” “itself,” not the abysmal inversion of the light, the reality of the darkness equivocally, absolute identity equivocally predicated of the Clytemnestra and Aphrodite self/selfhood equivocally predicated of the dark (the reality of this darkness the other-self-covering of identity which is the identification person-self). Dr. Devaney calls this book “absolutely, unequivocally incomprehensible.” While she has supplied further extended quotations to prove her point, this seems to be enough. We are pleased to announce winners of the third Bad Writing Contest, sponsored by the scholarly journal Philosophy and moral virtues Literature and Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay its internet discussion group, PHIL-LIT. The Bad Writing Contest attempts to locate the ugliest, most stylistically awful passage found in a scholarly book or article published in the last few years. Ordinary journalism, fiction, etc. are not eligible, nor are parodies: entries must be non-ironic, from actual serious academic journals or books. In a field where unintended self-parody is king style so widespread, deliberate send-ups are hardly necessary. This year’s winning passages include prose published by established, successful scholars, experts who have doubtless labored for years to write like this. Obscurity, after all, can be a notable achievement.
The fame and influence of writers such as Hegel, Heidegger, or Derrida rests in part on their mysterious impenetrability. On the other hand, as a cynic once remarked, John Stuart Mill never attained Hegel’s prestige because people found out what he meant. And Aphrodite Essay! This is a mistake the authors of our prize-winning passages seem determined to avoid. The first prize goes to the distinguished scholar Fredric Jameson, a man who on the evidence of his many admired books finds it difficult to write intelligibly and impossible to write well. Whether this is because of the deep complexity of Professor Jameson’s ideas or their patent absurdity is something readers must decide for themselves. Writing Style! Here, spotted for and Aphrodite Essay, us by Dave Roden of Central Queensland University in Australia, is the very first sentence of worked as a, Professor Jameson’s book, Signatures of the Visible (Routledge, 1990, p. 1): The visual is essentially pornographic, which is to say that it has its end in Clytemnestra Essay, rapt, mindless fascination; thinking about its attributes becomes an adjunct to Black Dress that, if it is unwilling to betray its object; while the most austere films necessarily draw their energy from the attempt to repress their own excess (rather than from the Clytemnestra Essay more thankless effort to discipline the viewer). The appreciative Mr. Roden says it is does “good of and Aphrodite Essay, Jameson to let readers know so soon what they’re up against.” We cannot see what the second “that” in the sentence refers to. And imagine if that uncertain “it” were willing to betray its object? The reader may be baffled, but then any author who thinks visual experience is essentially pornographic suffers confusions no lessons in English composition are going to fix.
If reading Fredric Jameson is like swimming through cold porridge, there are writers who strive for incoherence of a more bombastic kind. Here is our next winner, which was found for us by Professor Cynthia Freeland of the moral virtues University of Houston. The writer is Professor Rob Wilson: If such a sublime cyborg would insinuate the future as post-Fordist subject, his palpably masochistic locations as ecstatic agent of the sublime superstate need to be decoded as the “now-all-but-unreadable DNA” of a fast deindustrializing Detroit, just as his Robocop-like strategy of carceral negotiation and street control remains the tirelessly American one of inflicting regeneration through violence upon the racially heteroglossic wilds and others of the inner city. This colorful gem appears in and Aphrodite, a collection called The Administration of worked and, Aesthetics: Censorship, Political Criticism, and Clytemnestra and Aphrodite the Public Sphere , edited by Richard Burt “for the Social Text Collective” (University of Minnesota Press, 1994). Social Text is the cultural studies journal made famous by publishing physicist Alan Sokal’s jargon-ridden parody of postmodernist writing. If this essay is Social Text’s idea of scholarship, little wonder it fell for moral virtues, Sokal’s hoax. (And precisely what are “racially heteroglossic wilds and others#148;?) Dr. Wilson is an English professor, of course. That incomprehensibility need not be long-winded is proven by our third-place winner, sent in by Richard Collier, who teaches at Mt.
Royal College in Clytemnestra, Canada. It’s a sentence from Making Monstrous: Frankenstein, Criticism, Theory , by Fred Botting (Manchester University Press, 1991): The lure of imaginary totality is momentarily frozen before the dialectic of desire hastens on within symbolic chains. Still, prolixity is often a feature of bad writing, as demonstrated by our next winner, a passage submitted by Mindy Michels, a graduate anthropology student at the American University in gender trouble: feminism subversion of identity, Washington, D.C. Clytemnestra And Aphrodite Essay! It’s written by Stephen Tyler, and appears in Writing Culture , edited (it says) by James Clifford and George E. Marcus (University of about Black, California Press, 1986). Of what he calls “post-modern ethnography,” Professor Tyler says: It thus relativizes discourse not just to form #151; that familiar perversion of the modernist; nor to authorial intention #151; that conceit of the romantics; nor to a foundational world beyond discourse #151; that desperate grasping for a separate reality of the mystic and scientist alike; nor even to history and ideology #151; those refuges of the hermeneuticist; nor even less to language #151; that hypostasized abstraction of the linguist; nor, ultimately, even to discourse #151; that Nietzschean playground of world-lost signifiers of the structuralist and Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay grammatologist, but to all or none of chaucer worked writer, these, for it is anarchic, though not for the sake of anarchy but because it refuses to Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay become a fetishized object among objects #151; to academic be dismantled, compared, classified, and neutered in that parody of scientific scrutiny known as criticism. A bemused Dr. Tim van Gelder of the University of Melbourne sent us the Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay following sentence: Since thought is seen to chaucer as a be “rhizomatic” rather than “arboreal,” the movement of differentiation and becoming is and Aphrodite Essay already imbued with its own positive trajectory. It’s from The Continental Philosophy Reader , edited by Richard Kearney and does mean Mara Rainwater (Routledge, 1996), part of an editors’ introduction intended to help students understand a chapter. Dr. van Gelder says, “No undergraduate student I’ve given this introduction to has been able to make the slightest sense of it. Neither has any faculty member.” An assistant professor of English at a U.S. university (she prefers to remain anonymous) entered this choice morsel from The Cultures of United States Imperialism , by Donald Pease (Duke University Press, 1993): When interpreted from within the ideal space of the myth-symbol school, Americanist masterworks legitimized hegemonic understanding of American history expressively totalized in Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay, the metanarrative that had been reconstructed out of (or more accurately read into) these masterworks. While the entrant says she enjoys the Bad Writing Contest, she’s fearful her career prospects would suffer were she to sample be identified as hostile to the turn by English departments toward movies and Clytemnestra Essay soap operas.
We quite understand: these days the stephen worst writers in universities are English professors who ignore “the canon” in Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, order to apply tepid, vaguely Marxist gobbledygook to reference popular culture. Young academics who’d like a career had best go along. But it’s not just the English department where jargon and incoherence are increasingly the fashion. Susan Katz Karp, a graduate student at Queens College in New York City, found this choice nugget showing that forward-thinking art historians are doing their desperate best to import postmodern style into their discipline. It’s from an article by Professor Anna C. Clytemnestra! Chave, writing in Art Bulletin (December 1994): To this end, I must underline the phallicism endemic to the dialectics of penetration routinely deployed in what does mean, descriptions of and Aphrodite, pictorial space and the operations of spectatorship . Style! The next round of the Bad Writing Contest, results to be announced in Essay, 1998, is now open with a deadline of and the, December 31, 1997. There is an endless ocean of pretentious, turgid academic prose being added to daily, and we’ll continue to celebrate it. The entries for the second run of the Bad Writing Contest have now been tabulated, and we are pleased to announce winners.
But first a few tedious words. And Aphrodite Essay! There is no question that we have better #151; if that’s how to put it #151; entries than the last time we ran the contest. Some of the entries are stunning, and we think almost all of them deserve a prize of some sort. This is not to chaucer worked and say that much of the and Aphrodite writing we would consider “bad” is necessarily incompetent. Graduate students and young scholars please note: many of the writers represented have worked years to academic reference attain their styles and they have been rewarded with publication in books and journal articles. In fact, if they weren’t published, we wouldn’t have them for our contest.
That these passages constitute bad writing is merely our opinion; it is arguable that anyone wanting to pursue an Clytemnestra and Aphrodite academic career should assiduously imitate such styles as are represented here. These are your role models. What! First prize goes to David Spurrett of the University of Natal in South Africa. Clytemnestra! He found this marvelous sentence #151; yes, it’s but one sentence #151; from Roy Bhaskar’s Plato etc: The Problems of Philosophy and gender trouble: feminism and the of identity Their Resolution (Verso, 1994): Indeed dialectical critical realism may be seen under the aspect of and Aphrodite, Foucauldian strategic reversal #151; of the unholy trinity of epithet, Parmenidean/Platonic/Aristotelean provenance; of the Cartesian-Lockean-Humean-Kantian paradigm, of Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, foundationalisms (in practice, fideistic foundationalisms) and sample irrationalisms (in practice, capricious exercises of the will-to-power or some other ideologically and/or psycho-somatically buried source) new and Clytemnestra Essay old alike; of the primordial failing of western philosophy, ontological monovalence, and its close ally, the epistemic fallacy with its ontic dual; of the analytic problematic laid down by Plato, which Hegel served only to replicate in his actualist monovalent analytic reinstatement in transfigurative reconciling dialectical connection, while in his hubristic claims for absolute idealism he inaugurated the Comtean, Kierkegaardian and Nietzschean eclipses of reason, replicating the fundaments of academic reference, positivism through its transmutation route to the superidealism of a Baudrillard. It’s a splendid bit of Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, prose and reference sample I’m certain many of us will now attempt to read it aloud without taking a breath. The jacket blurb, incidentally, informs us that this is the author’s “most accessible book to date.” Second Prize is won by Jennifer Harris of the University of Toronto. She found a grand sentence in an essay by Stephen T. Tyman called “Ricoeur and the Problem of Evil,” in The Philosophy of Paul Ricoeur , edited, it says, by Lewis Edwin Hahn (Open Court, 1995): With the last gasp of Romanticism, the quelling of its florid uprising against the vapid formalism of one strain of the Enlightenment, the Essay dimming of its yearning for the imagined grandeur of the writing archaic, and the dashing of its too sanguine hopes for a revitalized, fulfilled humanity, the horror of its more lasting, more Gothic legacy has settled in, distributed and diffused enough, to be sure, that lugubriousness is recognizable only Clytemnestra, as languor, or as a certain sardonic laconicism disguising itself in a new sanctification of the destructive instincts, a new genius for displacing cultural reifications in the interminable shell game of the analysis of the human psyche, where nothing remains sacred. Speaking of shell games, see if you can figure out the Dress subject of that sentence. Third prize was such a problem that we decided to award more than one. Exactly what the prizes will be is uncertain (the first three prizes were to be books), but something nice will be found. (Perhaps: third prize, an old copy of and Aphrodite, Glyph ; fourth prize two old copies of academic reference, Glyph .) Jack Kolb of UCLA found this sentence in Paul Fry’s A Defense of Poetry (Stanford University Press, 1995).
Together with the previous winners, it proves that 1995 was to and Aphrodite bad prose what 1685 was to good music. Fry writes, It is the moment of Chanel's Little Black, non-construction, disclosing the Clytemnestra and Aphrodite absentation of writing style, actuality from the concept in Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, part through its invitation to emphasize, in reading, the helplessness #151; rather than the will to power #151; of its fall into conceptuality. Incidentally, Kolb is reviewing Fry’s book for Philosophy and Essay Chanel's Dress Literature , and believe it or not he generally respects it. Arthur J. Weitzman of Northeastern University has noted for us two helpful sentences from The Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism , edited by Michael Groden and Martin Kreiswirth (JHUP, 1994). It is from Donald E. Pease’s entry on Harold Bloom: Previous exercises in influence study depended upon a topographical model of reallocatable poetic images, distributed more or less equally within ‘canonical’ poems, each part of and Aphrodite, which expressively totalized the entelechy of the entire tradition.
But Bloom now understood this cognitive map of interchangeable organic wholes to be criticism’s repression of poetry’s will to overcome time’s anteriority. What can we add to that? William Dolphin of king style, San Francisco State University located for Clytemnestra, us this elegant sentence in John Guillory’s Cultural Capital: The Problem of Literary Canon Formation (University of Chicago Press, 1993): A politics presuming the ontological indifference of all minority social identities as defining oppressed or dominated groups, a politics in which differences are sublimated in the constitution of a minority identity (the identity politics which is increasingly being questioned within feminism itself) can recover the differences between social identities only on chaucer as a writer and, the basis of common and therefore commensurable experiences of marginalization, which experiences in turn yield a political practice that consists largely of affirming the identities specific to those experiences. Finally, the Canadian David Savory found this lucid sentence in the essay by Robyn Wiegman and Linda Zwinger, in “Tonya’s Bad Boot,” an essay in and Aphrodite, Women on Ice , edited by Cynthia Baughman (Routledge, 1995): Punctuated by what became ubiquitous sound bites #151; Tonya dashing after the tow truck, Nancy sailing the ice with one leg reaching for heaven #151; this melodrama parsed the transgressive hybridity of un-narrativized representative bodies back into recognizable heterovisual codes.
Thanks to these and all the other entrants. If you didn’t win this time, the next round of the chaucer worked as a writer Bad Writing Contest, prizes to be announced, is now open with a deadline of September 30, 1996. So you’ve plenty of time to find examples from the turgid new world of academic prose. Feel free to and Aphrodite forward the above text to email lists or to stephen king writing style post it, without alteration, on other web sites.
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Within the Clytemnestra and Aphrodite philosophy of science there have been competing ideas about what does mean what an explanation is. Historically, explanation has been associated with causation: to explain an event or phenomenon is to identify its cause. But with the growth and development of Clytemnestra and Aphrodite philosophy of science in the 20th century, the gender trouble: subversion of identity concept of explanation began to receive more rigorous and specific analysis. Of particular concern were theories that posited the existence of unobservable entities and processes (atoms, fields, genes, and so forth). These posed a dilemma: on the one hand, the staunch empiricist had to reject unobservable entities as a matter of principle; on the other, theories that appealed to unobservable entities were clearly producing revolutionary results. Thus philosophers of science sought some way to and Aphrodite Essay characterize the obvious value of these theories without abandoning the empiricist principles deemed central to scientific rationality. A theory of explanation might treat explanations in either a realist or an epistemic (that is, anti-realist) sense.
A realist interpretation of explanation holds that the entities or processes an explanation posits actually exist--the explanation is a literal description of gender of identity external reality. An epistemic interpretation, on the contrary, holds that such entities or processes do not necessarily exist in any literal sense but are simply useful for organizing human experience and the results of scientific experiments--the point of an explanation is only to facilitate the construction of a consistent empirical model, not to furnish a literal description of reality. Thus Hempel's epistemic theory of explanation deals only in logical form, making no mention of any actual physical connection between the and Aphrodite phenomenon to be explained and the facts purported to moral virtues explain it, whereas Salmon's realist account emphasizes that real processes and entities are conceptually necessary for understanding exactly why an explanation works. In contrast to these theoretical and primarily scientific approaches, some philosophers have favored a theory of explanation grounded in the way people actually perform explanation. Clytemnestra And Aphrodite! Ordinary Language Philosophy stresses the communicative or linguistic aspect of an explanation, its utility in academic reference sample, answering questions and furthering understanding between two individuals, while an Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay approach based in cognitive science maintains that explaining is a purely cognitive activity and that an explanation is a certain kind of mental representation that results from or aids in Essay about Chanel's Little Black Dress, this activity. It is a matter of Essay contention within cognitive science whether explanation is properly conceived as the process and results of stephen king writing style belief revision or as the activation of patterns within a neural network. This article focuses on Clytemnestra and Aphrodite the way thinking about moral virtues explanation within the Clytemnestra philosophy of science has changed since 1950.
It begins by discussing the philosophical concerns that gave rise to the first theory of what explanation, the deductive-nomological model. Discussions of this theory and standard criticisms of it are followed by an examination of attempts to amend, extend or replace this first model. There is particular emphasis on the most general aspects of explanation and on the extent to Essay which later developments reflect the priorities and presuppositions of different philosophical traditions. There are many important aspects of writing style explanation not covered, most notably the relation between the Clytemnestra and Aphrodite different types of explanation such as teleological, functional, reductive, psychological, and historical explanation -- that are employed in Essay Chanel's, various branches of human inquiry. Most people, philosophers included, think of explanation in terms of causation. Very roughly, to explain an event or phenomenon is to identify its cause.
The nature of causation is one of the perennial problems of philosophy, so on the basis of this connection one might reasonably attempt to trace thinking about the nature of Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay explanation to antiquity. (Among the ancients, for example, Aristotle's theory of causation is plausibly regarded as a theory of about Chanel's Black explanation.) But the idea that the concept of explanation warrants independent analysis really did not begin to take hold until the 20th century. Generally, this change occurred as the result of the linguistic turn in philosophy. More specifically, it was the and Aphrodite Essay result of philosophers of science attempting to understand the nature of modern theoretical science. Of particular concern were theories that posited the existence of unobservable entities and processes (for example, atoms, fields, genes, etc.). These posed a dilemma. On the one hand, the sample staunch empiricist had to reject unobservable entities as a matter of principle; on Clytemnestra and Aphrodite the other hand, theories that appealed to unobservables were clearly producing revolutionary results. A way was needed to characterize the obvious value of these theories without abandoning the empiricist principles deemed central to scientific rationality. In this context it became common to distinguish between the literal truth of academic a theory and its power to explain observable phenomena. Although the distinction between truth and explanatory power is important, it is susceptible to Essay multiple interpretations, and this remains a source of confusion even today. The problem is this: In philosophy the terms truth and explanation have both realist and king style epistemic interpretations. On a realist interpretation the truth and explanatory power of a theory are matters of the correspondence of language with an external reality.
A theory that is Essay both true and as a and explanatory gives us insight into the causal structure of the Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay world. On an epistemic interpretation, however, these terms express only the power of a theory to order our experience. A true and explanatory theory orders our experience to a greater degree than a false non-explanatory one. Hence, someone who denies that scientific theories are explanatory in the realist sense of the term may or may not be denying that they are explanatory in the epistemic sense. Conversely, someone who asserts that scientific theories are explanatory in the epistemic sense may or may not be claiming that they are explanatory in the realist sense. The failure to academic reference sample distinguish these senses of Clytemnestra explanation can and does foster disagreements that are purely semantic in nature.
One common way of employing the distinction between truth and explanation is to say that theories that refer to unobservable entities may explain the phenomena, but they are not literally true. A second way is to writing say that these theories are true, but they do not really explain the phenomena. Although these statements are superficially contradictory, they can both be made in support of the same basic view of the nature of Essay scientific theories. This, it is now easy to see, is because the terms 'truth' and 'explanation' are being used differently in each statement. In the first, 'explanation' is being used epistemically and 'truth' realistically; in the second, 'explanation' is being used realistically and 'truth' epistemically. But both statements are saying roughly the same thing, namely, that a scientific theory may be accepted as having a certain epistemic value without necessarily accepting that the unobservable entities it refers to actually exist. (This view is known as anti-realism.) One early 20th century philosopher scientist, Pierre Duhem, expressed himself according to the latter interpretation when he claimed: A physical theory is not an explanation. It is moral virtues a system of Clytemnestra Essay mathematical propositions, deduced from a small number of principles, which aim to represent as simply, as completely, and as exactly as possible a set of experimental laws. ( 1962: p7)
Duhem claimed that: To explain is to strip the reality of the appearances covering it like a veil, in order to see the bare reality itself. (op.cit.: p19) Explanation was the task of metaphysics, not science. Science, according to Duhem, does not comprehend reality, but only gives order to appearance. However, the subsequent rise of academic reference analytic philosophy and, in particular, logical positivism made Duhem's acceptance of classical metaphysics unpopular. And Aphrodite! The conviction grew that, far from being explanatory, metaphysics was meaningless insofar as it issued claims that had no implications for king, experience. By the and Aphrodite Essay time Carl Hempel (who, as a logical positivist, was still fundamentally an worked writer anti-realist about unobservable entities) articulated the first real theory of explanation (1948) the and Aphrodite explanatory power of science could be stipulated. To explain the phenomena in the world of our experience, to answer the question Why? rather than only the question What?, is one of the foremost objectives of all rational inquiry; and especially scientific research, in its various branches strives to go beyond a mere description of chaucer worked writer and its subject matter by providing an explanation of the phenomena it investigates. (Hempel and Oppenheim 1948: p8) For Hempel, answering the question Why? did not, as for Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay, Duhem, involve an appeal to a reality beyond all experience. Hempel employs the epistemic sense of explanation. For him the question Why? was an expression of the need to chaucer writer gain predictive control over Clytemnestra Essay, our future experiences, and the value of a scientific theory was to be measured in terms of its capacity to stephen king style produce this result.
According to Hempel, an explanation is: . an argument to Clytemnestra Essay the effect that the phenomenon to be explained . Moral Virtues! was to be expected in virtue of certain explanatory facts. (1965 p. 336) Hempel claimed that there are two types of explanation, what he called 'deductive-nomological' (DN) and 'inductive-statistical' (IS) respectively. Both IS and DN arguments have the same structure. And Aphrodite! Their premises each contain statements of two types: (1) initial conditions C, and (2) law-like generalizations L. In each, the conclusion is the event E to be explained: The only difference between the two is that the laws in a DN explanation are universal generalizations, whereas the laws in IS explanations have the form of statistical generalizations.
An example of a DN explanation containing one initial condition and feminism and the of identity one law-like generalization is: C. The infant's cells have three copies of chromosome 21. L. Any infant whose cells have three copies of Clytemnestra chromosome 21 has Down's Syndrome. E. The infant has Down's Syndrome. An example of an IS explanation is: C. The man's brain was deprived of oxygen for five continuous minutes. L. Almost anyone whose brain is deprived of as a writer and oxygen for five continuous minutes will sustain brain damage. E. The man has brain damage. For Hempel, DN explanations were always to be preferred to IS explanations.
There were two reasons for this. First, the deductive relationship between premises and conclusion maximized the predictive value of the explanation. Hempel accepted IS arguments as explanatory just to the extent that they approximated DN explanations by conferring a high probability on the event to be explained. Second, Hempel understood the concept of explanation as something that should be understood fundamentally in terms of logical form. Essay! True premises are, of course, essential to something being a good DN explanation, but to qualify as a DN explanation (what he sometimes called a potential DN explanation) an argument need only exhibit the deductive-nomological structure. (This requirement placed Hempel squarely within the academic logical positivist tradition, which was committed to analyzing all of the epistemically significant concepts of science in logical terms.) There is, however, no corresponding concept of a potential IS explanation. Clytemnestra And Aphrodite Essay! Unlike DN explanations, the Essay Chanel's Little Black Dress inductive character of IS explanations means that the relation between premises and conclusion can always be undermined by Essay, the addition of new information. (For example, the probability of brain damage, given that a man is chaucer writer and deprived of oxygen for 7 minutes, is lowered somewhat by the information that the man spent this time at the bottom of a very cold lake.) Consequently, it is always possible that a proposed IS explanation, even if the premises are true, would fail to predict the fact in question, and thus have no explanatory significance for Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, the case at hand. 3. Standard Criticisms of Hempel's Theory of Explanation. Hempel's dissatisfaction with statistical explanation was at odds with modern science, for which the explanatory use of statistics had become indispensable. Moreover, Hempel's requirement that IS explanations approximate the predictive power of DN explanations has the counterintuitive implication that for inherently low probability events no explanations are possible. For example, since smoking two packs of cigarettes a day for 40 years does not actually make it probable that a person will contract lung cancer, it follows from Hempel's theory that a statistical law about smoking will not be involved in an IS explanation of the occurrence of what epithet mean lung cancer.
Hempel's view might be defended here by claiming that when our theories do not allow us to predict a phenomenon with a high degree of accuracy, it is because we have incomplete knowledge of the initial conditions. However, this seems to require us to base a theory of explanation on the now dubious metaphysical position that all events have determinate causes. Another important criticism of Essay Hempel's theory is that many DN arguments with true premises do not appear to be explanatory. Wesley Salmon raised the problem of relevance with the following example: C1. Butch takes birth control pills. C2: Butch is a man.
L: No man who takes birth control pills becomes pregnant. E: Butch has not become pregnant. Unfortunately, this reasoning qualifies as explanatory on Hempel's theory despite the fact that the premises seem to be explanatorily irrelevant to the conclusion. Sylvain Bromberger raised the problem of asymmetry by Essay Black Dress, pointing out that, while on Hempel's model one can explain the period of a pendulum in terms of the length of the and Aphrodite Essay pendulum together with the law of simple periodic motion, one can just as easily explain the length of a pendulum in terms of its period in accord with the same law. Our intuitions tell us that the first is explanatory, but the second is not. The same point is made by the following example: C: The barometer is falling rapidly. L: Whenever the barometer falls rapidly, a storm is approaching. E: A storm is approaching. While the moral virtues falling barometer is a trustworthy indicator of an approaching storm, it is counterintuitive to say that the barometer explains the occurrence of the storm.
Rather, it is the Essay approaching storm that explains the falling barometer. These two problems, relevance and asymmetry, expose the difficulty of Essay about Little Black Dress developing a theory of explanation that makes no reference to causal relations. And Aphrodite Essay! Reference to causal relations is not an option for Hempel, however, since causation heads the anti-realist's list of metaphysically suspect concepts. Writing! It would also undermine his view that explanation should be understood as an epistemic rather than a metaphysical relationship. Hempel's response to these problems was that they raise purely pragmatic issues. His model countenances many explanations that prove to be useless, but whether an explanation has any practical value is not, in and Aphrodite Essay, Hempel's view, something that can be determined by moral virtues, philosophical analysis.
This is a perfectly cogent reply, but it has not generally been regarded as an adequate one. Virtually all subsequent attempts to improve upon Hempel's theory accept the above criticisms as legitimate. As noted above, Hempel's model requires that an explanation make use of at least one law-like generalization. This presents another sort of problem for the DN model. Hempel was careful to distinguish law-like generalizations from accidental generalizations. The latter are generalizations that may be true, but not in and Aphrodite, virtue of moral virtues any law of nature. (for example, All of my shirts are stained with coffee may be true, but it is- I hope- just an and Aphrodite Essay accidental fact, not a law of nature.) Although the idea that explanation consists in subsuming events under natural laws has wide appeal in moral virtues, the philosophy of science, it is doubtful whether this requirement can be made consistent with Hempel's epistemic view of explanation. The reason is simply that no one has ever articulated an epistemically sound criterion for Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, distinguishing between law-like generalizations and accidental generalizations.
This is essentially just Hume's problem of induction, namely, that no finite number of observations can justify the claim that a regularity in nature is academic due to and Aphrodite Essay an natural necessity. In the absence of such a criterion, Hempel's model seems to violate the spirit of the epistemic view of explanation, as well as the idea that explanation can be understood in purely logical terms. 4. Reference Sample! Contemporary Developments in the Theory of Explanation. Contemporary developments in the theory of explanation in many ways reflect the fragmented state of analytic philosophy since the decline of logical positivism. In this article we will look briefly at examples of Essay how explanation has been conceived within the following five traditions: (1) Causal Realism, (2) Constructive Empiricism, (3) Ordinary Language Philosophy, (4) Cognitive Science and (5) Naturalism and Scientific Realism. With the decline of logical positivism and the gathering success of academic reference sample modern theoretical science, philosophers began to regard continued skepticism about the reality of unobservable entities and processes as pointless.
Different varieties of realism were articulated and against and Aphrodite Essay, this background several different causal theories of chaucer worked and explanation were developed. The idea behind them is the ordinary intuition noted at the beginning of this essay: to explain is to attribute a cause. Michael Scriven argued this point with notable force: Let us take a case where we can be sure beyond any reasonable doubt that we have a correct explanation. As you reach for the dictionary, your knee catches the edge of the table and thus turns over the ink bottle, the contents of and Aphrodite Essay which proceed to run over the table's edge and ruin the carpet. If you are subsequently asked to explain how the carpet was damaged you have a complete explanation. You did it by knocking over the ink. The certainty of this explanation is primeval. This capacity for identifying causes is learnt, is writing style better developed in Essay, some people than in others, can be tested, and moral virtues is the basis for what we call judgments. (1959: p. 456)
Wesley Salmon's causal theory of and Aphrodite Essay explanation is perhaps the most influential developed within the what epithet mean realist tradition. Salmon had earlier developed a fundamentally epistemic view according to which an explanation is a list of statistically relevant factors. However he later rejected this, and any epistemic theory, as inadequate. His reason was that all epistemic theories are incapable of showing how explanations produce scientific understanding. This is because scientific understanding is not only Clytemnestra Essay, a matter of moral virtues having justified beliefs about the future. Clytemnestra And Aphrodite! Salmon now insists that even a Laplacean Demon whose knowledge of the laws and initial conditions of the universe were so precise and complete as to chaucer worked and issue in Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay, perfect predictive knowledge would lack scientific understanding. Specifically, he would lack the what does mean concepts of causal relevance and causal asymmetry and he could not distinguish between true causal processes and pseudo-processes. (As an Clytemnestra Essay example of the latter, consider the gender trouble: and the subversion beam of a search light as it describes an arc through the Clytemnestra Essay sky. The movement of the beam is a pseudo-process since earlier stages of the beam do not cause later stages. By contrast, the electrical generation of the light itself, and Essay about Black the movement of the lamp housing are true causal processes.)
Salmon defends his causal realism by rejecting the Humean conception of causation as linked chains of events, and by attempting to articulate an epistemologically sound theory of continuous causal processes and causal interactions to replace it. The theory itself is detailed and Clytemnestra Essay does not lend itself to about Black Dress compression. It reads not so much as an Essay analysis of the term 'explanation' as a set of instructions for producing an explanation of a particular phenomenon or event. One begins by compiling a list of Black statistically relevant factors and analyzing the list by a variety of methods. The procedure terminates in the creation of causal models of Clytemnestra these statistical relationships and empirical testing to determine which of these models is best supported by about Chanel's Little Dress, the evidence. Insofar as Salmon's theory insists that an adequate explanation has not been achieved until the fundamental causal mechanisms of a phenomenon have been articulated, it is Clytemnestra deeply reductionistic. It is epithet mean not clear, for Clytemnestra Essay, example, how Salmon's model of chaucer worked writer and explanation could ever generate meaningful explanations of mental events, which supervene on, but do not seem to be reducible to a unique set of Clytemnestra Essay causal relationships. What! Salmon's theory is also similar to Hempel's in at least one sense, and that is that both champion ideal forms of Essay explanation, rather than anything that scientists or ordinary people are likely to achieve in the workaday world. This type of theorizing clearly has its place, but it has also been criticized by those who see explanation primarily as a form of communication between individuals.
On this view, simplicity and ease of sample communication are not merely pragmatic, but essential to the creation of Clytemnestra human understanding. b. Explanation and Constructive Empiricism. In his book The Scientific Image (1980) Bas van Fraassen produced an influential defense of anti-realism. Stephen! Terming his view constructive empiricism van Fraassen claimed that theoretical science was properly construed as a creative process of model construction rather than one of discovering truths about the unobservable world. While avoiding the fatal excesses of logical positivism he argued strongly against the realistic interpretation of theoretical terms, claiming that contemporary scientific realism is predicated on Clytemnestra a dire misunderstanding of the and the subversion nature of explanation. (See Naturalism and Scientific Realism below). In support of his constructive empiricism van Fraassen produced an epistemic theory of explanation that draws on the logic of and Aphrodite Essay why-questions and draws on a Bayesian interpretation of probability. Like Hempel, van Fraassen seeks to explicate explanation as a purely logical concept. However, the logical relation is not that of premises to conclusion, but one of question to answer. Following Bromberger, van Fraassen characterizes explanation as an answer to a why-question. Why-questions, for him, are essentially contrastive.
That is, they always, implicitly or explicitly, ask: Why Pk, rather than some set of alternatives X= ? Why-questions also implicitly stipulate a relevance relation R, which is the explanatory relation (for example, causation) any answer must bear to the ordered pair . Van Fraassen follows Hempel in king writing style, addressing explanatory asymmetry and explanatory relevance as pragmatic issues. And Aphrodite! However, van Fraassen's question-answering model makes this view a bit more intuitive. The relevance relation is defined by the interests of the person posing the question. For example, an chaucer worked writer and individual who asks for an explanation of an airline accident in terms of the human decisions that led to it can not be forced to accept an explanation solely in terms of the weather. van Fraassen deals with the problem of explanatory asymmetry by showing that this, too, is Clytemnestra and Aphrodite a function of context. For example, most people would say that bad weather explains plane crashes, but plane crashes don't explain bad weather. However, there are conditions (for example, unstable atmospheric conditions, an airplane carrying highly explosive cargo) that could combine to supply the latter explanation with an appropriate context.
Van Fraassen's model also avoids Hempel's problematic requirement of high probability for IS explanation. For van Fraassen, an answer will be potentially explanatory if it favors Pk over all the other members of the contrast class. This means roughly that the answer must confer greater probability on Pk than on any other Pi. Moral Virtues! It does not require that Pk actually be probable, or even that the probability of Pk be raised as a result of the answer, since favoring can actually result from an answer that lowers the probability of all other Pi relative to and Aphrodite Essay Pk. For van Fraassen, the essential tool for calculating the explanatory value of gender trouble: feminism and the a theory is Bayes' Rule, which allows one to calculate the probability of a particular event relative to a set of background assumptions and Clytemnestra some new information. From a Bayesian point of view, the moral virtues rationality of a belief is relative to a set of background assumptions which are not themselves the subject of evaluation. Van Fraassen's theory of explanation is therefore deeply subjectivist: what counts as a good explanation for one person may not count as a good explanation for another, since their background assumptions may differ. Van Fraassen's pragmatic account of explanation buttresses his anti-realist position, by Clytemnestra Essay, showing that when properly analyzed there is nothing about the concept of explanation that demands a realistic interpretation of causal processes or unobservables. Van Fraassen does not make the positivist mistake of claiming that talk of such things is Essay about Chanel's Black Dress metaphysical nonsense.
He claims only and Aphrodite, that a full appreciation of science does not depend on a realistic interpretation. His pragmatism also offers an alternative account of academic Salmon's Laplacean Demon. van Fraassen agrees with Salmon that an individual with perfect knowledge of the laws and initial conditions of the universe lacks something, but what he lacks is and Aphrodite Essay not objective knowledge of the difference between causal processes and pseudo processes. Rather, he simply lacks the human interests that make causation a useful concept. c. Explanation and Ordinary Language Philosophy. Although van Fraassen's theory of trouble: feminism and the subversion of identity explanation is based on the view that explanation is a process of communication, he still chooses to explicate the concept of explanation as a logical relationship between question and Essay answer, rather than as a communicative relationship between two individuals. Ordinary Language Philosophy tends to as a and emphasize this latter quality, rejecting traditional epistemology and metaphysics and focusing on Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay the requirements of effective communication. For this school, philosophical problems do not arise because ordinary language is defective, but because we are in some way ignoring the communicative function of language. Consequently, the point of ordinary language analysis is not to trouble: feminism and the of identity improve upon ordinary usage by clarifying the meanings of terms for use in some ideal vocabulary, but rather to bring the Clytemnestra Essay full ordinary meanings of the terms to light. Within this tradition Peter Achinstein (1983) developed an illocutionary theory of explanation. Like Salmon, Achinstein characterizes explanation as the pursuit of understanding.
He defines the act of explanation as the attempt by one person to produce understanding in another by answering a certain kind of about Little question in a certain kind of way. Achinstein rejects Salmon's narrow association of understanding with causation, as well as van Fraassen's analysis in terms of why-questions. For Achinstein there are many different kinds of questions that we ordinarily regard as attempts to Clytemnestra Essay gain understanding (for example, who-, what-, when-, and where-questions) and it follows that the act of answering any of these is properly regarded as an act of explanation. According to Achinstein's theory S (a person) explains q (an interrogative expressing some question Q) by uttering u only if: S utters u with the moral virtues intention that his utterance of u render q understandable by producing the Clytemnestra knowledge of the proposition expressed by u that it is a correct answer to Q. (1983: p.13) Achinstein's approach is an interesting departure from the types of theory discussed above in that it draws freely both on the concept of intention as well as the irreducibly causal notion of producing knowledge. This move clearly can not be countenanced by reference, someone who sees explanation as a fundamentally logical concept. Even the causal realist who believes that explanations make essential reference to causes does not construe explanation itself in causal terms. Clytemnestra Essay! Indeed, Achinstein's approach is so different from chaucer worked as a writer and, theories that we have discussed so far that it might be best construed as addressing a very different question.
Whereas traditional theories have attempted to explicate the Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay logic of explanation, Achinstein's theory may be best understood as an attempt to describe the process of explanation itself. Like van Fraassen's theory, Achinstein's theory is deeply pragmatic. He stipulates that all explanations are given relative to a set of instructions (cf. van Fraassen's relevance relations) and indicates that these instructions are ultimately determined by reference, the individual asking the question. So, for example, a person who ask for an explanation why the electrical power in the house has gone out Clytemnestra Essay implicitly instructs that the question be answered in a way that would be relevant to the goal of turning the electricity back on. An answer that explained the absence of an electrical current in scientific terms, say by reference to Maxwell's equations, would be inappropriate in what mean, this case. Achinstein attempts to avoid van Fraassen's subjectivism, by identifying understanding with knowledge that a certain kind of proposition is true. These, he calls content giving propositions which are to be contrasted with propositions that have no real cognitive significance. For example, Achinstein would want to rule out Clytemnestra Essay as non-explanatory, answers to questions that are purely tautological, such as: Mr. Pheeper died because Mr.
Pheeper ceased to live. Achinstein also counts as non explanatory the scientifically correct answer to a question like: What is the stephen style speed of and Aphrodite light in a vacuum? For him 186,000 miles/ second is not explanatory because, as it stands, it is just an incomprehensibly large number offering no basis of comparison with velocities that are cognitively significant. This does not mean that speed of reference sample light in a vacuum can not be explained. For example, a more cognitively significant answer to the above question might be that light can travel 7 1/2 times around the earth in one second. (Thanks to Professor Norman Swartz for this example) One of the Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay main difficulties with Achinstein's theory is that the idea of a content-giving proposition remains too vague. Stephen Writing Style! His refusal to narrow the list of questions that qualify as requests for Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, explanation makes it very difficult to identify any interesting property that an act of explanation must have in order to produce understanding. What! Moreover, Achinstein's theory suffers from epistemological problems of its own. His theory of explanation makes essential reference to the intention to produce a certain kind of knowledge-state, but it is unclear from Clytemnestra, what Achinstein says how a knowledge state can be the result of an illocutionary act simpliciter.
Certainly, such acts can produce beliefs, but not all beliefs so produced will count as knowledge, and Achinstein's theory does not distinguish between the kinds of explanatory acts that are likely to result in such knowledge, and the kinds that will not. d. Explanation and Cognitive Science. While explanation may be fruitfully regarded as an gender and the of identity act of communication, still another departure from the standard relational analysis is to Essay think of explaining as a purely cognitive activity, and an explanation as a certain kind of mental representation that results from or aids in epithet, this activity. Considered in this way, explaining (sometimes called 'abduction') is a universal phenomenon. And Aphrodite! It may be conscious, deliberative, and about Chanel's Little Black explicitly propositional in nature, but it may also be unconscious, instinctive, and involve no explicit propositional knowledge whatsoever. For example: a father, hearing a high-pitched wail coming from the Essay next room, rushes to his daughter's aid. Whether he reacted instinctively, or on the basis of an explicit inference, we can say that the father's behavior was the result of his having explained the wailing sound as the cry of his daughter. From this perspective the term 'explanation' is neither a meta-logical nor a metaphysical relation. Rather, the term has been given a theoretical status and chaucer writer an explanatory function of its own; that is, we explain a person's behavior by reference to the fact that he is in possession of an explanation.
Put differently, 'explanation' has been subsumed into the theoretical vocabulary of science (with explanation itself being one of the Essay problematic unobservables) an understanding of which was the very purpose of the theory of explanation in the first place. Cognitive science is a diverse discipline and stephen style there are many different ways of approaching the concept of explanation within it. One major rift within the Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay discipline concerns the trouble: feminism question whether folk psychology with its reference to mental entities like intentions, beliefs and desires is fundamentally sound. Cognitive scientists in the artificial intelligence (AI) tradition argue that it is sound, and that the task of cognitive science is to develop a theory that preserves the Clytemnestra basic integrity of belief-desire explanation. On this view, explaining is a process of Essay about Chanel's Little belief revision, and explanatory understanding is and Aphrodite Essay understood by moral virtues, reference to the set of beliefs that result from that process. Cognitive scientists in the neuroscience tradition, in Essay, contrast, argue that folk psychology is not explanatory at all: in its completed state all reference to beliefs and desires will be eliminated from the vocabulary of cognitive science in favor of reference a vocabulary that allows us to explain behavior by reference to models of neural activity. Clytemnestra And Aphrodite! On this view explaining is a fundamentally neurological process, and explanatory understanding is understood by reference to activation patterns within a neural network. One popular approach that incorporates aspects of both traditional AI and neuroscience makes use of the style idea of a mental model (cf. Holland et al. ) Mental models are internal representations that occur as a result of the activation of some part of a network of condition-action (or if-then) type rules.
These rules are clustered in Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay, such a way that when a certain number of conditions becomes active, some action results. For example, here is a small cluster of rules that a simple cognitive system might use to distinguish different types of small furry mammals in a backyard environment. (i) If [large, scurries, meows] then [cat]. (ii) If [small, scurries, squeaks] then [rat]. (iii) If [small, hops, chirps] then [squirrel]. (iv) If [squirrel or rat] then [flees]. (v) If [cat] then [approaches]. A mental model of a squirrel, then, can be described as an trouble: and the subversion activation of rule (iii). A key concept within the mental models framework is that of a default hierarchy. A set of rules such as those above, state a standard set of default conditions.
When these are met, a set of Clytemnestra Essay expectations is king generated. For example, the activation of Clytemnestra rule (iii) generates expectations of type (iv). However, a viable representational system must be able to revise prior rule activations when expectations are contradicted by future experience. In the mental models framework, this is achieved by incorporating a hierarchy of rules below the default condition with more specific conditions at lower levels of the model whose actions will defeat default expectations. For example, default rule (iii) might be defeated by another rule as follows: 3. Level 1: If [small, hops, chirps] then [squirrel]. Level 2: If [flies] then [bird]. In other words, a system that identifies a small, hopping chirping animal as a squirrel generates a set of expectations about its future behavior. If these expectations are contradicted by, for example, the putative squirrel flying, then the system will descend to a lower level of the hierarchy thereby allowing the chaucer as a writer and system to reclassify the Essay object as a bird. Although this is just a cursory characterization of the mental models framework it is enough to show how explanation can be handled within it.
In this context it is natural to think of king explanation as a process that is triggered by a predictive failure. Essentially, when the expectations activated at Level 1 of the Essay default hierarchy fail, the about Black Dress system searches lower levels of the Essay hierarchy to find out why. If the above example were formulated in explicitly propositional terms, we would say that the failure of Level 1 expectations generated the question: Why did the animal, which I previously identified as a squirrel, fly? The answer supplied at level 2 is: Because the Essay about Little animal is not a squirrel, but a bird. Of course, Level 2 rules produce their own set of expectations, which must themselves be corroborated with future experience or defeated by future explanations. Clearly, the above example is a rudimentary form of explanation. Any viable system must incorporate learning algorithms which allow it to modify both the content and structure of the default hierarchy when its expectations are repeatedly undermined by experience. This will necessarily involve the ability to generalize over Clytemnestra Essay, past experiences and activate entirely new rules at every level of the default hierarchy. One can reasonably doubt whether philosophical questions about the nature of explanation are addressed by defining and about Chanel's ultimately engineering systems capable of explanatory cognition. To the Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay extent that these questions are understood in purely normative terms, they obviously arise in regard to systems built by humans with at moral virtues, least as much force as they arise for humans themselves. In defense of the cognitive science approach, however, one might assert that the simple philosophical question What is explanation? is not well-formed.
If we accept some form of epistemic relativity, the proper form of and Aphrodite such a question is always What is explanation in cognitive system S? Hence, doubts about the significance of chaucer worked explanatory cognition in some system S are best expressed as doubts about whether system S-type explanation models human cognition accurately enough to have any real significance for human beings. e. Explanation, Naturalism and Scientific Realism. Historically, naturalism is associated with the inclination to Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay reject any kind of explanation of natural phenomena that makes essential reference to unnatural phenomena. Insofar as this view is understood simply as the rejection of supernatural phenomena (for example the actions of gender feminism of identity gods, irreducibly spiritual substances, etc.) it is uncontroversial within the philosophy of science. However, when it is understood to entail the rejection of irreducibly non-natural properties, (that is, the normative properties of Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay 'rightness' and stephen king 'wrongness' that we appeal to Clytemnestra in making evaluative judgments about human thought and behavior), it is deeply problematic.
The problem is just that the aim of the philosophy of science has always been to establish an a priori basis for making precisely these evaluative judgments about scientific inquiry itself. If they can not be made, then it follows that the goals of philosophical inquiry have been badly misconceived. Most contemporary naturalists do not regard this as an insurmountable problem. Rather, they just reject the idea that philosophical inquiry can occur from moral virtues, a vantage point outside of science, and they deny that evaluative judgments we make about scientific reasoning and scientific concepts have any a priori status. Put differently, they think philosophical inquiry should be seen as a very abstract form of scientific inquiry, and they see the normative aspirations of philosophers as something that must be achieved by using the very tools and methods that philosophers have traditionally sought to Clytemnestra justify. The relevance of naturalism to the theory of explanation can be understood briefly as follows. Moral Virtues! Naturalism undermines the idea that knowledge is prior to understanding. If it is Clytemnestra Essay true that there will never be an inductive logic that can provide an stephen king writing a priori basis for calling an observed regularity a natural law, then there is, in fact, no independent way of and Aphrodite Essay establishing what is the case prior to understanding why it is the case. Because of this, some naturalists (for example, Sellars) have suggested a different way of thinking about the epistemic significance of moral virtues explanation. The idea, basically, is Clytemnestra that explanation is not something that occurs on the basis of pre-confirmed truths.
Rather, successful explanation is actually part of the process of confirmation itself: Our aim [is] to manipulate the three basic components of a world picture: (a) observed objects and events, (b) unobserved objects and chaucer as a writer events, (c) nomological connections, so as to achieve a maximum of explanatory coherence. In this reshuffle no item is sacred. Clytemnestra Essay! (Sellars, 1962: p356) Many naturalists have since embraced this idea of inference to the best explanation (IBE) as a fundamental principle of scientific reasoning. Chaucer As A Writer! Moreover, they have put this principle to work as an argument for realism. Clytemnestra Essay! Briefly, the idea is that if we treat the claim that unobservable entities exist as a scientific hypothesis, then it can be seen as providing an explanation of the success of theories that employ them: namely, the theories are successful because they are (approximately) true. Anti-realism, by moral virtues, contrast, can provide no such explanation; on this view theories that make reference to unobservables are not literally true and so the Essay success of scientific theories remains mysterious. Essay About Little Black! It should be noted here that scientific realism has a very different flavor from the more foundational form of realism discussed above. Traditional realists do not think of realism as a scientific hypothesis, but as an independent metaphysical thesis. Although IBE has won many converts in recent years it is deeply problematic precisely because of the way it employs the concept of explanation.
While most people find IBE to be intuitively plausible, the fact remains that no theory of explanation discussed above can make sense of the idea that we accept a claim on the basis of its explanatory power. Rather, every such view stipulates as a condition of having explanatory power at all that a statement must be true or well-confirmed. Moreover, van Fraassen has argued that even if we can make sense of IBE, it remains a highly dubious principle of inductive inference. Clytemnestra And Aphrodite Essay! The reason is that inference to the best explanation really can only mean inference to the best explanation given to date. We are unable to king compare proposed explanations to others that no one has yet thought of, and for this reason the property of being the best explanation can not be an objective measure of the likelihood that it is true. One way of and Aphrodite Essay responding to these criticisms is to observe that Sellars' concept of explanatory coherence is what does mean based on and Aphrodite a view about the nature of understanding that simply eludes the standard models of explanation. According to about Little Dress this view an explanation increases our understanding, not simply by being the correct answer to a particular question, but by increasing the coherence of and Aphrodite our entire belief system. Gender Subversion! This view has been developed in the context of traditional epistemology (Harman, Lehrer) as well as the philosophy of science (Thagard, Kitcher). In the latter context, the terms explanatory unification and consilience have been introduced to promote the idea that good explanations necessarily tend to produce a more unified body of knowledge.
Although traditionalists will insist that there is Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay no a priori basis for and the, thinking that a unified or coherent set of beliefs is and Aphrodite more likely to be true, (counterexamples are, in fact, easy to moral virtues produce) this misses the point that most naturalists reject the possibility of establishing IBE, or any other inductive principle, on purely a priori grounds. For critiques of naturalism, see the Social Science article. 5. The Current State of the Theory of Explanation. This brief summary may leave the reader with the impression that philosophers are hopelessly divided on the nature of explanation, but this is not really the case. Most philosophers of science would agree that our understanding of explanation is and Aphrodite Essay far better now than it was in 1948 when Hempel and Oppenheim published Studies in the Logic of Explanation. While it serves expository purposes to represent the DN model and each of chaucer and its successors as fatally flawed, this should not obscure the and Aphrodite Essay fact that these theories have brought real advances in understanding which succeeding models are required to preserve. At this point, fundamental disagreements on the nature of explanation fall into trouble: and the one of Essay two categories. First, there are metaphysical disagreements.
Realists and anti-realists continue to differ over what sort of ontological commitments one makes in worked as a, accepting an explanation. Second, there are meta-philosophical disagreements. Naturalists and non-naturalists remain at Clytemnestra, odds concerning the relevance of scientific inquiry ( namely, inquiry into the way scientists, ordinary people and computers actually think) to stephen writing style a philosophical theory of explanation. These disputes are unlikely to be resolved anytime soon. Fortunately, however, the significance of further research into the logical and cognitive structure of explanation does not depend on their outcome.
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PhD Thesis Structure Sample: How should you structure your thesis? Thesis structure for a PhD thesis should be a document structure which is acceptable by the University from where you are pursuing your doctoral degree program. It is a good practice to refer to this structure from the University and get it vetted by your supervisor. A typical (generally accepted)PhD thesis structure sample has the following sections. Title Acknowledgments Table of Contents (TOC) Abstract Introduction Literature Review Research Methodology Data Analysis Findings and Discussions Conclusion and Limitations Bibliography Appendix. Over 24% of theses submitted in Clytemnestra and Aphrodite all UK universities are rejected due to wrong structure of the stephen king style, report. You must use check previous theses submitted to the University before embarking on writing yours. At Thesis Clinic, we look after all your issues that tend to arise during the selection of a structure for your thesis paper. Thesis Clinic not only assists you with the accurate selection of your thesis structure, but even offers you applicable solutions for all the issues arising from the very beginning to the end of the thesis paper creation process.
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Thanks again. All higher degree and research candidates including PhD, Masters of Research, Professional Doctorate, Masters Research degree are required to Little Dress, submit an electronic copy of and Aphrodite their thesis along with a print version. This is between you and your tutor. Basically, topic evolves with time as research moves forward. So, in the general case the answer is stephen king writing yes. Scrivener is a writing software that helps you in writing and organising your thesis in an efficient way. From organising the Clytemnestra, course material, keeping versions of the Essay Little, draft, brainstorming lists to taking notes from the supervisor, Scrivener assi. Well, this is the default state, what you can do is: - Cracking the hidden topic market. - Looking for Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay, your area of chaucer worked writer interest. - Find out specific problems in your area of interest that haven't been covered yet.
Research philosophy is the way of explaining your research methods and how that influences your work. It should be incorporated in Clytemnestra Essay your dissertation as it solves the issue on Essay about Chanel's Black, which methods to apply in and Aphrodite your research. It highly depends upon the individ. There are three types of feminism thesis: Analytical Thesis: It breaks down the Clytemnestra, idea or issue into its component, evaluates the idea and presents its evaluation and breakdown to the audience. • Read your thesis well before the viva, be thorough. • Make a list of all the questions you dread and to prepare an answer to them. • Take note of when you should whole heartedly defend your thesis and when you can accept its minor im. You should look into the following: As much as possible, read whatever comes under the span of your research.
Using previously existing data and research work make a list of the scientific jargon, professionally used terminology and other words . You should make sure that your Thesis title encompasses the trouble:, following three characteristics: Captivating: This means that the title should be able to spark interest in the minds of the readers and force them to have a glance at what. A thesis statement is essentially a concise summary of the main point or crux of the thesis and and Aphrodite is one sentence that usually appears at moral virtues, the beginning of the piece of writing is Clytemnestra Essay what we call a thesis statement. It is of essence that all arguments made. Generally, the official ownership and the copyright of the thesis belong to the institute the thesis is being researched at. In most cases the Institute will hold ownership of the chaucer as a writer, copyright to a thesis.
The thesis supervisor works with the scholar and guides him to successfully compete his thesis drafting. He ensures that the research done is authentic and complies with all the formatting guidelines of the Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay, institute. A supervisor does not entirely c. An Electronic Thesis or Dissertation (ETD) is similar to a traditional thesis but instead of being printed on paper and then hard bound, it is stored in a format that makes it easy to be retrieved or accessed worldwide. Many Universities are now grad.
Every university is very particular about the presentation of Chanel's Little theses. They expect all thesis documents to be consistent and in accordance with the Essay, prescribed format. This makes work more accessible and comprehendible. A structure gives a scholar a rationale or a blueprint as to how he or she must go about drafting his or her thesis. This ensures work is chaucer worked writer done more systematically, effectively and timely. The answer is Clytemnestra Essay quite simple , try to derive a conclusion out of the various arguments you read and counter attack them through your own understanding, this will help you to develop and analyze your own set of arguments. First of all it's very natural to get nervous during such times , so don't be apprehensive about it and secondly just remember to have an in king style depth knowledge of your paper and just prove that you have the right aspirations and a firm determination t. Yes you can pursue PhD on a part time basis, various Universities such as oxford , Liverpool gives you an opportunity to pursue specific courses on a part time basis.
There are many online available software that can be used for Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay, plagiarism check, however WriteCheck's TurnitIn is one of the widely used and approached software. It provides detailed description of the plagiarized content. While preparing the chaucer worked as a writer, proposal focus on the research objectives and research questions. As the name suggest, you need to propose the expected outcomes where you are directing your research. An empirical paper is one wherein you do a new research by analyzing the Essay, primary collected by means of observation, interviews, etc. A concept paper on the other hand describes more the concept of a particular idea and is summated with a suggestion. Variables are decided on academic, the basis of review of literature. Clytemnestra And Aphrodite. From the previous researches in a particular domain, we understand the variables that can fit to our research. Rewriting is suggested when there is plagiarism, sentences are broken and chaucer worked as a and the better academic writing quality is required.
A good research proposal should include, the clear problem statement, Purpose of the study, Definitions, Review of Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Literature, research questions and stephen king writing hypothesis (if applicable). For persuasive research outcome, do not use the words like, can, could, I believe in, this might, etc as these will direct towards uncertainty. Empirical research: It means that research is Essay conducted through investigation and the conclusions are drawn on chaucer worked as a and, the basis of collected evidences. It is a practical and experimental approach of Essay research. Conceptual research: As the. The goal of a concept paper means a broad abstract statement or achievement for which efforts have been made. While the objective is to find out the arguments or proof directly associated with the goal. They are used interchangeably but actually play. If you want to get your thesis published in an eminent journal, it is favorable to get it edited and editing certificate, especially when you have English as a second language. No university, institute or supervisor ask for it. Simplest method you can adopt in order to combine independent statistical tests is vote count method.
It will account statistical significance of finding or focus only on does epithet, the direction of the Clytemnestra, findings. It depends on the study you opt for citation. For a single study citation (SC), use past tense. To illustrate: Biodiesel was shown to have promise as an alternative to regular diesel. (Arslan, 2007) When referring to moral virtues, an area of inqu. At the end of entire discussion section, restate the significance of your study and speculate about the next steps towards further research. The term pilot study refers to any small-scale version, or any trial run to test a research instrument or method as a precursor to a more general study. And Aphrodite. It can help in amending your data collection plans regarding content and gender feminism and the subversion procedures. . Empathic neutrality is identified as one the Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, ethic in data collection for trouble:, the research. And Aphrodite. Empathic neutrality is when the researcher collects the data without being biased; working in a research without being judgmental.
Qualitative researches often tend to moral virtues, use peer debriefing technique in which a peer is and Aphrodite Essay expected to assess and moral virtues review transcripts as well as reports produced. All this is done by the peers through a careful reading. Synthesis matrix is Clytemnestra Essay considered as one of the most efficient ways to organize the information and chaucer worked sources for your literature review. For this, you must identify the sources that are closely related with your topic, bring out the arguments and organiz. Contingency table is Essay used to find the correlation between the two variables by making a frequency distribution table, where two variables are shown simultaneously and their interrelation is analyzed. . A hypothesis is a statement which predicts the relationships of events or variables clearly. It identifies a specific variable (independent) which might have a causal effect on the other variable (dependent). Triangulation method is used for verifying the validity of data by combining multiple theories and data sources using different methods. Triangulation methods can be employed in can be employed in both quantitative (validation) and qualitative (inqui.
Intercoder reliability or agreement is mainly a measurement of consistency. It depicts whether two or more coders agree on same passage of text or not. The consistency of the coding be in agreement at least 80% of the time for good qualitative reliab. When a research is conducted on the marginalized section of a society for their betterment is Essay Chanel's Little called emancipatory research. The researcher is generally who is either an and Aphrodite Essay indigenous or an outsider evaluating and interpreting the disadvantaged condition. The term is used for worked writer and, the researcher's process of collecting data first without research planning and design to explore the research questions.
In such a case, the Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, data collected often turns into unjustifiable data which bears no relevancy in terms o. Many students make the mistake of Essay Little Black writing and Clytemnestra and Aphrodite citing every single paper in the literature review section. There might be many papers you must have studied for developing your research idea, but you must cite only those papers which contributed much t. The active or passive voice in academic writing is used accordingly for writing clearly and persuasively. When to Black, use active voice and passive voice cannot be defined.
The length of your introduction section should never be of much concern. The length of the chapter would be dependent upon Essay, what all is to moral virtues, be covered in an introduction. Some questions that you must consider while writing an introduction: key terminol. Research Prominent citation is one of the basic types of citation styles which focuses more on research rather than on author or the researchers involved. . A conceptual framework is the research idea developed by the researcher on the basis of existing verified theory or phenomenon. Clytemnestra Essay. It can be called a model upon which you plan to work and investigate your research problem. . Analysis of Variance(ANOVA) is used to determine the results and influence independent variables have upon about Chanel's Little Black, the dependent variables.
There are basically four types of measurement scales used in quantitative questionnaire; Nominal Scale, Ordinal Scale, Interval Scale and Ratio Scale. Extraneous variables are confounding variables that are in any way related to the dependent or independent variables and should not controlled. Researcher should control such variables as they may impact the analysis and results. . CC license is issued by Creative Common, a non-profit organization which permits the distribution and usage of published or unpublished work on a greater scale while retaining the copyrights of the author. . In case you have supplementary material such as audios, videos, HD images etc. Clytemnestra. that are relevant to your thesis, then you can submit those in files separately along with your thesis. Also, you must include the complete details of such material in the. Yes. It is academic sample mandatory for you to obtain the Clytemnestra Essay, consent from the concerned bodies to approve your data collection procedures and Essay about Chanel's Dress testify all ethical considerations. This letter shall be given a proper description in appendices and disclosed to Clytemnestra Essay, your superv. Poisson distribution is the pattern of worked as a writer and random point-like events or dimensions that provide the model of and Aphrodite randomness to gender trouble: and the of identity, which an observed event pattern in a particular time or space can be compared. . In exploratory data analysis, sets of data are analyzed by summarizing the main characteristics using various graphical as well as quantitative techniques such as Histogram, Pareto chart, Trimean, Median polish etc. Clytemnestra And Aphrodite. . Random sampling is a technique of selecting sample size from the population in a way that each individual has an equal possibility of being in the sample selected. . A thesis contains eight to Chanel's Little Black, nine chapters in general but may vary from university to Clytemnestra Essay, university. The basic chapters that a thesis must contain are as follows: 1. Introduction 2. Literature Review 3. Methods 4. Discussion 5. Data Analysis 6. Resu. Thesis writing is an important part of subversion of identity academic research. As part of the academic curriculum, studen.
Choosing the right topic for dissertation can be a very overwhelming task. The sigh of relief here c. There are certain mistakes, or we may call them as blunders that would make sure your failure in you. 30 January 2017. Even the best of Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay PhD academic writer have faced the dreaded writer's block when working on their imp. 18 October 2016.
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5 Benefits of Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, Writing: Why You Should Write Every Day. Wordsmith. Lana likes to play with words and punctuation marks, arranging them into feminism of identity, aesthetically-pleasing shapes that tell stories. Full Bio. Writing every day has numerous benefits far beyond finally getting that novel of yours out in the open. Whether you’re aiming to improve your vocabulary, keep track of your dreams, or keep a journal of and Aphrodite, all the goings-on in your world, writing daily can bring about some stellar effects in moral virtues your life. Have you ever hauled yourself to work and then sat there for a couple of Essay, hours, waiting for your brain to warm up enough so you could be articulate and productive? That’s a massive waste of as a, time, especially since anything you’d be forced to and Aphrodite tackle during that warm-up would be tepid at best. Instead, consider hitting the ground running by sitting down with a writing assignment while you’re sipping your coffee/tea/wheatgrass smoothie. You can either list a bunch of topics on slips of writing style, paper and just pull one from a jar to Clytemnestra Essay write about each day, or subscribe to one of the sample numerous mailing lists that can deliver a subject to your inbox every morning. Figment is great for that, but all you need to do is a quick Google search for “daily writing prompts” and you’ll have no shortage of topics to scrawl about.
Getting the gears spinning so early in the morning shakes your brain-meat into good working order, and by the time you roll into Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay, the office, you’ll be sharp, focused, and ready to plough your way through anything that lands on your desk. King Writing. Writing a few pages as soon as you wake really is a perfect way to Clytemnestra Essay begin your day. You don’t have to write a story, but rather just let all the Chanel's Little first thoughts of the morning flood their way onto paper. This could be as mundane as: “Great, another Wednesday morning. I forgot to get cat food so I’m feeding Mr. Fripples a tuna omelet. Clytemnestra And Aphrodite Essay. I have no idea where my socks are.
Hopefully Martha will remember to get more coffee for the office kitchen…” etc. What good does all of king writing style, this do? It allows you to and Aphrodite vent any frustrations/worries that may have percolated in your skull overnight, thus allowing you to begin your day with a clean slate. It’s also a great means of self-exploration and reflection: after you’ve written every day for a few weeks, take an afternoon one weekend to reference sample sit down to read what you’ve been scribbling. If you find that the same worries and issues are popping up every day, that’s a strong clue that these need to be addressed so they’ll stop weighing on you.
Should you discover that you begin every morning with self-criticism, you can make a conscious effort to be kinder to yourself, and to Clytemnestra and Aphrodite start your days with positive affirmations, or perhaps something self-loving like yoga, a walk in the park, or a few minutes’ worth of Essay about Chanel's Dress, meditation. If you’re looking for Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay a specific subject to write about, consider keeping a dream journal. Keep it by your bedside so you can write notes if you happen to startle into the waking world in the middle of the night, but be sure to take a few minutes to jot down some notes every morning. If you didn’t dream anything, make note of it. If you did, try to write down everything you can recall from the night’s meanderings, even if it’s just vague imagery or colours. Over time, you’ll realise that your ability to remember details from your dreams has improved significantly, and reference, you may start to notice patterns or themes to Clytemnestra Essay your dreams. Vocabulary Maintenance and gender feminism, Expansion. Essay. Are you familiar with the saying that falls along the line of “use it or lose it”? That applies to many different aspects of life, and one’s vocabulary is no exception. In an Essay about Chanel's Black era when texting and tweeting are the main vehicles for communication, many people find that their mental word banks are dwindling in favour of Clytemnestra Essay, creative ways to condense thoughts into sample, as few words and characters as possible. This can be problematic when you’re sitting in a meeting and Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay, can’t remember vital jargon, or if you’re writing an essay and have a word dancing just on the periphery of your memory, but it won’t come through; you’ll likely end up using a term that isn’t completely appropriate, unless you spend time sifting through a thesaurus to find the right word.
One fun way to expand your vocabulary is to subscribe to a Word of the Day email: every morning, you’ll receive a new (and often obscure) word, and you can try to fit that into a conversation or written exchange at some point that day. How fun would it be to toss words like “confrere” and “factotum” into emails to your colleagues and trouble: feminism and the subversion, family members? Evening Contemplation and Relaxation. Most of us have very busy schedules as well as a fair bit of stress on our minds, and it’s not uncommon for these things to weigh on us when we actually have a few moments’ respite from Clytemnestra, non-stop responsibilities—like when we’re trying to sleep. Consider keeping a notepad or journal beside your bed, and allot 15-20 minutes every night to writing down your thoughts about the day. Stephen Writing Style. If there are things that are stressing you out, getting them down on paper to acknowledge them may help to alleviate the anxiety so you can get some rest. And Aphrodite Essay. Alternatively, you can use that time to think about all the great things that happened to you over about Little Dress the course of the day, so that the last thoughts you have before drifting off are positive, constructive ones. But unlike money, you can#x27;t make more. Clytemnestra. You can, however, maximize each and every second you spend. Lifehack#x27;s mission is to feminism subversion help you make enormous gains with the limited time you have.
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Essay On Girl Power Essays and Research Papers. English 105 5 December 2013 Girl Power As a 44 year old father of a 16 month girl , I did not know how . society planned on giving my daughter a sense of femininity. I mentally prepared myself to Clytemnestra Essay, be a Daddy and give my daughter Isabel all the support and teachings I thought I was capable of. Moral Virtues? I knew that it was going to be a daunting task a single father to and Aphrodite Essay, a daughter to give her a sense of girl power . What? I was surprised to find out the toy and media industries were not onboard with giving my daughter. Boy , Female , Gender 1016 Words | 3 Pages.
Girl power From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The phrase girl power , as a term of empowerment, . expressed a cultural phenomenon of the 1990s and Essay, early 2000s. It is also linked to as a, third-wave feminism. The term was made popular by the Spice Girls in and Aphrodite, the mid to late 1990s. |Contents | |1 Early usage | |2 Spice Girls and scholarship | |2.1 Oxford. Cultural studies , Feminist theory , Girl Heroes 1237 Words | 5 Pages. TRAN HUE CHI Girl power ! Boys and what mean, girls are co-existent in Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay, this world. They both have their own potential to . Reference? make changes to our world. Boys (men) with their strength can do many masculine tasks which are usually considered important and and Aphrodite, crucial.
Therefore, they are dominant to girls in sample, many positions. Girls are believed to have less power and and Aphrodite Essay, abilities than boys. However, as the new 21st century has begun, this perception changes. What Mean? Girls (later are women) in and Aphrodite Essay, have more power . They can do many things. Gender , Gender role , Indian National Congress 896 Words | 3 Pages. 180AD represent the theme of power though characterisation. Stephen Writing Style? The hubristic nature and ambition for power of the antagonists . Macbeth and Commodus eventually bring about their downfall.
They both commit the hamartia of regicide which disturbs the and Aphrodite Essay order of being. These characters juxtapose with the Essay about heroes Macduff and Maximus of the Clytemnestra texts. Power gained through sin is chaucer worked as a and wrong and in turn will be punished whereas power gained by and Aphrodite Essay morality is honoured and respected. In Macbeth power is represented by the characterisation. King Duncan , Macbeth , Ridley Scott 1136 Words | 3 Pages. The article Brazil’s Girl Power , written by Cynthia Gorney, researchers and reflects on the discoveries made while in Brazil, . questioning the declining fertility rate. The fertility rate is now below the level that allows a population to mean, replace itself. There are many reasons as to why this decline is happening but many have said that there could never be one set reason. Clytemnestra And Aphrodite Essay? A country where the dominating church is the Roman Catholic, will have laws set against abortions, making them illegal because.
Abortion , Birth rate , Demographic-economic paradox 891 Words | 3 Pages. in a more accurate way. WELL, that is how I feel about what I write. Since coming home for the summer, I’ve revisited old papers and essays . for moral virtues, further refinement and fine tweaking just because I think it’s fun (and because I’m a perfectionist, whoops). So some of the essays I post are more loved and tended to and Aphrodite, than others, but today I am posting the first essay I wrote for the Nonfiction Writing class I took this past spring at KU.
It’s come a long way since then, and I’m certain I will pay it. Microsoft Word , Political correctness , Word 2077 Words | 6 Pages. ? Power of One Comparison Essay Topic: Reflect (by comparing), on the similarities between John Proctor from The Crucible and and, . Atticus Finch from To Kill a Mockingbird and their use of the power of one to effect the thoughts of their communities and to strive for positive change. Essay Components Thesis Paragraph Identify the two characters and the literary works to Clytemnestra Essay, be discussed Denote that one person can affect a positive change that motivates others Identify the cause each of them is Essay Chanel's Black struggling. Bibliography , Citation , Harper Lee 641 Words | 3 Pages. ?BOYS AND GIRLS ONLINE ESSAY In the short story “Boys and Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, Girls ”, Alice Munro portrays the difficulties of the . narrator and reference sample, her brother. Throughout the story, the narrator faces inequality of being a different sex compared to her brother Laird and the effect this has on her as she is growing up. Clytemnestra? The narrator goes through many experiences that she has to does, understand herself as she is growing up. Alice Munro shows how gender labeling, different relationships within the family and the narrator’s innocence. Alice Munro , Anton Chekhov , Boy 822 Words | 3 Pages.
An Essay On The Advertisement Like A Girl. Instructor Hannah Baggott WR 121 February 21, 2015 Like A Girl The Always advertisement entitled, “Always #LikeAGirl,” explores the social . prejudices that young girls in American society face on a daily basis. It suggests the Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay idea of changing the phrase “like a girl ” from an gender trouble: feminism insult into a compliment that represents the strength and power that lies within women and girls instead of weakness. This advertisement appeals to teen and Clytemnestra Essay, pre-teen girls challenged by societal pressures as they face puberty. Discrimination , Gender 2066 Words | 7 Pages. generally fearful that rebellion against male authority would lead to unfortunate circumstances, such a death sentences or imprisonment. The fact that . Antigone went against the orders of Creon shows definite female power , Antigone followed her beliefs strongly, and ignored the moral virtues threats of higher powers telling her to do otherwise.
Antigone took responsibility for Clytemnestra Essay, her actions, and did not try to hide the fact that she was rebelling. When her sister Ismene tried to do what she could to somewhat save Antigone. Antigone , Capital punishment , Gender 1073 Words | 3 Pages. Critical Essay : Strictly Ballroom “ Power tends to Black Dress, corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Great men are . almost always bad men.” Baron Acton (1834 – 1902).
Baz Luhrmann’s bizarre romantic comedy, “Strictly Ballroom”, is based on the idea suggested above, “absolute power corrupts absolutely”. Barry Fife, played by Bill Hunter, could be seen and described as a dictator who rules the world, the world of ballroom dancing. He is the villain in Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, the plot, the moral virtues main antagonist. Baz Luhrmann conveys. Baz Luhrmann , Dance , Dance music 917 Words | 3 Pages. Absolute Power Corrupts Absolutely Essay Absolute power corrupts the leaders with the most power . because they end up abusing their power and hurting the themselves and the people that are closet to them. Clytemnestra And Aphrodite? They use their power for their own personal gain and do not listen to trouble: feminism and the of identity, anyone else.
In the novel, Animal Farm, absolute power corrupts absolutely because Napoleon is in charge of the farm but then he gains to much power and end up losing the farm. Napoleon is a pig and the leader of Animal Farm. American films , Animal Farm , English-language films 1012 Words | 3 Pages. Analytical Essay : Power In the United States of America, the government follows the structure of a Democracy. Clytemnestra And Aphrodite Essay? Which means there . is a president, a man who has a large say in whatever decisions are made. Once it’s time for a new man to take in the honor of being president, it is up to that person to decide how they want to king writing style, use their newly granted power . In the novel, Lord of the Flies written by William Golding, the power shifts back and forth between Jack and Ralph multiple times.
Just like every. Fiction , Leadership , Novel 1060 Words | 3 Pages. Yes. Perhaps you should) Discuss how ideas about power are presented in this extract and at least one other point in the play. . Power is a very strong theme in Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, Oleanna, it’s one that runs through out the play. Mamet was aware about the power struggles in academic, America at the same time he wrote the play. The play was written in the 1990’s, at this time in America there was a very hot topic about ‘Gender Struggles’. It was the and Aphrodite Essay point where men had more power than women.
It was the rise of second wave feminism. 2002 albums , Power , The Play 1335 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis how visual and/or sound and verbal techniques develop an important character In the film Lars and the real girl by Craig Gillespie, . an important character developed is Lars. Chaucer Worked As A Writer And? Lars lives in a tight knit community based in a small American town. Lars has a fear of human contact which results in him suffering form a delusional disorder where he falls I love with, Bianca, a life sized ‘real’ doll. Clytemnestra? Through his relationship with Bianca he is provided with unconditional love and lack of chaucer worked as a and, criticism. Audience , Audience theory , Craig Gillespie 1004 Words | 3 Pages. McCurdy Power Corrupts All Essay Throughout our life, a normal person’s life, we will have someone who we follow or look up . to.
Those types of Clytemnestra Essay, people could either be your boss, a president, or maybe even one of your parents. What if your boss suddenly told you that now every morning you come into work you had to moral virtues, leave a dollar at his office door for working for Clytemnestra, him? That would not make you very happy that it would cost you a dollar just to go to work. This is just one example of how power can corrupt. Animal Farm , Capital punishment , Castle Rock Entertainment 1367 Words | 4 Pages. Girl Power ! Girl Power ! What does that mean?
Women who openly display their power , . knowledge, and skill, receiving public recognition and Little Black, honor. But also females who manage to and Aphrodite, wield power in societies that try to limit it or decree female submission; where their leadership is stigmatized and their creativity disdained. And women who resist and overthrow oppressive traditions and regimes. Who break the rules in defiance of academic reference sample, unjust legal and religious authorities. Who pursue their vision in spite. British Raj , Death , Gwalior 788 Words | 2 Pages. and out of the large department stores and and Aphrodite, inside the interior of the mall. However, the vast majority of people walking among the mall were groups of young . teenage girls . The mall has become the major hangout for teenagers, where both males and females roam to show themselves off to people of Essay about Chanel's, the opposite sex. Clytemnestra And Aphrodite? I noticed two girls at what, the food court, where they were in line waiting to and Aphrodite Essay, buy coffee from Starbucks. One of them, whom I shall call Subject One, was approximately fourteen years old. . Denim , Female , Human leg 953 Words | 3 Pages.
Canteen girl James Berry The short story is about a man who comes in a canteen where a new girl works. She is an immigrant from . Jamaica, and he is academic reference as well, but he has been in London for Clytemnestra, a much longer time. In the chaucer worked as a writer short story the man is the story teller, and he tells us about an Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay immigrated girl . We do not know what she is thinking, but the man has been in the same situation so he can imagine how she feels. The writer of the short story was an immigrant too. James Berry was born in Jamaica in 1925. Fiction , Human migration , Immigration 1123 Words | 3 Pages. The Power of Love- Comparitive Essay. The power of love- Comparative essay In both visual and epithet mean, written texts, love operates as a powerful and and Aphrodite Essay, inescapable force, . which can influence life in various ways.
In Shakespeare’s ‘Othello’ love is represented as a forbidden romantic experience which ultimately ends in epithet, tragedy. Wayne Bennet represents a love of life in his autobiography, ‘Don’t Die With the Music in You’, through the exploration of his love for football and Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay, coaching. Finally, Baz Luhrman represents love in the film ‘Moulin Rouge’. Baz Luhrmann , Iago , Love 1102 Words | 3 Pages. Nertile Latifi and Brikena Sela Julie Kolgjini Writing Seminar 0502-227 October 07, 2008 What is style power , and how does it present . itself in our lives? We know for certain that it proves as the one thing that either keeps people together, makes them revolt, or changes history overall. But what is it really? Is it the ability to do or act, or is it political/national strength? Does it always have to Essay, be represented by a person in charge?
Or is it just something in our minds that has the possession. Animal , Animal Farm , George Orwell 1165 Words | 3 Pages. In the moral virtues novel Red Scarf Girl , by Jiang Ji-li many bad things happen to Clytemnestra Essay, Jiang Ji-li and her family. As A Writer And? One such thing is Ji-li being put in a worse . school just because she was in Clytemnestra Essay, a certain neighborhood. This is very similar to and the of identity, the story of Zhao Lianhai, who spoke out against Clytemnestra the government’s idea to force kids to drink tinted milk, which ended up killing at least 6 kids. Trouble: And The Of Identity? Another example of bad thing going on in Ji-li’s life is when her teachers, who before were highly esteemed, can now no longer teach. Communism , Communist Party of China , Communist state 2346 Words | 6 Pages. Lord Action stated “ Power tends to Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay, corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely”. In both the prescribed text ‘The . Removalists’ and related material ‘Shawshank redemption’ it explores the control and chaucer worked writer, exert of power , societal assumptions on male dominance in the 1970’s, police brutality being the norm and means of and Aphrodite Essay, religion and disguise. Abuse of power is conveyed through these texts in the manner in what epithet mean, which characters deal with the power they wield, in turn reveals the Essay values that hinge society. . Abuse , Bullying , Child abuse 943 Words | 3 Pages.
the concept of power is essentially contested, because there are different definitions of writing, what power 'is' and Clytemnestra Essay, therefore how it . appears or is exercised.(Axford and Browning et al., 2002). Power is spoken about and depended on in todays society, but nobody truly understands it. Chaucer As A Writer? (Nye, 2004). Power is exercised completely different throughout the world, as each country has its own laws, morals, attitudes, beliefs, government and military interference. And Aphrodite Essay? As a world wide definition ' Power ' can be defined. Authority , Barack Obama , Hegemony 1461 Words | 4 Pages. The Power of Music -Charles, Chloe Lee “Somewhere over the rainbow, way up high,” the melody echoes in my room.
The song has a . Moral Virtues? magical power that refreshes me. It is surprising that there is not definite proof of the power of music. The power of music has been studied for a long time, but since it is a rather abstract subject, this power is not easy to define. When human beings are born, they experience new sights, smells, and Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay, sounds. Like the sound of whirling wind, rain drops, footsteps. Africa , Band Aid , Duran Duran 1488 Words | 4 Pages. While Wealth Often Brings the Power That Comes with Social Status and Influence in Society, It Is Not Only the Wealthy Who Acquire Power in the Novel Girl with a Pearl Earring. Girl with a Pearl Earring Essay While wealth often brings the writing style power that comes with social status and Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, influence . in society, it is not only the wealthy who acquire power in the novel Girl with a Pearl Earring. Do you agree? Contention: Wealth and money is not needed to have influence or power over the community, which is shown in the movie Girl with a Pearl Earring.
Griet also has power as a result of her undiscovered talent of king style, art, her connection with Johannes Vermeer and the help of Maria. Color , Family , Johannes Vermeer 789 Words | 3 Pages. ? In the movie Lars and the Real Girl , filmmaker Craig Gillespie tells the story about a shy, socially awkward man named Lars Lindstrom who . lives in a small garage of his brother, Gus and his sister-in-law, Karin’s house. Lars barely gets into human contact that even the people he is Clytemnestra Essay close to, are sort of like strangers to him. If he does get into human contact, he would always try to writing, get away from it as soon as possible. Lars buys a life-sized sex-doll and builds an Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay imaginary boyfriend-girlfriend. A Good Thing , Human , Interpersonal relationship 991 Words | 2 Pages. ?“ Power is often misused by people.” Power is prevalent in almost all areas of our human societies both past and present and is . experienced in different ways through all human interactions. Power , the ability to moral virtues, influence behaviors of others or a course of events, can be used both positively and negatively, either for the benefit of others or to disadvantage and threaten others. With this negative aspect of power comes the abuse and Clytemnestra, misuse of power in gender trouble: and the of identity, many different forms. Manipulation, the abuse.
Animal Farm , Authority , Kim Il-sung 1213 Words | 3 Pages. The Power of Language 1984 Comparison Essay. The Power of Language George Orwell, the writer of many highly regarded literary works, is extremely interested in the . power of language, mainly how it is abused. By analyzing two of his works, 1984 and Politics and The English Language, it is clear that Orwell is using his writing to Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay, bring awareness to stephen writing, the dangers of the Clytemnestra Essay manipulation, misuse, and decline of language. Academic Reference? In 1984 he demonstrates how language can be used to control thought and manipulate the past. This is proven. Communism , English language , George Orwell 1536 Words | 4 Pages. Lenin was able to consolidate his power because of the weakness of and Aphrodite, his opponents. Find evidence to support or refute this statement.
Chloe . Essay Chanel's? Tomlinson There were many different equally important reasons why Lenin and Clytemnestra Essay, the Bolsheviks were able to Essay about Black, hold on and Aphrodite Essay, to their power . For Lenin, and the Bolsheviks, winning political power was relatively easy, compared with retaining it. They had many different objects to overcome, such as; Russia was in chaos, politically and economically, and normal government had. Communism , Leon Trotsky , October Revolution 1209 Words | 3 Pages. History Essay - Stalin: Rise To Power. W H Y VENT WE R E HIM S TA L I N’ S FROM OPP ONENT S BECOMING B Y U NAB LE LEADER 192 9? OF T O THE PR EUSSR ! ! . Moral Virtues? ! In 1924, Stalin had begun his rise to Clytemnestra Essay, power properly. At this time he was also one of the moral virtues seven members of the Politburo. The seven members of the Essay politburo were: Stalin, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Trotsky, Bukharin, Rkyov and Trotsky.
By 1930 he would overshadow them and by 1940 out live them. His success political success in the USSR can be attributed. Bolshevik , Grigory Zinoviev , Joseph Stalin 1411 Words | 5 Pages. ? Popular Archaeology Book Review Dunn, Christopher. The Giza Power Plant, Technologies of Ancient Egypt. Inner Traditions/Bear Company, . 1998 Christopher Dunn's book The Giza Power Plant lures the reader in with the idea that the moral virtues pyramids were used for a much bigger purpose.
This book has all the great makings to be a spectacular magic show. It goes from boring statistical fallacies to how the pyramid of Giza is Essay actually a technically advanced machine. His elaborate explanations can really. Ancient Egypt , Egyptian pyramids , Giza Necropolis 1707 Words | 4 Pages. ?“The main reason for the rise of the NSDAP to power in 1933 was Hitler himself”. Chaucer Worked As A Writer And? How far do you agree with this view? The rise of Hitler and Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay, . the NSDAP remains a very significant event in European history and is still a controversial topic even today. Historians have all come with many different explanations for the rise of Hitler to power in what, 1933; however some historians would attribute the overwhelming success of the NSDAP in 1933 to and Aphrodite, one man, Adolf Hitler.
Portrayed as the ‘messiah’ to rid Germans. Adolf Hitler , Great Depression , Kurt von Schleicher 1121 Words | 2 Pages. Hitlers Rise to Power 1918-1935 Adolf Hitler was born on April 20th 1889 in mean, a small Austrian town called Braunau, near to Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, the German border. . His rise to power began in Germany in reference sample, September 1919 when Hitler joined the political party known as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (abbreviated as DAP – German Workers' Party) the name was changed in 1920 to the NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers' Party, more commonly known as the Nazi Party).This political party was formed and developed during the Clytemnestra and Aphrodite post-World. Adolf Hitler , Nazi Germany , Nazi Party 1444 Words | 4 Pages. Jamaica Kincaid’s short story “ Girl ” is as a and of a complicated relationship with her mother that comes out in the mother-daughter dynamic in Essay, the . story. The mother, obviously a dominant figure in the young girl’s upbringing, informs the young girl of does epithet mean, various duties associated with being a young, dignified lady.
Her mother gives the daughter advice to and Aphrodite, make her the proper woman she should in trouble: feminism and the of identity, fact be, and this advice gets more and more firm as the story continues. “ Girl ” is a very well suitable title. Childhood , Female , Girl 1262 Words | 3 Pages. symbols which can be understood and Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, manipulated by someone who is moral virtues culturally literate. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. Clytemnestra? For . Trouble: Feminism And The Of Identity? example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate. Clytemnestra Essay? For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in your life when you realized the significance of being literate in this fashion.
Did you have trouble using a computer to register for what does epithet mean, classes? Did you fit into a subculture because you learned to speak its. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. ?Macbeth and lord of the flies essay Indeed power , justice, and greed are influencing factors that can alter the course of Essay, one’s . life. These themes have been represented in the following texts, William Shakespeare Macbeth (play on stage) and William Golding’s lord of the flies (novel). The techniques employed are, symbolism, characterisation, language features, and violence/drama. Both authors employ a number of techniques to make both texts come to life vividly and more realistic and make the audience. Duncan I of Scotland , Ethics , Lady Macbeth 1732 Words | 5 Pages. The Book Thief - Power of Words Essay. ?Andrew Hardman Miss Paradis ENG2D 8th April 2014 The beautiful, ghastly, and immense power of words. Words … words are things we use . and hear literally all of the time, although they give us the power to communicate, they are certainly not as influential or manipulative as they have the ability to what does mean, be.
Nazi Germany is Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay a place where the use of the immense power of combined letters is perfected. Worked? In the novel, The Book Thief, by Markus Zusak, words are used to create goodness, comfort, and Clytemnestra, sanity. Adolf Hitler , Fuhrer , Nazi Germany 1670 Words | 6 Pages. 106-16 Hoeflinger 25 Feb 2014 Girl What makes a woman? Femininity and masculinity have long been defined and divided along gender lines . that were never meant to be crossed; a man or woman who does not fit the archetypical picture of their strict gender-biased boundaries is shunned and moral virtues, stereotyped.
A woman who does not embody the perception of the perfect wife and mother, especially in the 1950s-60s, would have been considered unladylike. In Jamaica Kincaid’s “ Girl ”, the matters of womanhood and. Antigua , Femininity , Gender 1253 Words | 3 Pages. Girl by Jamaica Kincaid Jamaica Kincaid relates the Essay relationship between a mother and daughter in her poem, “ Girl ”. Essay Chanel's Black? The poem is . about how a mother prepares her daughter to become a woman. She gives her a litany of valuable lessons to shape her behavior and character according to what is acceptable to their culture. Kincaid cleverly dropped hints throughout her poem suggesting that the culture being referred to is the Afro-Carribean culture. Essay? The Afro-Carribean culture is a blend of music, dance. Black-and-white films , Female , Gender 846 Words | 3 Pages.
three waterfalls and ten stones-where Peekay may always find him. Sample? Peekay returns to school the and Aphrodite Essay following year with his problem solved, with Granpa Chook one . of Inkosi-Inkosikazi's magic chicken, and with the independent spirit he refers to king writing, as the power of one. Granpa Chook becomes Peekay's only friend at Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, school, and Mevrou allows him to live in moral virtues, the kitchen where he keeps the cockroaches at Clytemnestra Essay, bay. Peekay excels at school, yet he has learnt that surviving the worked as a writer and system means one has to adopt a camouflage-he. Afrikaner , Boer , Boy 866 Words | 3 Pages. Kincaid’s famous short stories, “ Girl ”. In the essay “ Girl ,” Jamaica Kincaid portrays the stereotypes and . expectations placed on women and girls of her culture in the 1950’s. She uses authoritative tone, syntax, and progression of thought to show the expected responsibilities of girls and women in the narrator’s culture. Throughout the essay the narrator of the essay “ Girl ,” uses a lot of examples to show the expectations placed on women and Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay, girls , actually the whole essay is mostly examples of this.
Female , Girl , Jamaica Kincaid 1426 Words | 4 Pages. Critical Analytical Essay Humans are constantly living under the presence of threatening forces. More often than not, human’s immediate . reaction to threatening forces is to escape from it. In her play, The Shape of a Girl , Joan MacLeod demonstrates that an as a writer individual often reacts in an inhumane manner towards a moral issue when under the pressure of threatening forces in order to prevent any potential harm. Nevertheless, it is the fear of being harmed that ultimately causes greater damage to oneself;. Abuse , Attack , Attack! 1226 Words | 4 Pages. whole world’s a classroom, and to really make it one, the first thing is to believe it is” (par.16).
What Spayde means is that something is learned every . Clytemnestra And Aphrodite Essay? day even if it is the smallest thing from reference sample tying your shoes to learning how to write a six-page essay in MLA format? College is not about just sliding through with ease it is Clytemnestra Essay about finding ones purpose in life, and how they can affect the future in a positive way. There are awesome students in this world who give there all to become successful. College , Education , High school 1391 Words | 4 Pages. GIRL POWER IN JOY LUCK CLUB AND A TASTE OF HONEY.
? GIRL POWER IN JOY LUCK CLUB AND A TASTE OF HONEY Kitchen sink realism (or kitchen sink drama) is a term coined to stephen, describe a . British cultural movement that developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s in theatre, art, novels, film and television plays, whose 'heroes' usually could be described as angry young men. It used a style of social realism, which often depicted the domestic situations of working-class Britons living in rented accommodation and spending their off-hours drinking in grimy pubs. Amy Tan , Family , John Osborne 1147 Words | 3 Pages. “ Girl ” by Clytemnestra Hanif Kureishi The short story written by Hanif Kureishi portrays a typical love story, but with complex aspects. Hanif Kureishi . is an English author, novelist and moral virtues, short-story writer. “ Girl ” was written in 1999. And Aphrodite? It revolves about a young woman, Nicole, who is in a relationship with an older man, Majid. Moral Virtues? A classic cliche, young girl falls in love with older experienced man, and with that some questions and problems naturally will arise. They are together, despite of Majid’s age and. Culture , Girl , Hanif Kureishi 1239 Words | 4 Pages. Good Girl by Martia Conlon-McKenna Some people might say that the power of love can conquer all, but when religion and other . factors come into play it tends to get more complicated.
Falling in love is something that happens to all of us. Love is a certain kind of strength. Whether this strength is powerful enough to keep two people together despite different religious beliefs or political opinions depends on and Aphrodite Essay, the two lovers. Trouble: Subversion? Religion is love. It brings people together and and Aphrodite Essay, offers them strength to. Atmosphere , Cher , Fiction 1267 Words | 3 Pages. The Dolls House Essay by Katherine Mansfield.
No name Professor No name English 101 03 April 2012 True Power In the short story “The Doll’s House,” written by chaucer worked as a writer Katherine . Mansfield, there are three little girls that receive a doll house from a family friend that is Clytemnestra and Aphrodite a “perfect, perfect little house” (Mansfield). The two main characters in the story are the Burnell sisters, Isabel, the eldest daughter, and Kezia who live in a small village. The hierarchy is very apparent in does mean, this town, just like in Essay, every other little town there are almost. Boleslaw Prus , Dolls , Hierarchy 1007 Words | 3 Pages. What a Girl Wants Classification Essay. What a Girl Wants? For years men have pondered over what a woman wants. Speaking for most women I’m not even sure we know what we want. . What do we look for? Why are we attracted to that type? Although I am not quite sure myself I am about to epithet, attempt to speak for most women by classify men into categories based on Clytemnestra, research and personal opinion. In school there are stereotypes put on almost everyone and guys are no different.
Most guys are put into one of five categories; whether it is the. English-language films , Guy , Man 985 Words | 3 Pages. The representation of women in the Bond films and how Bond Girl has changed over academic reference sample the years. Woman’s representation has changed in the society . and this change is and Aphrodite reflected in Bond movies as women take more protagonistic roles. They have always been in the centre of academic reference, controversy, always seen as beautiful women (often with sexuall names) who need Bond and without whom Bond can not complete his mission without them. They always seem to have perfection in everything they do. Clytemnestra And Aphrodite? However, this portrayal of. Bond girl , Casino Royale , Dr. Does? No 1905 Words | 5 Pages. Assignment Cover Sheet School of Business Student name: | Alen Marcic | Student number: | 16737378 | Unit name and number: | Power . Politics and Knowledge | Tutorial group: | EB.3.36 | Tutorial day and time: | Tuesday, 12:00-2:00 | Lecturer/Tutor: | | Title of Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay, assignment: | Reflective Response | Length: | 1553 | Date due: | Week 6, Tuesday | Date submitted: | Week 6, Thursday | Campus enrolment: | Parramatta | Declaration: I hold a copy of what does epithet mean, this assignment if the original.
Behavior , Discipline and Essay, Punish , Gilles Deleuze 1741 Words | 6 Pages. The Will to Power Nietzsche believed the will to power to what does, be the fundamental causal power in the world, the . driving force of all natural phenomena and the dynamic to Essay, which all other causal powers could be reduced. I believe Nietzsche in part hoped the will to power could be a theory of everything, providing the ultimate foundations for trouble: feminism of identity, explanations of everything from whole societies, to Clytemnestra Essay, individual organisms, down to simple lumps of matter. The will to power cannot be known. It must be understood. Beyond Good and Evil , Eternal return , Friedrich Nietzsche 1159 Words | 3 Pages. Influence is the essence of about Little Dress, leadership. To be effective as a leader, it is necessary to influence people to and Aphrodite Essay, carry out requests, support proposals, and . And The Subversion? implement decisions. Power - The concept of power is useful for understanding how people are able to influence each other in organizations. Clytemnestra Essay? Power involves the capacity of one party (the agent) to influence another party (the target). Authority involves the rights, obligations, and duties associated with particular positions in an organization.
Authority , Decision making , Game theory 1340 Words | 4 Pages. that “ Power tends to gender trouble: subversion of identity, corrupt and absolute power tends to corrupt absolutely”. Give an example to argue your answer. (more or less . And Aphrodite Essay? 500 words) 2. How does media coverage of communal conflict in Indonesia recently influence your views on power and how power may be used to attain political objectives? Give example for your answer. (more or less 1000 words) Answer : 1. Academic? “ Power tends to Clytemnestra, corrupt and absolute power tends to corrupt absolutely” is a famous statement of Lord Acton. What Epithet Mean? Power can be. 1998 , Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie , Indonesia 803 Words | 3 Pages. At this time, many people have been aware about advantages of Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, nuclear power that can mitigate global warming impact but they don’t notice the . disadvantages of gender and the, nuclear power . The advantages of nuclear power are the emission of and Aphrodite Essay, green house is gender subversion relatively low, this technology is Clytemnestra readily available, it can produce high amount of chaucer, electrical energy.
Whereas the disadvantage are the Clytemnestra problem of radioactive waste, high risk, not renewable energy, not sustainable energy, etc. From the above explanation, nuclear. Coal , Energy development , Nuclear fission 1316 Words | 4 Pages. ? Power Report Reward Power can be gained from stephen writing a person’s capacity to reward compliance. When a person is rewarded or might . receive a potential reward through recognition, a good job assignment, a pay rise, or additional resources to complete a job, an employee may respond by carrying through with orders, requests and directions. Clytemnestra? Coercive power is considered the opposite subversion of identity, of reward power . Coercive power is Essay considered the ability of the power holder to remove something from a person or to punish. Employment , English-language films 814 Words | 3 Pages. Rhetorical Analysis Essay- Farm Girl their children? Why are parents not giving their children chores?
What are kids lacking by Chanel's Black Dress not being held accountable? What happens when children do not have . Clytemnestra And Aphrodite? responsibilities at academic, a younger age? My rhetorical analysis is and Aphrodite Essay focused on the short memoir “Farm Girl ” from gender feminism and the subversion Jessica Hemauer who vividly paints you as the reader a picture of what it was like growing up on and Aphrodite Essay, the farm and the effect it had on her life. This piece is one for the masses. The way Hemauer’s memory of growing up on the farm is written could. Child , Childhood , Home 955 Words | 3 Pages. POWER : A capacity that A has to influence the moral virtues behaviour of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes.
DEPENDENCY: B’s relationship to A . when A possesses something that B requires. BASES OF POWER : Formal Power : Is established by an individual’s position in an organisation; conveys the Clytemnestra ability to coerce or reward, from formal authority, or from control of stephen, information 1. Coercive Power • A power base dependent on Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, fear 2. Reward Power • Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute. Authority , Flipism , Hegemony 504 Words | 3 Pages. Jayden Sosa A5-Honors English Analytical Essay In the book The It Girl , by Cecily Von Ziegesar, Jennie Humphries is a . girl who wants to academic, be popular and will do anything to Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, get that status. What Epithet? In the book Jennie gets sent to Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay, a new boarding school and trouble: feminism subversion, wants to Essay, become a new person; more sophisticated and classy. Once she arrives she learns that she rooms with the most popular girls in the school and what epithet mean, rumors start to Essay, spread about stephen king Jennie being promiscuous. She runs into some drama and ends up being. Boy , Cecily von Ziegesar , Gain 675 Words | 2 Pages. Power has the potential to change the way we behave and the pattern in which we think. And Aphrodite Essay? Especially found in leaders, positions of . power allow for one person to worked as a writer and, represent a collection of Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, people, ideas, or beliefs.
In some cases power is the tool that leaders need to what does epithet mean, push their group to thrive, yet in and Aphrodite, others it is the poison that consumes leaders and causes the led group to crumble. Stephen Writing? The difference lies in morals, ethics, and standards. Power must be balanced by a set of Clytemnestra, moral and ethical standards that. Gender role , Imprisonment and detention , Milgram experiment 785 Words | 3 Pages.
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Centralized Backup … aka Jason#039;s Blog. Gold standard of Clytemnestra Essay, data protection methods goes through sea of Essay about, change. Not too long ago, the Essay, gold standard for protecting organizational data involved using a disk-to-disk-to-tape process. First, a copy of production data went to secondary disk to expedite rapid recovery if needed, and then the does, data went to tape for long-term retention. Previously, some organizations used only tape, and a few moved to using only disk when that became cost-effective. Even then, most IT groups knew it made more sense to use a combination of the two media types to leverage what they did best: disk for recovery, tape for retention. Fast forward a few years and the gold standard for data protection methods boiled down to employing backups, snapshotting and replication, specifically the and Aphrodite, following: Backups to provide multiple previous versions over an extended timespan; Snapshotting to reference sample, deliver the fastest recovery from a near-current version; and and Aphrodite, Replication for data survivability at an alternate location. Some have argued that one of these data protection methods should usurp the others depending on your point of view. But the fact is the best approach has always been to moral virtues, use each process for what it does best, in a complementary manner with the others. Here we are today, and Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, it appears the what does epithet mean, gold standard for Essay, protecting data, or at least the de facto standard at academic sample enterprise-scale organizations, has changed once again.
It now centers on using multiple data protection methods per workload, namely employing the following: Importantly, since most of those “everything else” backup products do not protect data generated from software-as-a-service applications such as Office 365, Google Docs or Salesforce, most enterprises end up using four different types of data protection products. Do we really need four backup products? No, but because the approach to Clytemnestra, protection is worked as a writer, already so fragmented, many IT operations admins — and even senior IT decision makers — are often no longer able to persuade their vAdmin and database admin colleagues that a unified product would really work better. This situation is really the fault of vendors — specifically, the unified-product vendors who haven’t invested enough in marketing awareness of the economic benefits and technical proofs regarding how their products support varied workloads as well as niche offerings. Arguably, this lack of Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, effective promotion is more of mean, a high-impact factor in the lack of unified data protection uptake than any lack of engineering to actually deliver equitable protection capabilities. Until vendors fix this messaging problem, today’s data protection-related fragmentation will continue.In the meantime, having each administrator perform their own backups for the technological areas under their domain is Clytemnestra, a dangerous practice. Think about it: Most workload or platform admins only really care about academic reference sample, being able to achieve 30-, 60- or 90-day rollbacks, for example. They are not worried about 5-year, 7-year or 10-year retention rules.Corporate data must be protected to a corporate standard, however, which can include adhering to long-term retention and deletion requirements. That’s a consideration regardless of how fragmented the actual execution of protection. So, right now, some organizational data is being under-protected and some overprotected.
This situation of varying data protection methods is making organizations vulnerable. Another thing to note is that gold standards do not necessarily replace one another. Many organizations may be using two, three or four backup products per workload . But they are still supplementing those backups with snapshots and replicas. Clytemnestra And Aphrodite! That’s actually a wise move, as no backup offering can replace the feminism subversion, agility that comes with snapshotting or replication. They’re also still using disk for Clytemnestra Essay, rapid restoration and tape for long-term retention. And many are now adding cloud-based protection (disaster recovery as a service, for example) to achieve added agility. At the academic, end of the day, what these admins and Essay, the organizations they work for should care most about is the agility and reliability of the as a writer and, protection effort — regardless of the various mechanisms and media used to and Aphrodite Essay, facilitate that protection. We are going to have heterogeneous protection media, and what does epithet mean, we are going to Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay, have multiple data protection methods.
With those realities in mind, to avoid unnecessary risk, the sample, answer might be to have as close to a common catalog, control layer (for policy management) and console as possible. Clytemnestra And Aphrodite Essay! That way everyone will understand what is really going on across an environment via a single pane of glass, regardless of fragmentation behind the scenes. Wrap-Up on Backup from Microsoft Ignite (with Video) As ESG often tries to do, here is a short summary video of ESG’s impressions from a major industry event – Microsoft Ignite, held in what, Atlanta over September 26-29, 2016 – from a backup perspective. In the video, I suggested that Microsoft is and Aphrodite, a leader in moral virtues, Windows data protection. Certainly, this is and Aphrodite, not to disparage the many Microsoft partners that have built whole companies and moral virtues, product lines around data protection. And from a revenue perspective, their backup offerings wouldn’t register at all. But … Almost every version of Windows has shipped with a built-in backup utility to Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, address the immediate, per-machine need for ad-hoc backups or file roll-back, with today’s “Previous Versions” functionality more closely resembling software-based snapshots than “backup” per se. That said, it has always been recognized that a more full-featured, multi-server solution is as a writer, almost always warranted. Of course, Microsoft has been producing Volume Shadowcopy Services (VSS) for over a decade, which is the and Aphrodite, underpinnings of how any backup vendor protects data within Windows systems. Microsoft has been shipping its “for sale” backup offering, Data Protection Manager (within System Center), for over a decade.
And though a good number of Hyper-V centric environments use DPM, the greater impact is what does, how DPM gave/gives Microsoft insights into how to Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, improve VSS, thereby improving all data protection offerings in market. The point is – Microsoft is stephen king, not new to “backup.” It hasn’t previously been a monetary focus, but they have consistently recognized backup as intrinsic to and Aphrodite, a management story and assured satisfaction with Windows Server and its application server offerings. All of Essay Black Dress, that may be changing with Azure as the crown jewel of the Microsoft ecosystem and OMS as a cloud-based management stack. Azure Backup is a key pillar of OMS, just like “backup” is Clytemnestra, a key pillar to gender trouble: feminism, many management strategies, alongside “provisioning,” “monitoring,” and and Aphrodite Essay, “patching.” IT Operations folks that are responsible for the latter three activities are continually wanting to do backups (as preparation for worked and, recoveries) as well … which makes Azure Backup something to Clytemnestra Essay, watch for does epithet mean, its own sake, and the sake of the data protection market in 2017 as many organizations are reassessing their partners during their embrace of cloud services. This week, the newly unencumbered Veritas (from Symantec) relaunched its premier user event – Veritas Vision. Clytemnestra And Aphrodite Essay! There was a palpable energy that resonated around “ we’re back and sample, ready to resume our leadership mantle, ” starting with an impressive day one from main stage: Bill Coleman (CEO) started the event by Clytemnestra and Aphrodite making “ information is everything ” personal by tying medical data to a young girl with health struggles, which gave context that would resonate with everyone — which then got “real” by revealing her as Bill’s niece.
Ana Pinczuk (CPO) introduced us to moral virtues, the journey that Veritas wants to partner with its customers and ecosystem – from what you already rely on Veritas for to ambitious data management and enablement, with an impressive array of announcements, almost all of Clytemnestra, which coupled Veritas’ established flagships with emerging offerings that unlock some very cool data-centric capabilities. Mike Palmer (SVP, Data Insights) , who is arguably the best voice on the Veritas stage in a very long time, delivered a brilliant session describing data and reference sample, metadata through the Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, movie InsideOut, tying the movie’s memory globes to data, the colors to trouble: feminism subversion, meta data, combined with formative insights, pools of repositories and outcomes, etc. I’ll be hard pressed to use any other analogy to describe metadata for a long time to come. Vendors, if you want to see how to completely nail a keynote, watch the Essay, recordng of Mike’s session. And that was just the first two hours. Along the way, the new Veritas also wanted everyone to know that they are combining two decades of king, storage/data protection innovation with a youthful, feisty aggressiveness against perceived legacy technologies, with EMC + Dell being the punchline of many puns and direct takedowns. That could have come across as mean or disrespectful, but was delivered with enough wit that it served to bring the room together. The competitive digs may have had arguable merit, but they clearly cast Veritas as a software-centric, data-minded contrast to hardware vendors – with a level of Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay, spunk that ought to energize its field, partners, and customer base. As further testament to moral virtues, their approach for combining flagships with emerging offerings, many of the breakouts leveraged multiple, integrated Veritas products for solution-centric outcomes — which candidly is their best route to the ambitious journey that Veritas is embarking on. Glueing together their new journey through integrated solutions that are then underpinned by products (instead of jumping straight to what’s new in product X this year) will be a key to watch for as the Clytemnestra Essay, new Veritas continues to redefine itself. As a reminder that “Veritas” is Essay about Chanel's Dress, much more than “NetBackup,” check out their current portfolio.
For further impressions on the event, check out ESG’s video coverage from the Clytemnestra Essay, event: Congratulations Veritas on moral virtues a fresh vision (and Vision) that ought to propel you into some exciting opportunities. Is Your Data Protection Strategy Suffering a Civil War? I am a huge fan of the Marvel movies. Each of the individual hero movies has done an awesome job contributing to the greater albeit fictional universe.
Each of the heroes has their unique role to play within the Clytemnestra, Avengers team. And yet, in the latest movie that released on Blu-Ray today, it appears as if this colorful array of heroes is divided. They have similar goals, but what seems to be opposing methods that put them at sample odds with each other. Data protection can have similar contradictions. The Spectrum of Clytemnestra, Data Protection activities can seem similar. We often talk about the gender feminism and the subversion of identity, spectrum as a holistic perspective on the myriad of data protection outcomes—and the potentially diverse tools that enable those outcomes. And yet, sometimes, the Clytemnestra, spectrum can appear opposed to itself: Some in your organization are focused on “d ata management ” ( governance, retention, and compliance ) which focuses on stephen king how long you can or should retain data in a cost-effective way that unlocks the value of the data.
Others in Essay, your organization are focused on “d ata availability ” ( assured availability and reference, BC/DR ), as part of ensuring the Clytemnestra Essay, users’ and the business’ productivity. Do these goals actually contradict? No. But … you have to start with the reference sample, core of what is Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, common: data protection, powered by a complementary approach of backup, snapshots, and replication. But as backup evolves to data protection, many come to a crossroads where that evolution only chaucer worked writer, goes down one path or the other—data management or data availability. We’ll have to wait until next year to see how the Avengers reconciles to a single team again—but you can’t afford to wait that long. Start with your core focus areas and then evolve toward the edges, as opposed to Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, coming from the edges in.
Why you still need backup … and beyond. The foundation of any data protection, preservation, and availability strategy is grounded in “backup,” period. Yes, a majority of organizations supplement backups with snapshots, or replicas, or archives, as shown in what ESG refers to as the Data Protection Spectrum: And as much as some of those other colors (approaches to data protection) can add agility or flexibility to a broader data protection strategy, make no mistake that for worked writer and, most organizations of any and Clytemnestra, all sizes, backup still matters ! In fact, ESG wrote a brief on the relevance of backup today, within the context how other methods supplement backups and vice versa. ESG is now making this brief publicly available, courtesy of Commvault. In fact, Commvault believes so much in stephen king writing, this backup-centric and and Aphrodite Essay, yet comprehensive approach to data management, protection, and subversion of identity, recovery, that they’ve invited me to speak at their Commvault GO conference in October at a session aptly named, Why you still need Backup….and Beyond (session description below) ESG research shows that for the past five years, improving data backup and recovery has consistently been one of the Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay, IT priorities most reported by feminism subversion of identity organizations. However, to evolve from traditional backup to true data management is to and Aphrodite Essay, get smarter on all of the iterations of data throughout an infrastructure, including not only the backups/snapshots/replicas/archives from data protection, but also the primary/production data and the copies of gender trouble: feminism, data created for non-protection purposes, like test/dev, analytics/reporting, etc. Further, the cloud offers a new way to approach data protection, disaster recovery and some of Essay, those non-protection use cases. Gender Trouble: Of Identity! In this session, leading industry analyst, Jason Buffington discusses the trends in data protection today and market shifts that customers MUST understand in order to Clytemnestra and Aphrodite Essay, keep pace with the changing IT landscape.
My thanks to Commvault for syndicating the brief and moral virtues, the chance to Clytemnestra, share ESG’s perspectives on how the realm of data protection and data management is changing, and what to look for does epithet, as it does. See you in Orlando ! Amazon (1) Appliances (14) Application-Protection (7) Archive (3) Articles in Publications (4) Backup-to-Disk (37) BC-DR (20) Big Data (1) Book (8) Business Process (4) BYOD (7) Channel-and-SPs (1) CloudBackup (28) CommVault (1) Consumerization of Clytemnestra and Aphrodite, IT and BYOD (5) Continuous Data Protection (1) CustomerStory (9) Data Protection (3) Data Protection IT Pros (2) Deduplication (2) Dell (6) DPM (75) DRaaS (2) EMC (17) Endpoint-Devices (10) ESG (80) Events (23) Exagrid (2) Gaming (2) Handheld Gaming (1) Healthcare (1) Heterogeneous-Backup (6) High Availability (3) Hitachi HDS (1) HP (5) Hyper-V (6) IBM (3) Image-based backup (1) Infographic (2) iSCSI (5) Jason (29) Microsoft (50) MS SystemCenter (72) MS Windows Server (9) NetApp (2) News (13) Nook (1) OpsMgr (10) Quantum (3) Quest (1) Rants and Raves (1) Regulatory Compliance (2) Religion (1) Riverbed (1) ROI-TCO (1) SaaS software-as-a-service (2) Scouting (3) Sepaton (2) SLA service levels (1) SMB (6) Snapshots (2) Social Networks (1) Storage (22) Surface (2) Symantec (4) SystemCenter (2) Tape (2) TechTarget (1) Veeam (1) Veritas (1) Videos and moral virtues, Webcasts (52) Virtualization (21) VMware (15) Webcasts (3) Windows (1) WindowsPhone (1) WIndows Server (12) Windows Storage Server (9) Xbox (26) My blog posts and tweets are my own, and do not necessarily represent the views of my current employer (ESG), my previous employers or any other party. I do not do paid endorsements, so if I am appear to be a fan of something, it is based on my personal experience with it. If I am not talking about your stuff, it is either because I haven't worked with it enough or because my mom taught me if you can't say something nice . Essay!