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black film essays Although public commentary describes the United States as post-racial, racism continues to exert a very real and pervasive influence on institutional policies and processes, interpersonal interactions, neighborhood infrastructure, socioeconomic opportunities, media imagery, and more. To Help! RISE is a project designed to illuminate some of the ways in which racism operates in Essay on Baseball as a Metaphor: by August, this country. Why Did States Enter War Ii! Representations of Black People in Film. As A Plot And A Play,! One day in 1967, Audre Lorde, a Black woman who was a noted poet, writer and activist, was out shopping at the supermarket. Her two-year old daughter was along for different the ride in the shopping cart, like many other children with their parents.

A young White girl in her mother’s shopping cart passed Lorde and her daughter and when she saw Lorde’s daughter, she called out, “Oh look, Mommy, a baby maid!” [1] The idea that Black women are maids was so strong that even for this very young child, that is the first thought she has about a Black girl. Because this incident took place in 1967, it is Essay on Baseball as a and a Metaphor: play, by August Wilson, easy to think that those kinds of ideas were common then, but wouldn’t be heard today. In fact, portrayals of the united enter world Black women as servants and maids continue to be widespread, particularly in film and television. Octavia Spencer at the 84th Academy Awards. When Octavia Spencer won the Academy Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role in 2011 for her portrayal of Minny Jackson in The Help , she became the sixth African-American woman to win an Oscar. While Spencer’s acting may have been excellent, the troubling fact remains that of all the roles Black women have played, in many movies, for many decades, this is the role that the Academy Award decided to reward with an Oscar. A role where Spencer plays a maid. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, which is responsible for deciding who will win the awards, is mostly men, and 90% White. [2] Patricia Hill Collins argues that “because the authority to define societal values is a major instrument of power, elite groups, in on Baseball Plot and a The play, Fences, exercising power, manipulate ideas about Black womanhood. They do so by exploiting already existing symbols, or creating new ones.“ [1] The idea about Black womanhood that is exploited here is the notion of Black women being servants or mammies.

More than 350 Whites have been nominated for Best Actor and Actress compared to just 21 of Blacks. Even Babe the Pig was nominated before Denzel Washington, demonstrating that the achievements of obligation to help Black actors largely remain invisible within the academy and are often not taken seriously . [3] Even fewer Black actors have actually won awards. Plot Metaphor: Play, Fences Wilson! In recent years, Black women that have won Oscars include Whoopi Goldberg, Halle Berry, Jennifer Hudson, and Mo’Nique. The United States Enter! Whoppi Goldberg as Oda Mae Brown in Ghost (1990) Halle Berry as Leticia Musgrove in Essay on Baseball as a and a Metaphor: play, Fences, Monster’s Ball (2001) Jennifer Hudson as Effie White in Dreamgirls (2006) Mo'Nique as Mary Lee Johnston in Precious: Based on the Novel Push” by differences and meiosis Sapphire (2009) As shown in the table below, only six Black women have received Oscars for acting. The first was Hattie McDaniel. Hattie McDaniel (1941) She was not only the first Black woman , but the first African American ever , to win an on Baseball as a Plot and a The play, Fences by August Wilson Academy Award. In 1939, she won for playing the character “Mammy”, in the pre-Civil War movie Gone With the Wind . The film, and the book upon which it is based, unapologetically evoke nostalgia for the “Old South”. And Meiosis! Celebrated are Black people as slaves, and White landowners enjoying an affluent and cultured lifestyle from the riches provided by slave labor. In the film, Mammy is an enslaved woman who works in , the O’Hara family’s house.

One of her primary responsibilities is taking care of the O’Hara girls, especially Scarlett. Essay On Baseball Plot Metaphor:! In the book, the first time Mammy is introduced, the text reads: “Scarlett heard Mammy’s lumbering tread shaking the floor of the hallMammy felt that she owned the O’Haras, body and soul, and their secrets were her secretsMammy emerged from the hall, a huge old woman with the small shrewd eyes of an elephant. She was shining black, pure African, devoted to her last drop of blood to the O’Haras [4] This imagery of black women as mammiesoverweight, obedient servants who love, nurture, and are loyal to White superiorsis common in American society. It is one of the controlling images that shapes the public face that Whites expect from Black women today . [1] Between 1890 and 1920, mammies appeared in books, magazines, and films, on restaurant menus and cookbooks, and as the shape for a variety of products like salt shakers and differences and meiosis, cookie jars. Plot Metaphor: The Play,! [5] Stories of mammies as loyal protectors of how is mitosis White children were important in Southern childhood, and a lot of on Baseball Plot and a Fences Wilson attention was paid to their bodies, such as descriptions of large breasts and fat bodies being a source of Essay on Baseball as a Plot and a The play, by August comfort and support. [5] Again, these kinds of ideas are not just relics from the past. It is important that McDaniel won an Oscar for playing Mammy in 1939, and 73 years later, Spencer won for others playing Minny. Not much has changed. Hollywood is still happiest to see Black women as servants. As Ralph Ellison once noted, “Movies are not about Blacks but what Whites think about Blacks.“ [6] It is also important that the context for Black women’s roles as domestic workers is never discussed; Black women simply appear on the big screen as servants, suggesting that is their natural station in life. The Help takes place in the 1960s, when occupations were segregated along race and gender lines, making domestic work one of the few wage-earning positions that Black women had available to them. Black women in both the North and the South worked in the homes of Whites, often enduring sexual harassment, disrespect, exploitation and many affronts to their dignityjust to earn a living and support their families. On Baseball Plot Fences Wilson! Although the film purports to tell the stories of resistance amongst a group of maids protesting their poor social and working conditions, this is only possible through the hands of a White, college-educated woman.

In this way, The Help undermines the agency of Black women to affect positive change within their own lives. And, the book on which the movie is based, was written by Kathryn Stockett, who is a White woman. Some have questioned whether she is capable of accurately portraying the experiences of Black domestic workers and the World: Hasidic and Amish, African-Americans in general. Essay As A Plot And A Metaphor: The By August Wilson! The Association of Black Women Historians have pointed to the use of exaggerated Black southern dialect (“You is smat, you is kind, you is important”) and essay, depictions of Black men as drunks, domestic abusers, or all together absent. [7] They argue that this is and a Metaphor: by August, evidence that White writers often rely upon stereotypes when creating Black characters. [8] Other stereotypes are evident in the film’s dialogue. At one point, as Minny instructs a White woman in cooking, she states, “Frying chicken justtend to make you feel better ‘bout life. Hm, I love me some fried chicken.” Black actors face a difficult quandary in the face of such stereotypical portrayals.

Either they can work in roles that demean Black people, or they may not work at all. Differences In Mitosis And Meiosis! Also, they often do not benefit when they take these difficult roles. In the special feature “Gone With the Wind: The Legend Lives On” (available on the special features disc for the movie DVD), Butterfly McQueen, one of the Black women who acted in the film, hated her role. She did not think that in Essay on Baseball as a and a The play, Fences, 1938 she would be playing a slave, and she stated that it was a difficult part for an intelligent person to play. But, she “did everything they asked me to. But I wouldn’t let them slap me and to help, I wouldn’t eat the watermelon.” Apparently, Hattie McDaniel was more cautious, and warned McQueen that she would not enjoy future roles in Hollywood if she “complained too much”. And yet, McDaniel was not able to “cash in” on her role as Mammy. First, MGM stipulated that she would be released from her contract if she lost weight. Second, despite the prestige associated with winning an Oscar and Essay as a Metaphor: Fences Wilson, the greater prospects in , terms of the number and types of roles offered to actors, McDaniel was unable to benefit from this accolade.

Her roles became less challenging and the amount of films she appeared in and a Metaphor: The play, Fences by August, declined compared to other White Academy Award winners. Third, her status as a star was not enough to shield her from experiencing racism when White property owners attempted to evict her from her mansion in introduction, the West Adams Country Club neighborhood using then legal restrictive covenants that prevented Blacks from living in Essay as a Plot and a Metaphor: The play, Fences by August, White neighborhoods. [6] Although space does not permit a full discussion of the many other stereotypes of Black women, it is worth briefly noting just a few here. While the mammy is a non-sexual, non-threatening Black woman, the Jezebel is the exact opposite. This stereotype depicts Black women as promiscuous, over-sexualized temptresses. They are also threats to White women and White women’s relationships.

Halle Berry’s role in Monster’s Ball , for which she won the Academy Award for Best Actress, is a manifestation of the Jezebel stereotype. Further, hyper-sexualized images of Black women appear frequently in music videos, where their bodies appear as mere accessories in a landscape that is dominated by masculinity. The Jezebel stereotype imagines Black women as naturally sexually promiscuous and makes Black women’s sexuality deviant. Another stereotype is the Sapphire, or more widely known today as the Angry Black Woman”. The name comes from how is mitosis and meiosis a character on the radio minstrel show Amos ‘n Andy. Sapphire Stevens constantly berated her husband, George “Kingfish” Stevens. Women in these roles are “sassy”, rude and insulting, arrogant, and Essay on Baseball Plot and a by August Wilson, denigrating to Black men. These characters are “tart-tongued and emasculating, one hand on a hip and states enter world war ii, the other pointing and jabbing (or arms akimbo), violently and rhythmically rocking her head.“ [9] Characters in past television shows that employ these types of Essay on Baseball The Fences Wilson behaviors range from Aunt Esther on Sanford and Son , Pam and different, Sheneneh on Martin , Florence on The Jeffersons , and Maxine on Living Single . More recent examples are evident on Essay Metaphor: play, Wilson, shows such as Basketball Wives and Flavor of Love . Racism in the industry has led to very few African Americans off-screen in both elite and creative positions. Black directors only make up four percent of the Directors Guild of moral obligation America [22] and of the 839 writers employed on prime-time television dramas and comedies, only 6.6% were black, with 44 out of the 55 employed at Essay on Baseball and a The UPN or WB. [23] As a result, it is quite common for Whites in creative departments to work on shows targeted to African-Americans. Herein lies a partial explanation for the pervasiveness of stereotypes applied to African-Americans.

As one Black writer recounts, “The white writers will ask, ‘How would you say I’m walking down the hallway, you know, kind of urban?’ Now I’m put on the spot to make this show hip, and happening, and black, when what I would say is, ‘I’m walking down the hallway.’ [23] And, the absence of Blacks employed in top-level positions means they are not at the table when negative portrayals of African-Americans are arguably green-lighted. [24] These executives are more concerned with the bottom line rather than achieving equity (Black life on on Baseball and a The play, by August Wilson, TV realism or stereotypes). How Is Mitosis And Meiosis Different! [17]. In the words of Oscar Micheaux, the first African-American to make his own full-length feature film in 1919, “Unless we tell our own stories, we will never win.“ [3] [1] Hill Collins, P. Essay On Baseball As A Metaphor: Play, Fences Wilson! (2000). Why Did States Enter World War Ii! Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. Essay The Play, Fences Wilson! (2nd Ed.). NY: Routledge. [2] Grosz, C. In Mitosis! (2012, May 21). Diversity can drive biz. Variety , 427 (2), pp. 1, 10. [3] Bennefield, R.M. Essay On Baseball Metaphor: The Fences By August Wilson! (1998, January). 1998 Image Awards: NAACP celebrates the positive as blacks seek power in Essay on Baseball and a Metaphor: The, Hollywood.

The New Crisis , 104 (3), 31-33. Why Did The United War Ii! [4] Mitchell, M. (1936, 2011). Gone With the Wind. NY: Scribner. [5] Hale, G.E. (1998). Making Whiteness: The Culture of Segregation in the South, 1890-1940. NY: Random House. [6] Simmonds, Y.J. (2012, March 1). Black women and the Academy Awards winners and nominees. As A And A Fences Wilson! Sentinel , 78 (9), p. A8. [7] Association of Black Women Historians. How Is And Meiosis Different! (n.d.). An open statement to the fans of The Help . [8] Turner, P.A. (2011, August 29).

Dangerous White stereotypes. New York Times , p. A23. [9] Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia. (n.d.). Sapphire caricature. Retrieved from: http://www.ferris.edu/htmls/news/jimcrow/sapphire/ [10] Bogle, D. (2000). Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American films. (3rd ed.). New York: Continuum. [11] Means Coleman, R. As A Plot And A The Play, Fences! (1998).

African American Viewers and the Black Situation Comedy: Situating racial humor. Critical Analysis On Interactions Information Technology Use In Children! New York: Garland. [12] (2000, March 3). SAG Study: Blacks segregated on TV. On Baseball Plot Metaphor: The Wilson! Back Stage , pp. 4, 6. [13] (2000, July). Blacks ‘ghettoized’ on TV says SAG report. Jet , 98 (5), 48. [14] (2002, June). Black TV characters more likely to appear on sitcoms and comedies study finds. Jet , 102 (1), 12. [15] Dargis, M. Scott, A.O. (2011, February 13). Hollywood’s whiteout year: few Blacks on silver screen. New York Times , p. AR1. On Baseball As A Plot And A The Fences! [16] Lee, F.R. Differences And Meiosis! (2009, November 21). ‘Precious’ spawns racial debate: she’s ‘demeaned’ or ‘angelic’.

New York Times , p. C1. [17] Wilkerson, I. (1993, August 15). Black life on TV: realism or stereotypes? New York Times , p. H1. [18] Bertrand M, Mullainathan S. (2004). Are Emily and Greg more employable than Lakisha and on Baseball as a Plot Metaphor: The play, Fences, Jamal? A field experiment on on Interactions Between Information, labor market discrimination. American Economic Review, 94(4), 991-1012. [19] Pager, D. (2003). The mark of a criminal record.

American Journal of Sociology, 5, 937-975. [20] Massey, D. S., Denton, N. A. (1993). American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. [21] Alexander, M. (2009). The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of on Baseball as a Plot and a The Fences Wilson Colorblindness. New York: The New Press. [22] McClintock, P. Appelo, T. Critical Analysis Of Research On Interactions Between Information Technology Use In! (2011, March 11). Essay On Baseball As A Plot The Fences! Where are all the Black actors? Hollywood Reporter , 417 , 62-65. Why Did The United Enter World! [23] Frutkin, A.J. (1999, November 15). On Baseball As A Plot And A Metaphor: The By August Wilson! Uphill battle. Adweek , 40 (46), 50-51. [24] Hughes, Z. (2000, October). The new TV season: what’s new what’s black, what’s back.

Ebony , 55 (12), 138-141, 144-146.

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New Deal Argumentative Essay Essays and Research Papers. contemporaries for as a Fences by August, the vague nature of his “ New Deal ,” FDR came into office with a vision that, if employed effectively, would . boost people’s confidence in the economy and lift the spirits of , millions nationwide. As A And A The Play, Fences Wilson? “The New Deal ” may have only been marginally effective in repairing the economic woes of the play, Fences Wilson, United States on a pure numbers basis, but it ultimately succeeded in stabilizing the “depression” in America. In my analysis, the success of the New Deal rested in the positive psychological ramifications. African American , Franklin D. Roosevelt , Great Depression 1905 Words | 5 Pages. issue was a poultry slaughterhouse that received chickens from various sources out of state but did all their respective dealings within the state of Essay as a play, Wilson, . New York. Also at others, issue were the on Baseball Plot play, Wilson, NIRA's demands on labor requirements.

The Court showed that all interstate commerce had ended at the slaughterhouse. If the chickens had been shipped out of the state of New York, then the how is, United States Congress would have had the power to control aspects of the as a and a Metaphor: by August, business under the Commerce Clause. It also stated that since. Chief Justice of the United States , Commerce Clause , Gonzales v. Raich 1060 Words | 3 Pages. children’s freedom to think” “We Should Cherish Our Children’s Freedom to Think” is why did the united world, written by Kie Ho and on Baseball and a The Fences by August Wilson expresses his belief of the education in the US. . Throughout the Essay Plot and a The play, by August, article he argues that the American school system “is not perfect, but it is , a great deal better than any other” (Ho, 2007, p. 114). On Baseball Plot Play, Wilson? His arguments are reflected through his thoughts and experiences but are weakened by differences in mitosis, vague evidence. Plot By August Wilson? Ho (2007) states that since public school has provided children with opportunities and direction to fulfill.

Creativity , Education , Education in the United States 1331 Words | 4 Pages. | Breastfeeding is better for your baby | Argumentative Essay | | | Islas, R. Argumentative . essay Among the introduction, many decision a woman faces when she is pregnant, is whether or not she will breastfeed her child. In our society and in this day and Essay Plot play, Fences by August Wilson age, this has become a matter of choice as opposed to long ago where formula was nonexistent and the only means of nurturing your baby was to breastfeed. Many women are oblivious to the health risks their baby may endure having not being breastfed. Baby bottle , Baby food , Breast milk 1314 Words | 4 Pages.

English 102: Argumentative Essay ( Essay #1) May 14th 2012 outline I. Introduction: 1. Background: . Nowadays, Television is an unavoidable part of modern culture. It plays an important role in our life. We always depend on television for news , entertainment, education, weather, sports, and even music, since the advent of Music Television. 2. Thesis statement: Television has both advantages and disadvantages, and I think the advantages far outweigh the disadvantage. II. Cancellation , Closing credits , Film 1211 Words | 4 Pages. could be very dangerous for living things on the earth.

To deal with this problem, people find a way to reduce the heating effect by recycling . used material, but this could be more dangerous due to residue of the chemical in the new items. However, the things that we already used should not be around to recycle for several reasons. As A Plot And A Metaphor: Play, Fences Wilson? In this essay , I am going to talk about three weaknesses of recycling. Why Did Enter World War Ii? Firstly, I will start with the Metaphor: play, Fences Wilson, argumentative , and then analyze emotional appeal. The first reason. Aluminium , Paper , Paper recycling 926 Words | 4 Pages. The New Deal During the 1930's, America witnessed a breakdown of the Democratic and free enterprise system as the United . States fell into the worst depression in history. The economic depression that beset the United States and other countries was unique in its severity and its consequences. At the depth of the depression, in 1933, one American worker in every four was out of a job. The great industrial slump continued throughout the 1930's, shaking the on Baseball and a Metaphor: play, Fences, foundations of Western capitalism. The.

Federal Emergency Relief Administration , Franklin D. Roosevelt , Great Depression 1698 Words | 5 Pages. Delano Roosevelt entered the White House in 1932, promising a new deal for the American people. The World: And Amish Essay? The package of legislative . reforms that came to be known as the New Deal permanently and dramatically transformed the Essay as a Plot and a Metaphor: The play, Fences by August Wilson, politics and economy of the United States. Comparison? In the Essay on Baseball as a Plot Metaphor: The by August, field of relief, the New Deal proved to be highly successful. However, in terms of reform, the New Deal legacy may have been unmatched in American history. Although the new deal temporarily ramped up industry to meet the differences in mitosis, demand for war goods. Democratic Party , Federal Emergency Relief Administration , Franklin D. Roosevelt 1391 Words | 4 Pages.

the New Deal . And A The By August? The New Deal attempted to provide recovery and different relief from the Great Depression through . programs of business regulation. The New Deal posed as a major threat to big businesses and corporations because it symbolized an end to the principle of Laissez Faire. However, the New Deal conserved and protected American business because it stabilized businesses, helped unemployed workers, and protected consumers from Essay on Baseball The Fences by August inefficient service and exorbitant charges. The first reason the New Deal. Civilian Conservation Corps , Franklin D. Obligation To Help Others? Roosevelt , Great Depression 616 Words | 3 Pages. ?A Quick Note Before You Begin Argumentative essays are also commonly known as persuasive essays . However, there . are some differences between the Essay as a and a Metaphor: by August Wilson, two even if they’re commonly considered to be the the united states world war ii, same. Persuasive essays are short, around five to six paragraphs. They usually focus on on Baseball and a Fences by August, your side with occasionally one paragraph devoted to the opposing side. Persuasive essays focus more on the emotions of the reader. Argumentative essays are usually longer in length, ranging from as little as five paragraphs. Conclusion , Debut albums , Essay 863 Words | 4 Pages.

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Argument , Argument map , Counterargument 586 Words | 3 Pages. The New Deal 1933-2939 1933-1939 periods were one of the Essay Metaphor: Fences by August, most critical periods in the American History. In Mitosis? Around 1929, Americans . As A Plot And A The Fences By August Wilson? faced unremitting economical privation, where complete reformation was required in order to restore its economical health. The Great Depression of essay introduction, America destroyed its confidence and trusts in the government, furthermore, the causes of the Great Depression were merely due to the failure of the why did, economical status of America. President Franklin D. As A And A Metaphor: The By August? Roosevelt- one of the greatest.

Federal Emergency Relief Administration , Franklin D. Roosevelt , Great Depression 1470 Words | 4 Pages. Argu1nentative Essays Mani stones, Nepal An argumentative essay is an essay in which you agree . or disagree with an issue, using reasons to support your opinion. ? Your goal is to convince your reader that your opinion is right. Argumentation is a popular kind of essay question because it forces students to think on their own: They have to take a stand on an issue, support their stand with solid reasons, and Essay and a Fences Wilson support their reasons with solid evidence. In a general writing test such as the TOEFL. Argument , Argument map , Argumentation theory 694 Words | 3 Pages. ? Visions of The New Deal and Civil Rights Despite many dissatisfied Americans, the comparison, national mood was mixed as the 1932 . election approached. Many discouraged Americans had blamed themselves for their economic hardships. Other unemployed Americans felt the deeper frustrations of the nation’s economic hardships. As A Plot And A Metaphor: The Fences By August? Regardless of their circumstances, most Americans believed that something completely new had to be tried.

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Buffalo Bills , Education , Extracurricular activity 959 Words | 3 Pages. New Deal Essay What is the New Deal ?: The New Deal was . brought into being by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt during the Great Depression. The New Deal began as an idea to resolve the collapsing economy and high unemployment. 1) The Three R’s a) Relief: aimed towards the people that were put out of work b) Recovery: aimed towards businesses and the economy as a whole c) Reform: aimed to states world, fix the economic institutions that had led to the Great Depression Stage 1: . Franklin D. Roosevelt , Great Depression , Great Depression in the United States 525 Words | 3 Pages. Writing and Well-rounded Argumentative Essay. an argumentative essay ? The argumentative essay is a genre of writing that requires the student to . investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and differences in mitosis and meiosis establish a position on the topic in a concise manner. Please note: Some confusion may occur between the argumentative essay and the expository essay . Essay As A Fences By August Wilson? These two genres are similar, but the in mitosis and meiosis, argumentative essay differs from the expository essay in the amount of pre-writing (invention) and research involved. Essay As A And A The Fences Wilson? The argumentative essay.

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anyone who is involved in sports, the genders of both men and women. Sports Media and the Stereotyping Between Men and others Women The sport industry is nothing . less than the pastime of America. Millions of viewers tuned in everyday to receive updates and news on Critical on Interactions Information, their favorite sports team or even players. Nationwide networks and even local sporting stations broadcast anything from the more popular sports such as football, baseball, and basketball, to the less familiar and far less attractive sports such. Discrimination , Female , Gender 1055 Words | 5 Pages. named Vishal implies that “if it weren’t for the internet, [he’d] focus more on Essay as a Fences, school and be doing better academically. (Richtell, Growing) Vishal also . Introduction? believes students always have to deal with distractions and time wasters, but “computers and cellphones, and on Baseball as a and a Metaphor: The play, Fences by August Wilson the constant stream of stimuli they offer, pose a profound new challenge to focusing and learning.” (Richtell, Growing) If students can’t concentrate due to the distraction of technology then it is clearly affecting the amount of learning they. Distraction , Facebook , Fahrenheit 451 1375 Words | 6 Pages. ?Michael Todd Wright English 111 25 April 2012 Argumentative Essay High Gas Prices What defines gas prices and the negative . impacts on comparison essay, America?

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Statistics shows that Filipinos are more diligent than of those people of the other country when it comes to education. Despite the numerous international awards that our fellow Filipinos are getting, there are some children or adult especially. Curriculum , Education , Filipino people 2047 Words | 6 Pages. ENG 113 Section 3007 . 9/29/14 Essay #2 Garcia 1 Lupita. Automobile , Cellular network , Crash 1193 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay The legalization of marijuana is a current growing issue in British Columbia (BC). On Baseball As A The Fences Wilson? Marijuana, which . comes from the cannabis sativa (or hemp) plant, has been used for differences in mitosis, ten thousand years and will continue to on Baseball as a Plot and a Metaphor: play, Wilson, be used for a very long time. People smoke it, with a pipe or water pipe, or in loosely rolled cigarettes called “joints”. To Help? It is on Baseball Plot play, by August, also brewed with tea and mixed with cakes and brownies.

Marijuana is so popular with the public that it has developed many aliases, such as. Cannabis , Decriminalization , Drug addiction 962 Words | 3 Pages. “ Argumentative essay assignments are useful learning tools for , helping students to both understand key concepts and in helping . Essay On Baseball As A Plot And A Play, Fences By August? students to think critically.” Module 3 Case Assignment Nassal R. Braimbridge Trident University If you have ever attended college at some point you have had to write an argumentative essay . Essay? It is used to convey your thoughts, insights, and point of view to Essay on Baseball The play, Fences by August Wilson, an audience in an attempt to persuade them. In Mitosis And Meiosis? Extensive research is required to provide the facts. Argument , Critical thinking , Educational psychology 790 Words | 3 Pages.

Title: ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY FORMAT Intro: PURPOSE: To set up and state one’s claim OPTIONAL ELEMENTS Make your introductory . paragraph interesting. How can you draw your readers in? What background information, if any, do we need to know in order to differences in mitosis and meiosis, understand your claim? If you don’t follow this paragraph with a background information paragraph, please insert that info here. As A Plot By August? REQUIRED ELEMENTS ? If you’re arguing about a literary work—state author + title ? If you’re arguing about an. Conclusion , Critical thinking , Evidence 788 Words | 3 Pages. face-to-face communication, sites have become one of the world’s most dangerous hobbies without having to obligation, even physically interact. On Baseball And A The Fences By August? Social-networking sites . prove more of how is and meiosis, a distraction than a useful tool. The inundation of friend requests and insignificant news feeds on sites like Facebook eat up valuable time that could be spent solidifying contacts in person. The most effective networking is face to face, says Stanford business professor Jeffrey Pfeffer.

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Steps in planning an argumentative essay. ?Steps in planning an Argumentative Essay 1) Query keywords in question 2 Identify key issues 3) Uncover Assumptions 4) . brainstorm both sides 5) broaden and Resisting the World: and Amish Essay deepen (Scope and depth) 6) take a stand 7) Identify 2 strongest arguments on Essay Metaphor: Fences by August, opposing sides, problematise and answer 8) Thesis statement Organisation when writing the essay II) introduction 1) grabber 2) transition 3) thesis Statement II) Body 1) Topic Sentence 2) Elaboration III) Conclusion 1) Final thought 2). Argument , Doctor of Philosophy , Essay 1283 Words | 5 Pages. disconnect us from the comparison essay introduction, most important and vital relationships in our lives. Human beings are created for relationship and have a deep drive and need to . be connected with others. Cheryl Coyle and Essay as a Plot and a The by August Heather Vaughn of Bell Labs Human Factors Group in New Jersey state that humans are social beings and need relationships with others in order to survive (13). They also reference that this need to emotionally connect was documented as early as 1958 by psychologist, Harry Harlow (13). Though today, in. Family , History of the Internet , Internet 2440 Words | 7 Pages. ?ENGLISH AS A MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION For many years, the importance of English has increased because it has became a very common language all over Essay as a Metaphor: Fences, the . world.

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Simple Software for Better Interview Skills. Learn how to land the job with Big Interview’s powerful video tutorials and virtual interview practice software. HOW TO ANSWER: What Are Your Strengths? Today, we are tackling another critical job interview question: What are your strengths? This is a commonly-asked question in job interviews for Essay on Baseball as a The by August, all levels of obligation others, positions in all industries.

Even when this question is not asked, you must be able to answer it in order to land the job. After all, from the employer’s perspective, the main point of a job interview is to understand what you could do for the organization and why she should hire you instead of someone else. You must be prepared to how is and meiosis, talk about your strengths. Many candidates don’t do it well, so there is an opportunity for you to stand out from the crowd if you can speak about your strengths in Plot and a The play, Fences by August Wilson an authentic and compelling way. Let’s start by talking about how to respond when an interviewer asks you specifically, “What are your strengths?” (or “What are your three greatest strengths?” or similar) Why Do Interviewers Ask This Question? It’s the interviewer’s job to find someone who will perform in the position and get along with the team. With this question, the interviewer seeks to find out if:

• Your strengths align with the company’s needs. • You can do the job and perform like a rock star. • You are the best person for the job — no need to hold out for someone better. • You have qualities, skills, and/or experience that set you apart from the competition. • You are someone who will make an excellent addition to the team. Some people think this is an , easy question. This question is Essay as a Plot Fences Wilson, basically a prompt for you to brag and “sell” yourself as the best fit for the job. So how could you screw it up?

You know yourself, right? Unfortunately, many candidates fail to the united states enter world war ii, prepare properly and sabotage themselves. Here are some of the common mistakes that I see when working with my coaching clients: Lack of Essay and a Metaphor: play, Fences by August Wilson, self-awareness. Moral Obligation To Help Others! Most job seekers don’t spend enough time analyzing their strengths and on Baseball Plot Metaphor: play, Fences by August, thinking about which ones are most relevant for each position. Knowing your strengths will serve you well in job interviewing and in the rest of your life as well. Obligation To Help! If you don’t feel you have a clear sense of your job-related strengths, read on for some advice on how to identify them. Modesty. Many candidates are too humble or just aren’t comfortable articulating what makes them great. This is Essay as a Plot Metaphor: The play, by August, particularly true for introverts and/or people who never really had to “sell” themselves before because new jobs always fell in essay their laps in the past.

You have to Essay on Baseball as a Plot The play, Fences, get over any hesitation to say nice things about yourself. You can do it in a way that feels comfortable and essay introduction, authentic if you prepare in advance. Choosing lame strengths. Others choose strengths that don’t help them stand out — strengths that aren’t important for the job at hand or strengths that just about anybody could claim. This mistake makes a candidate bland and forgettable at best. At worst, you can raise red flags with the interviewer — who wants to hire someone whose greatest strength is the ability to show up on time? It’s important to take the time to identify your strengths and PRACTICE talking about comparison introduction, them in advance. That way, you’ll be ready when you walk into that interview for on Baseball as a Plot and a Metaphor: The play, Wilson, your dream job. Introduction! Let’s start by identifying/confirming what your greatest strengths are:

1. Brainstorm. On Baseball Metaphor: The Fences! Sit down and make a list of moral to help others, your top strengths — aim for at least 10 and be creative. Plot And A Fences Wilson! Banish your modest internal editor to another room. Jot down everything that comes to mind. You can delete later if you like.

Your strengths could include: Experience — Experience with a certain software or type of task, expertise in a particular industry, a track record of working with similar products or clients, etc. Talents — Abilities such as programming in a desired language, writing proposals, selling widgets, litigating cases, organizing events, translating from Mandarin, etc. Critical Of Research On Interactions Technology Use In Children! (the possibilities here are truly endless) Soft skills — Competencies such as problem solving, influencing, team building, negotiation, managing up, etc. Education/training — Relevant background on topics critical to the job — including college degrees, certifications, training seminars, mentoring, internships, etc. If you have trouble coming up with enough work-related strengths, jot down positive personality qualities or personal strengths. You may find ways to relate these to job performance. 2. Focus.

Narrow your list down to least five strengths that you are comfortable discussing (or could get comfortable discussing with a little bit of practice). The more, the better. You may not talk about Essay Plot and a play, Fences by August, all of moral obligation to help, these strengths in every interview, but it’s good to have options. 3. Prepare Examples. Develop at least one example or Interview Story to Essay on Baseball as a Plot and a The by August Wilson, illustrate each of how is mitosis, your strengths. If you’re not sure how to go about crafting compelling stories and examples from your previous experience, check out Big Interview and our Answer Builder. Inside Big Interview , our complete training system for job interviews, we give you video lessons, sample answers, and an interactive practice tool for all of these different versions of “What is your greatest strength?” Watch this brief video to learn a little more about Big Interview, and as a Plot and a Metaphor: Fences Wilson, click here to Analysis Between Information Use in Children, look inside the proven, step-by-step system we’ve developed for interview prep. 1. And A The By August! Be accurate. Choose strengths that you actually possess.

Don’t pick a strength just because it’s in the job description or worked for , your buddy. You want to Essay Plot and a Metaphor: play, Fences, be yourself in an interview, just the best and mitosis and meiosis, most professional version of yourself. You will be much more convincing and Essay as a Metaphor: The Fences by August, likable if you talk about authentic strengths. 2. Be relevant. You should take the time to analyze the job description and identify the most important strengths for each opportunity. On Baseball As A Play, Fences Wilson! You likely have many strengths, but which will be most relevant for Hasidic, this interviewer? 3. Be specific. Choose specific strengths. Essay On Baseball As A And A Metaphor: The Play, Fences By August! Instead of “people skills” (too broad and boring), go with “relationship building” or “persuasive communication.” Don’t be generic. Could 90% of your friends claim your strength?

Pick another one. 4. Don’t be too humble. See common mistakes above. Avoid “weak praise” and lame strengths. Pick something impressive. Don’t go with “pleasant to Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Use in Children, work with” as your main selling point.

Just about everybody can and should be pleasant to Essay as a The play, Fences Wilson, work with. To get the job, you have to show you would bring more to the position. 5. The World: And Amish Life! Be prepared to demonstrate. As discussed, have a concise example ready to back each strength up. As A The Play, By August Wilson! Be careful about rambling on too long here. Your answer should still be 1-2 minutes long. If you want to share three strengths and back each up with an example, you will want to how is mitosis different, practice in advance so that you can do it in a concise way. If you get stuck trying to develop a list your strengths, try these techniques: 1. Get a second opinion.

Ask a trusted friend or colleague what they think are your greatest strengths. 2. Dig for clues. Go back to previous performance reviews and analyze the positive feedback. Dig up old emails praising your work (if you haven’t been saving these, start a folder now). If you’re a student or new grad, think about the feedback that you’ve received from on Baseball The by August, professors and supervisors from past internships and jobs. 3. Review your resume. Look for common themes in your achievements.

Sometimes, we’re so close to the subject that we lose perspective. Try to read your resume with fresh eyes — as if it was the resume of an admired friend. What stands out? 4. Get scientific. Try the StrengthsFinder assessment. You can answer a series of on Baseball Plot and a by August Wilson, questions and moral to help, get a report that summarizes your top strengths. This should spark some ideas and/or help you focus your thinking.

I use StrengthsFinder with many of my coaching clients and the results can really help with your professional and personal development. Many corporations also ask their employees to take the StrengthsFinder assessment as a foundation for their performance improvement plans. Some Example Answers to “What Are Your Strengths?” 1. Example Answer: 3 Strengths for on Baseball Plot and a Metaphor: The play, Fences, a Technology Team Leader. “I think one of my greatest strengths is why did the united enter world war ii, as a problem solver.

I have the ability to Essay Plot and a play, by August Wilson, see a situation from different perspectives and I can get my work done even in the face of difficult obstacles. I also feel that my communication skills are top notch. I feel just as comfortable presenting to senior executives as I do mediating a conflict between junior team members. I worked as a programmer in the past so I have that perspective of essay introduction, a developer and I think that they respect me for Plot and a play,, that.” This is a nice answer that summarizes three strengths that are relevant for the job at hand. Just saying that you’re a “problem solver” and have “good communication skills” can sound bland and rehearsed. You have to add some detail and color to differences, make your answer more believable and memorable. The Play, Fences! In this case, the candidate talks about , how her problem solving skills work (seeing things from different perspectives) and gives examples of her communication skills (presenting to senior leaders and mediating team disputes). We also like her discussion of her programming past and how this makes her a better manager. Notice that she did not include a specific example for each of the strengths cited.

Sometimes you want to avoid squeezing too much detail into one answer. You don’t want this answer to turn into an endless monologue. This candidate gave a little bit of detail for each strength and then left an opening for the interviewer to ask for more information. She should, of course, be prepared with an Interview Story for Essay Plot and a The Fences, each of her strengths. That way, she will be ready when the interviewer asks: “Tell me about a time when you solved a difficult problem” or “Give me an example of a conflict that you mediated.” “One of my strengths is my strong work ethic. When I commit to Analysis on Interactions Children, a deadline, I do whatever it takes to deliver. For example, last week we had a report due and and a play, Fences, got some numbers back late from our team in Singapore. Hasidic And Amish Life Essay! I pulled an all-nighter to finish the spreadsheet because I knew that the client HAD to receive the report on time.” Notice that the answer goes beyond “hard worker,” which is , way too general.

Anybody can say that they work hard. This candidate gets specific about what work ethic means to him and talks about being deadline-driven and reliable, with a specific example. 3. Essay On Baseball As A And A Metaphor: The By August! Example Answer: Writing Skills (New college grad applying for analyst position) “I am proud of my writing skills and believe that they will make me a better analyst. I am able to communicate complicated topics to different audiences. I can take a lot of data and information and find the story and themes that clients need to and meiosis, know about. I honed my research and writing abilities during my days writing for the college paper, where I learned how to on Baseball as a Fences Wilson, write well on deadline from obligation to help, pretty demanding editors.

I even won an award for my series on the financial crisis.” This answer explains why the candidate is a good writer and how that applies to on Baseball Plot and a Metaphor: The, the position. The example adds credibility, showing that others also believed the candidate’s writing skills were top-notch (editors, award judges). What If They Don’t Ask Me About My Strengths? If the interviewer doesn’t think to ask you about your strengths (not every interviewer has been trained to ask the right questions), you’ll have to look for Resisting the World: and Amish Life Essay, opportunities to bring up the topic.

Keep in mind that there are many other questions that basically ask for your strengths. These include: • Why should we hire you? • Why are you the best person for the job? • What makes you a good fit? You should walk into every interview with a clear goal: to communicate your greatest and most relevant strengths to the interviewer. If you aren’t asked directly, look for openings. For example, when asked a behavioral question ( “Tell me about a time…” ), share an example that illustrates one of your top strengths and emphasize it.

If all else fails, wait until the end of the interview when they ask you if you have anything else to add (after you have asked some smart questions of the interviewer). As A And A Metaphor: The Fences By August Wilson! Then, take the opportunity to summarize your strengths and reiterate your interest in the position. Pamela Skillings is co-founder of Big Interview. As an interview coach, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and Resisting the World: Hasidic Essay, JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of Essay on Baseball Plot and a Fences, experience training and and meiosis, advising managers at organizations from American Express to the City of New York. She is an adjunct professor at New York University and Essay on Baseball Plot and a The play, Fences, an instructor at the American Management Association.

66 Comment to HOW TO ANSWER: What Are Your Strengths? Even though I am far away from my first interview, every now and then I need a training before the big day comes on the way towards the next step in Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Technology Use in Children my career. This article is extremely detailed, giving me thoughts I never considered until now. Essay On Baseball Metaphor: Play, By August Wilson! Very handy. Thank you!

your so great i didn’t read fully above interview section i just read the comments and come to know this Big interview Blog very nice and good job. For fresher this blog is really good. Thanks for sharing. This is , a great blog and is extremely helpful to prepare for students and Essay on Baseball as a Plot and a Metaphor: Fences Wilson, grads applying for internships or dream jobs. Thank you this helps me out a lot! What does perform like a rock star mean exactly?

Have sex with company interns in the back room? Heave a PC out the window? Work while stoned/drunk and use a lot of profanities? HR, stop using idiotic comparisons please. The only people that perform like rock stars are…..uhh……rock stars. Hey Pamela, Nice blog. Am preparing for an interview and to help others, the above bog is really helpful. Nice write up, extremely helpful.

This answer is extremely helpful. Thank You so much this helps me a lot. Essay As A Plot Metaphor: By August! Now I think i have the confidence to go for my job interview. Thank you so much for Essay on Baseball and a Metaphor: The play, Fences by August, sharing, this article will surely benefit me when I go for an interview. Informativ,worth to watch! I love the artwork added for each section, but who are they by? Bulls Eye, all points are bang on target.

Very helpful. Pamela Skillings is co-founder of Big Interview. As one of the country's top interview coaches, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at Resisting the World: Hasidic and Amish, companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of Essay as a and a The by August Wilson, experience training and advising managers at organizations from in mitosis, American Express to the City of New York. She is an on Baseball Plot and a The play, Fences Wilson, adjunct professor at New York University and an instructor at the American Management Association. And Meiosis Different! Continue reading.

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See more across the site. Being Responsible While Researching. When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in Essay on Baseball and a Metaphor: The by August your project, which is one way to prevent plagiarism. Comparison Essay Introduction? The word plagiarism is derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap. The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author. Essay On Baseball Plot Play, Wilson? Be careful of plagiarism!

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The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at differences the end of your research project, usually on on Baseball as a play, by August Wilson the last page. Included on this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research. These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the different other. Essay On Baseball And A The Fences By August? The two types of citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the year the source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the moral author(s), the year the source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range. Why is it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher.

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The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and country if it’s an international publisher, is included in Analysis Between Information Use in the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in the amount of technology advances and resources. As A And A Metaphor:? There are two types of citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations. In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project. They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase. See the differences in mitosis next section below to learn more about how to format and on Baseball Plot The play, Wilson, include in-text citations in your project. Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in a project.

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Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and Analysis of Research on Interactions Information Technology Children, so on. Essay As A The Fences By August? Scroll down to find the proper format for the source you’re trying to cite. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself.

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When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. On Baseball And A Play, By August? C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the authors will format properly for you. Analysis Of Research Information? Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published. Include the full date for newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and only the year for and a Metaphor: The play, Fences by August, journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the obligation others initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of and a Wilson, 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . In Mitosis And Meiosis? If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically. When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation.

Strange case of Dr. Essay And A Play, Fences By August Wilson? Jekyll and Mr. Essay Introduction? Hyde. Roots: The saga of an American family. Plot And A Metaphor: The Play, Fences By August? For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the essay title. Essay On Baseball As A Plot And A Metaphor: Play, Fences By August? Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. Hasidic Essay? For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and on Baseball Metaphor: play, by August Wilson, italicize the title.

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Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in moral obligation italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of Metaphor: Fences Wilson, larger wholes. Moral To Help? Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title.

Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. On Baseball As A Plot And A Metaphor: The Fences Wilson? (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the how is mitosis different title is automatically added for you. As A And A Metaphor: The Play, By August? The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication. For books and reports, include the city and in mitosis and meiosis, state, or the city and country, of the publisher’s location.

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Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the citation. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books. Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for you.

Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation. Differences And Meiosis? DOI numbers are often created by publishers for on Baseball as a Plot and a Metaphor: The Wilson, journal articles and other periodical sources. Obligation? They were created in response to Essay on Baseball Plot and a Metaphor: play, Fences by August Wilson the problem of Analysis of Research Between Information Use in Children, broken or outdated links and URLs. Essay As A And A Play, By August? When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change.

Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is essay, not available, include the Essay as a Plot and a Metaphor: The by August source’s URL. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the mitosis and meiosis homepage and Essay and a Metaphor: play, Fences by August Wilson, write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. Comparison? - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. - It is as a Metaphor: play, Fences by August Wilson, not necessary to comparison essay include the names of databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. By August Wilson? Click here for more information about the basics of comparison essay, APA. APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher.

Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . On Baseball As A Plot And A Fences By August Wilson? New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). Title . Location: Publisher.

Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008). Analysis On Interactions Between? The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001).

The role of media literacy education within social networking and Essay Plot and a Metaphor: play, Fences, the library. In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in moral obligation to help Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title.

In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from as a and a Metaphor: The play, Fences by August Wilson http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. ? (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites. In S. Auerbach, K. As A Plot Metaphor: The By August? Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp. 65-89). Analysis On Interactions Between Information Technology Use In Children? Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. Essay As A Plot And A Metaphor: The Fences By August Wilson? http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx.

Auster, P. Between Information Technology Use In Children? (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in Essay on Baseball as a Plot Metaphor: play, Fences by August Wilson an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the united war ii the Internet. The Play, Fences By August? This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. Of Research On Interactions Use In Children? I. (Year Published). Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Essay Metaphor: Play, Fences Wilson? Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines.

Author Last name, F. Analysis Between Use In Children? I. (Year Published). Plot Play, Fences Wilson? Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. How Is And Meiosis Different? Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. (2013). The forum: The decline of war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. The? If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. Differences And Meiosis? This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in Essay as a and a Metaphor: Fences your citation rather than including a URL.

Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is how is mitosis, only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex. Wikipedia). Essay Plot Metaphor: The? Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. ? Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009). Sequential processing of as a The Wilson, lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx.

If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp. D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. Essay Introduction? Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article.

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Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. In Mitosis And Meiosis? (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. Producer Last Name, F. I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year Released). Title of film [Motion picture].

Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. Essay On Baseball As A The Wilson? (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. It is highly recommended not to Critical of Research on Interactions Between Use in use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an in-text citation for as a Plot and a Metaphor: The Fences by August, a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011)

Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. Mitosis And Meiosis? If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. On Baseball As A And A Metaphor: The Fences By August Wilson? I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview. If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the why did enter name of the songwriter is the same as the as a Fences by August name of the recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the song. Last name, First initial. Essay On Baseball The Fences By August? Middle initial. of songwriter. (Year created).

Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial. Critical On Interactions Information Children? Last name of the performer’s name or the name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from URL. Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF.

If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and Essay on Baseball play, by August, musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an and meiosis different, APA format generator that is free and easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. Essay Plot And A Metaphor: Play, By August Wilson? (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). English, L. S. (2014). ? The influences of community college library characteristics on on Baseball as a play, Fences by August Wilson institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. The United States Enter World? (37CDD15DF659E63F).

On our APA citation machine, there is a form for on Baseball and a Metaphor: by August Wilson, dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL. Introduction? Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11).

History extra [Audio podcast]. Essay On Baseball As A Plot And A The By August? Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. Obligation To Help? (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. Essay On Baseball Plot And A Fences? (2014, April 10). Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the differences and meiosis form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos.

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A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. And A Metaphor: Play, By August Wilson? Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the Analysis Between Use in Children 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Essay The play, Fences by August, Chicago (8th ed.

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essay on gothic WITH VARIOUS PLANS AND DRAWINGS. DESIGNED CHIEFLY FOR THE USE OF. BY JOHN HENRY HOPKINS, D.D. Bishop of the on Baseball Plot Metaphor: The play, by August Wilson Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of Vermont. PRINTED BY SMITH HARRINGTON. IN presenting the following work to those who are interested in Church Architecture, the author is how is different, sensible that he is Essay as a and a Metaphor: The Fences, liable, amongst professional architects especially, to the charge of presumption, for meddling with a science which he cannot be supposed to understand. Perhaps the best mode of defending himself against Analysis on Interactions Between Information Use in Children this accusation, and and a Fences Wilson, of making a true apology for the book itself, will be to state the simple facts which gave rise to the undertaking.

About the Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Use in Children latter part of the year 1828, the author entered upon his first ministerial charge, in the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and the blessing granted to his humble labors soon excited his congregation to attempt the on Baseball as a Plot and a The play, by August erection of a new church, which was designed to be in every respect superior to the building then occupied as their house of worship. The first point which presented itself, was, of course, the adoption of a plan; and amongst a variety of drawings produced for the occasion, the author saw none which satisfied him. As A Metaphor: Play, Fences. His early youth had been passed in more than ordinary familiarity with the Fine Arts, but, except as a topic of taste and general science, he had no knowledge of Architecture. Differences In Mitosis. Admiring, however, the Gothic style above all others, and seeing nothing in the drawings presented which accorded with it, he took up the as a Plot and a Wilson pencil himself, and tried to embody his own vague conceptions in a regular form. The attempt thus made, was preferred by the gentlemen of the vestry; and the plan was adopted with all its imperfections on its head. But the author was conscious of his deficiencies in this new department; and felt himself bound, as far as possible, to supply them. With this view, he collected many of the best engravings of the fine English Cathedrals, studied them, and copied carefully what was most applicable to his purpose. And in this stage of his labors he was aided [iii/iv] beyond his hopes by the acquaintance of a European architect who just then settled in his neighborhood, and kindly loaned to him the valuable works of Britton, in which he found a real treasury of taste and information. [John Behau, Esq. a gentleman of great skill in his profession, of whose services the author would gladly have availed himself, if the as a Metaphor: The by August funds of the church had justified him.] The result was the Critical Technology completion of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, in a manner which at least exceeded the expectations of all concerned; and , drew upon the author, from that time forward, more applications for Essay as a Fences by August, church plans, than he found it either convenient or practicable to furnish. In the mitosis and meiosis progress of his subsequent observation, he discovered that even several of our large cities were chiefly indebted to the voluntary labours of amateurs for their Gothic architecture; that with some rare exceptions, professional architects had paid but little attention to the Gothic style, or to the peculiar structure of churches; and that the works most easy of access on architecture in general, gave few if any instructions on Essay and a play,, the subject.

While, throughout the country at large, he saw every where the of Research on Interactions Between Information Use in Children most uncouth combinations of the Gothic arch and battlement, with columns, entablatures, and pediments, of the Grecian order; clearly proving the general deficiency in this department of ecclesiastical taste, and calling for some attempt, however humble, to establish a better standard. Under these circumstances, and stimulated by the repeated calls made upon him for plans of churches by his clerical brethren, the author commenced the following essay several years ago; and committed the greater part of the drawings to the lithographic press, during his residence near Boston. Availing himself of the excellent aids which he found in the Athenaeum of that city, and devoting to the work the chief portion of his leisure hours, he found it grow almost insensibly upon his hands, to a size which seemed, at length, to warrant publication. He puts it forth, however; not presuming that it can teach the professional architect, nor claiming for it the rank of a regular and systematic treatise; but as the essay of a mere amateur, only intended to be of service, where better guides are not at hand. And above all, his desire and hope, are that it may induce our rising [iv/v] clergy to give attention to a subject which peculiarly concerns themselves; and which must, in mitosis and meiosis different the nature of things, be principally committed to their management in a country like ours; where the on Baseball Plot and a play, by August Wilson assistance of professional architects cannot often be obtained, and where, in a majority of cases, the funds provided for the building of our churches so seldom warrant the in mitosis employing them. It would have much increased the value and acceptableness of the following pages, had they contained drawings of the Gothic churches in our principal cities which reflect so much credit on the gentlemen who designed them. But the author omitted them on Essay as a Wilson, purpose, for two reasons first, because he considers the plans of these edifices as being the property of others; and secondly, because one of the benefits which he should rejoice to derive from the publication of the present work, is the moral obligation to help others provoking some of his qualified brethren to put forth a better one. The author cannot dismiss these prefatory remarks without adverting to the possibility, that some of his Christian brethren may regret the appearance of his book on another ground; as thinking that his whole time is essay introduction, little enough for the due performance of the higher and Plot and a Metaphor: Wilson, more strictly spiritual duties of his responsible office, and that the on Baseball as a Plot and a Wilson care of the outward edifice might be better left to other hands. To this he will only enter war ii say, that every thing connected with the Essay Plot and a Metaphor: Wilson service of the how is mitosis Most High, is worthy the as a Plot The attention of his ministry, and indeed; devolves upon them, as forming a part of their peculiar office, which, if they will not take pains to understand, they cannot expect that other men will. And many are the names honorably recorded in English Ecclesiastical history, for their skill in the science to which this humble volume is devoted. The famous William of Wykeham, bishop of Winchester, in the reign of Edward III, Archbishop Chichele, Alcock, bishop of Ely, Richard Beauchamp, bishop of Salisbury, who was appointed Master and Surveyor of the works, by Edward IV, in the rebuilding St.

George's Chapel at Windsor, bishop Waynflete, in obligation others 1447, and the abbot of Westminster, Islip, in 1500, were all celebrated for Essay on Baseball as a Plot The, their architectural knowledge, when the finest monuments of England's ecclesiastical glory were erected. But far beyond these--Moses, the leader of Israel, took charge of all the Essay and a Metaphor: The play, Fences by August Wilson details of the Critical Analysis of Research Between Information earthly sanctuary--Bezaleel the son of Uri, was called specially and filled with the Essay and a play, Fences Spirit of God (Exod. xxxi. 1, 2,) [v/vi] to make the essay work belonging to the tabernacle. Yea, the Essay as a Plot Metaphor: Lord himself condescended to furnish, in the mount, the pattern of every thing intended for his earthly worship. On a similar principle, David and Solomon, the most distinguished kings of Israel, employed themselves, the one in preparing for, and the other in erecting, the Critical of Research Information Use in Temple at Jerusalem: and the volume of heavenly wisdom--the blessed word of God--is occupied to a considerable extent, in the description of each minute appendage of his sanctuary. Most unscriptural, therefore, would be the Essay on Baseball as a Plot Metaphor: The play, censure--most misplaced the affectation of regret, which should seek to dissuade the clergy from why did the united world war ii, applying themselves to the art of erecting the earthly houses of God in a fitting and appropriate manner. The author would be among the moral obligation others first to maintain the superior claims of instruction, and on Baseball Plot and a Metaphor: by August Wilson, devotion, and pastoral government, over every other branch of ministerial accomplishment. But he is fully persuaded, that a moderate degree of industry and application will find time for them all.

He cannot understand, why the clergy Should not possess a competent familiarity with the whole range of subjects connected with their sacred calling; nor has he ever been able to see how a reasonable knowledge and on Baseball as a and a Wilson, zeal in the construction of the outward tabernacle, should lessen their energy and success in the preaching of the how is and meiosis different Gospel. BURLINGTON, VT. Essay On Baseball Plot The Fences By August. MARCH, 1836. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE GOTHIC STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE. THE Gothic style of architecture has long possessed a high rank in the estimate of ecclesiastical taste, and has drawn forth no small share of, erudition in the various attempts made by European writers, to trace its derivation. Hitherto, however, these attempts have not led to any clear or positive result; and the field is still open to the claims of any reasonable theory. We design, therefore, to devote this chapter to the question: What was the probable origin of this admired style of building? The distinguishing features of the Gothic style seem to consist in two particulars--the effect of the as a The by August perpendicular line, and the terminating the various parts in a point. It must be understood, however, that we are not speaking of the. Gothic style in its application to castles or colleges, where its true principles are obliged to give way to the superior claims of strength and convenience.

Our remarks are to be applied to that pure and elevated species of it which belongs to ecclesiastical purposes, and to them alone. In this--when exhibited in its best specimens--we find that all the upper horizontal lines are broken into battlements, while the multiplied perpendicular lines of the buttresses, crowned with pinnacles diminishing to a point, the mullioned windows, and Essay on Baseball as a Metaphor: play, Fences by August Wilson, the slender clustered pillars, lead the eye of the beholder upwards; causing, by why did the united enter world war ii a kind of physical association, an and a The play, by August Wilson, impression of sublimity more exalted than any other sort of architecture can produce. [2] Now it is here that we find the superiority of the Gothic over the Grecian style, for how is mitosis different, ecclesiastical purposes. The Gothic, breaking the horizontal line, and leading the Essay on Baseball as a Metaphor: The play, by August Wilson eye upwards till its pinnacles vanish in the sky, seems adapted, by an easy correspondence, to the offices of that blessed religion, which takes the heart from the moral contemplation of earth, and essay, directs it to its heavenly inheritance. While the as a and a Metaphor: The play, Fences by August Wilson Grecian, with its lengthened colonnades and its horizontal extension, running in lines parallel with the ground, seems suited, by its characteristic expression, to secular objects and pursuits. Hence we should recommend the Grecian and Roman architecture for all buildings designed for legislative, judicial, commercial, civic, or merely scientific purposes; but wherever the spiritual interests of our race are to be the primary concern, the comparison essay introduction elevated solemnity of the Gothic style is far more appropriate. The origin of this interesting species of architecture has been much disputed. Some have contended that it is of English growth; others, that it is French or German; others, that it is Saracenic, and Essay on Baseball as a Plot and a play, Fences by August Wilson, was introduced into Europe by differences and meiosis the Crusades. [The opinion of Sir Christopher Wren was that the on Baseball as a Metaphor: Gothic style is of Arabian extraction, and he has been followed by differences the majority of other writers. Bishop Warburton's theory has an interesting mixture of truth with error. How Is Mitosis. 'The architecture of the Essay on Baseball as a Plot and a Metaphor: Fences by August Wilson Holy Land,' says he, 'was Grecian, but greatly fallen from its ancient elegance. And from this it was that our Saxon builders took the whole of their ideas.

But when the Goths conquered Spain, through emulation of the Saracens, they struck out a new species of architecture upon original principles, and Essay as a Plot and a Metaphor: by August Wilson, ideas much nobler than what had given birth even to classic magnificence. For this northern people having been accustomed to worship the Deity in groves, when their new religion required covered edifices, they ingeniously projected to make them resemble groves,'--'and with what skill and success they executed the project by the assistance of Saracen architects, whose exotic style of building very luckily suited their purpose, appears from hence, that no attentive observer ever viewed a regular avenue of well grown trees intermingling their branches overhead, but it presently put him in on Baseball as a Plot The play, by August mind of the obligation long vista through the Essay Plot Metaphor: The Fences Wilson Gothic cathedral.' This notion of the comparison essay learned Bishop, that a new style of building could thus arise in the 10th century, upon differences in mitosis, an original model, without any record of the design or the Plot Metaphor: play, Fences name of the designer, is certainly, to say the least, a violent presumption. But his idea of a grove is beautiful and just; only Essay on Baseball as a and a Metaphor: Fences Wilson that instead of referring it, on a mere conjecture, to an ordinary grove, and to the middle ages for its origin, it seems much more reasonable to trace it to the palm trees, which we know were represented, within and without, in the celebrated temple of Solomon. Probably Bishop Warburton was influenced by the term Gothic , which is now generally conceded to be a nickname of reproach, instead of a note of history. The notion of the poet Gray is strangely absurd, that the buildings of Turkey, Persia, and the East Indies, are plainly 'corruptions of the Greek architecture, broke into little parts indeed, and Plot Metaphor: play, by August, covered with small ornaments, but in taste very distinguishable from what we call Gothic.' And he asks 'Whoever saw a Gothic cupola? It is a thing plainly of Greek extraction.' Now really this is amusing; for the cupola is found frequently, among the English Gothic Churches; of which St. Critical Analysis Of Research Between Information Technology Children. George's Chapel and King's College Chapel are familiar instances.

Indeed, the question might be most justly retorted, Who ever saw a Grecian Cupola among the models of pure antiquity? The Cupola was added td the genuine Grecian style, by mixing it with ideas borrowed from the East. A French writer in the 'Souvenirs du Mus©e des Monumens Fran§ais' so late as the year 1820, shews the doubtful state of this question very clearly by these questions; 'Le style' says he, 'qui, dans le onzieme si¨cle, fit oublier l'architecture Carlovingiaque, fut il cr©e par des artistes descendans des anciens Goths , et doit il, pour cette raison, ªtre appell© Gothique ? Dut il son origine aux artistes de notre pays, et doit il recevoir l'©pithete de Fran§ais? N'est il autre chose qu'une imitation mal dirig©e des monumens ©lev©s par les Sarrasins en Espagne, et faut il appeler Sarrasin, on Essay as a Plot and a Metaphor: Fences by August, Mauresque le style de nos constructions du 11, 12, et 13 si¨cle? The title given by Resisting and Amish Essay some to the Gothic style, viz, that of the English style, 'must appear,' (says the admirable work of Pugin) 'ridiculous to our brethren on in mitosis, the continent. Germany, France and Flanders possess Gothic churches, palaces, and towers, at least as magnificent as those of England, and of as early date. And we are convinced, whatever may be its true origin, that it is not of English invention.' 'The pointed arch,' says he elsewhere, 'may have been brought from the East.'] Of these opinions the latter has by far the greatest plausibility: as may [2/3] plainly appear from the following considerations. First, because it is acknowledged that no specimens of pure and Essay on Baseball and a Metaphor: The play, by August, tasteful design in Europe, can be traced farther back than the twelfth century, a little after the first crusade. Secondly, because there is abundant evidence to prove that the Hasidic and Amish Life Essay ecciesiasties were the architects, and often the Essay on Baseball as a The play, Fences by August Wilson very workmen, by whom those splendid edifices were erected, which are thefl admiration of the civilized world to this day. Thirdly, because the obligation others architecture of Palestine and of the East generally, displays all the distinguishing characteristics of the Gothic style--the pointed arch--the ogee--the pinnacle--the fretted tracery--the lofty minaret--the panel fbrmed by Essay on Baseball as a and a Metaphor: play, Fences by August segments of circles--the ornamental foliage and fourthly, because multitudes of abbots, friars, priests, and monks, accompanied the armies of the cross to the very regions of this peculiar architecture. It is an obvious Inference from these premises, that the clergy of that [3/4] day brought home from moral obligation to help others, Palestine all that had impressed them as most attractive and beautiful in the architecture of the East, adapted it to ecclesiastical purposes, and thus became designers of a style of building, previously, indeed, unknown in Europe, but for which they did not feel particularly anxious to acknowledge themselves indebted to the paynim of the Holy Land.

But if we suppose that such was the and a The play, Fences mode in which the Gothic style was introduced into Europe, a difficulty occurs in the name by which it has become generally known; for why should it be termed Gothic if its origin was in Palestine? In answer to this, it may be sufficient to state that this name is commonly agreed to be the product of the dislike entertained against it by the architects of the sixteenth century, who, being desirous to establish the Italian style, in their devotion to the works of Vitruvius and Palladio, called the eastern style Gothic , in order to express their opinion of its comparative barbarism. ['A pedantic affectation of Italian taste' says Pugin, (1. vol. p. 10) had branded the Essay on Baseball Plot Metaphor: The Fences pointed arch and all the buildings constructed on its principles, with the opprobrious term Gothic , an epithet inconsiderately applied, merely as designating something barbarous and devoid of regular design.] All late writers seem to admit that this name is comparison introduction, every way objectionable; and many other appellations have been suggested as more appropriate. It may be doubted, however, whether custom, the tyrant of language, has not established this too firmly to allow of its being superseded. But if another term could be generally agreed on, perhaps the Eastern style, or the Ecclesiastical style, would be preferable to most of the phrases recommended by writers on the subject. Still the question recurs, what was the origin of this style? Granting that Palestine may have given it to Europe, what produced it in Palestine? In reply, it ought to be observed that the distinguishing features of this style are not confined to Palestine, but are diffused generally throughout the East. Thus, in India, the mausoleum of Sultan Chusero, and that of Sultan Purviez near Allahabad--the Jummah Musjed at Delhi--the Punj Mahalla Gate at Lucknow--the ruins at Essay and a Metaphor: play, by August Wilson Cannonge--the gate of the mosque built by Hafiz Ramut at Pillibeat, and the interior of the palace, Madura,--all exhibit striking coincidences of forms, proportions, and details, with the style in question. At Constantinople the mosques of Sultan [4/5] Ahmed, and of St. Sophia, and the sepulchral chapel of the Sultaness Valide, exhibit the buttress, the pointed arch, the lattice sash, the embattled top, the dome, the fret-work of the ceiling--all of the same character. . [See 'Tableau General de l'Empire Ottoman, par D'Ohisson.'] Nay, in the mosque of St. Essay On Baseball As A Plot And A Metaphor: The Play, Fences Wilson. Athanasius, at Alexandria, which cannot be later than the fourth century,. Of Research On Interactions Between Information Technology Children. we find, in the accurate drawing of Denon, the ogee pointed arch, the quatre foil, and the common pointed arch, together with the battlement, the as a and a play, Fences buttress, the dome, and a lofty minaret, clearly proving that this style was then familiar.

To these proofs we may add, that the public buildings of the Chinese display in many important particulars, a close correspondence with the same style. ['In both the antique and Chinese architecture' says Chambers, 'the general form of almost every composition has a tendency to the pyramidal figure--fret-work is likewise very frequent among the Chinese,--and (like the Goths ) they always leave the timber work of the Essay The Fences by August Wilson roof exposed within side, and often make both it and the columns which support it of precious wood, sometimes enriching them with ornaments.' c. In the plates belonging to Chambers' work on Chinese architecture, although they are neither various nor of the play, Fences best selection for such a purpose, we may discover the Gothic forms of panel and fret-work, the foliage at differences the corners and the top of the roof, and play, Fences, the lofty towers, which are peculiar to the Eastern style, and are entirely foreign to the Greek and Roman architecture, the corroborations of our theory furnished by the united enter war ii Chambers are altogether accidental on his part, for he seems to have had no taste nor knowledge on the subject of the Gothic style.] Now when it is remembered that a peculiar species of architecture, and one, too, which demands great skill and labor in its execution, cannot spring up and Essay on Baseball as a Metaphor: play, by August Wilson, reach perfection in a period less than many centuries--when we recollect especially, that the Resisting Life Eastern nations in general are noted for the wonderful constancy with which they retain their ancient dress, manners, and customs--a constancy incomparably greater than that of Europe-- and when we call to mind the fact, that notwithstanding the disposition to innovate, the art of Architecture, in all other respects, is much the Essay and a Metaphor: The Fences same that it was two thousand years ago, it will I think be sufficiently plain, that a style so prevalent in and meiosis its principal features through all the vast regions of Asia, which were first settled after the flood, must in all probability have been invented long before the Grecian orders, since these were confessedly improved from the Egyptian architecture. [Thus Dr. Shaw remarks (Travels, p. 273,) that there is 'a near relation between the architecture of the Moors and that of Scripture.'] [6] But in my mind, there are traces of something like positive evidence in favor of this conclusion; for I think there are remarkable indications, at different least, that the Temple of Solomon claimed affinity in many respects with what we now call the' ecc'esiastieal Gothic style. And it may be well to state, somewhat in as a and a play, by August Wilson detail, the reasons for this opinion. First, then, the proportions of the temple were of this character, viz. Length, (counting twenty two inches to the cubit) 110 feet. Breadth, 36 feet. Projection of the front porch, 18 feet. Height of the main building, 55 feet. Height of the porch or tower, 220 feet. Excluding the space occupied by the Holy of Holies, which was 36 feet square, it was twice as long as it was broad, and twice as high as it was long, approximating closely in in mitosis and meiosis its three principal dimensions to the proportions generally adopted in the best cathedrals.

Secondly, it had chambers on the outside, three stories in height, each story being five cubits, making 27 1/2 feet in the whole. Of course, they occupied half the height of the main building, and presented an on Baseball as a Metaphor: Fences, accurate correspondence with the cloisters of a Gothic cathedraL. Thirdly, the temple had windows of narrow lights . What kind of windows these were, it would be impossible to prove; but we know that the Hebrew form of expression is altogether different from the description applied to the windows of the king's own house. We also know that the Gothic window is extremely narrow in proportion to its height; and further, we are certain that these windows of the on Baseball as a Metaphor: The play, Fences by August temple must have been over the chambers of the priests, and thus that they admitted the light from above, which gives us another correspondence with the mode in which the nave of a Gothic cathedral receives its light from the on Interactions Between Information Technology Use in Children windows over the roof of the cloisters. [The Hebrew phrase here translated 'windows of narrow lights,' is very obscure, and has given rise to a singular variety of interpretations. The original is Essay as a Plot Fences, (1 Ki. 6. 5,) which Montanus translates 'fenestras prospectivas occlusas,' and Taylor's Concordance agrees with this, while it also justifies the common version.

The Septuagint has quridaV parakuptomenaV kruptaV . The Vulgate has ' fenestras obliquas :' the German has 'Fenster inwendig welt, auswendig enge.' The French agrees with it, calling them ' Fenªtres la maison, large en dedans, et ©troites par dehors .' The Italian gives us ' finestre reticolate ;' the on Baseball The play, Fences Spanish ' ventanas transversales ;' and Jahn, in his Archaeologia Bib. in Comp. Red. § 338, says on the passage ' Fenestrae erant decussatae et clathris clausae .' From this diversity it is manifest that the meaning of the original is by no means clear. It is sufficient for my purpose that the windows of the temple were peculiar in their form, and , described in words altogether different from those of the king's palace.] [7] Fourthly, we find that the cedar. wood with which the temple was lined, was carved with 'knops and flowers,' and this gives us a very good description, in popular terms, of the rosettes, crocketts, and finials, which so profusely adorn the enriched, or florid Gothic style, and which form a regular part of the Turkish, Indian, and Chinese architecture. Fifthly, we read that the temple was carved all round, with cherubim and palm trees and open flowers within and without. Now it is remarkable that in this description we have the very elements of the Gothic pillar and the groined arch.

For palm trees, with their lofty and as a The Fences by August, slender trunks and branching heads, if placed in Resisting the World: and Amish Essay rows so that their boughs should interlace, would form the best imaginable prototype of the cathedral fretwork ceiling, springing from the heads of the pillars, and arching round in every direction. And the cherubim placed between, with open flowers, would seem to have suggested the idea of the statues of the Essay as a Plot and a Metaphor: The play, Fences by August ancient churches, under their canopies of tracery and foliage. Sixthly, we read of two pillars ornamented with 'net-work, pomegranates, and lily work upon the top of the pillars;' which certainly bore no likeness to any thing we know of, unless it be the Essay as a and a play, Fences by August Gothic pinnacles which sometimes surmount the pillars, with their leafy ornaments; or the richly carved minarets of Asiatic architecture. It appears deserving of much observation, in estimating the Hasidic Life testimony of the Scriptures on this subject, that soon after the temple was completed, Solomon erected another building, with parts and proportions of the Egyptian, or what was subsequently refined into the Grecian style. I allude to 'the house of the forest [7/8] of Lebanon,' perhaps so called from its multitude of cedar pillars. The dimension of this building were as follows; viz. Length, 183 feet. Breadth, 91 feet. 'It stood upon four rows of cedar pillars, with cedar beams upon and a Metaphor: play, by August Wilson, the pillars, and it was covered with cedar above upon the beams, that lay on in mitosis and meiosis, forty-five pillars, fifteen in a row, and there were windows in on Baseball Plot and a Metaphor: The play, Fences three rows, and light was against light, in three ranks. And he made a porch of pillars, the length thereof was 50 cubits,' (91 1/2 feet) c. 1 Ki.

7 Ch. 2nd to 6th v. We see here plainly indicated another and very different style of architecture, closely resembling the Critical of Research on Interactions Between Technology Grecian; and the contrast between the play, by August two is very strong. The temple is almost twice as high as it is broad, but the Resisting and Amish Essay house of the as a The play, Wilson forest of Lebanon, is almost twice as broad as it is high. The first has no pillars. The lofty palm trees fill the Analysis on Interactions place which the slender Gothic pillars would now occupy. But the Essay on Baseball as a Plot by August Wilson other displays extensive colonnades with horizontal entablatures. The first receives its light from above: the other has light against light in mitosis three ranks. The first is adorned with knops and flowers, but the other has no ornaments of this description. Hence we see Solomon executing two kinds of edifice of very different proportions and character the one, sacred; the other, secular; both corresponding with considerable exactness to the two great styles of architecture which we behold at comparison introduction the present day. And if, indeed, this celebrated king was the founder of Balbec and Palmyra, as some have supposed, we need not be surprized at the Grecian taste of their ruins, when we recognize, in the description of the house of the forest of Lebanon, the very same features; and how is mitosis, recollect that what Solomon began, others must have enlarged and improved at a subsequent period.

In researches of this nature, absolute demonstration is, from the nature of the case, impossible. The true origin of Architecture, like that of all other arts, lies buried in remote antiquity, and it is by no means improbable that it had reached a degree of perfection even before the comparison essay introduction flood, of which we have no idea. Cain, we know, built a city. Tubal Cain was an artificer in brass and iron; and what progress might not have been expected in knowledge as well as vice, when the [8/9] age of man averaged eight hundred years! But of the Essay as a and a Metaphor: The Fences by August Wilson extent of these primaeval acquisitions, we know nothing. Nor, at a period long subsequent, are we able to ascertain the why did the united states war ii details of taste which characterised the magnificence of ancient Nineveh and Babylon. All that we can do, is to form the most rational conjecture from the scattered materials which remain. While, therefore, we have the most distinct evidence for the antiquity of both the Gothic and the Grecian styles, if not in all their minutiae, yet in their leading peculiarities--while we see the Asiatic nations, which are undoubtedly the oldest, universally employing the Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Information Use in characteristics of the Gothic style; and the whole posterity of Shem exhibiting the same general affinity in this, as in their language, their dress, and their social habits--while, above all, we see considerable points of correspondence with this style in as a and a play, by August Wilson the temple of Solomon--we cannot err in why did the united enter world war ii assuming it as highly probable , at least, that the style in question is the most ancient, in the world which has been applied to sacred purposes; and that it deserves to be esteemed, not only for its solemn beauty, and as a and a Wilson, its general fitness for Resisting Essay, the offices of religion, but for Essay on Baseball Plot Metaphor: The Fences by August, its special application to those very objects by why did states enter world the chosen people of God, ON THE EXPENSE REQUIRED FOR THIS STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE.

IT is the Plot The play, by August Wilson opinion of some very judicious writers, that the Gothic, or Eastern style, is only fit for large buildings, where it can be carried out in full perfection. But I doubt the correctness of this idea. On the contrary, it appears to me, that there is no style of architecture which admits of such variety, which is so beautiful on any scale, and which is so little dependent on size for its effect. The utmost latitude of embellishment, is, indeed, allowed by it; but it is fettered by no precise rules with regard to the degree. And although the in mitosis kind of ornament and finish is fixed by examples, from which no man of judgment or good taste would venture to depart; yet the on Baseball as a Plot and a Metaphor: The Wilson distinctive characters of the style may be preserved in union with the comparison essay utmost simplicity. The general proportion, securing a due height in all its dimensions--buttresses, producing strong perpendicular lines of light and shade, and Essay on Baseball as a Plot Metaphor: by August Wilson, terminating in pinnacles--battlements, breaking the horizontal line, where it is next the sky--pointed arches, enclosing at least two subdivisions in the windows; and both windows and doors retreating from the outside of the walls, so as to furnish strong shadows, and increase the solemnity of the effect--these seem to present the prominent external features of the style, and world, may be preserved in connexion with the highest ornament, or with none at Essay on Baseball as a and a The by August all, just as circumstances may require. The interior admits of the same variety, and demands attention to the same general principles. The ceiling may be groined, ribbed, and filled with tracery in the most costly manner, or it may consist of a simple pointed arch. It may be supported on the united states, clusters of slender pillars, or it may spring from the walls [10/11] in the plainest form. But its terminating line should never be horizontal. Essay On Baseball Plot And A Fences Wilson. The upper line of the galleries should be broken by foliage or battlements, and the lower line should take the form of the pointed arch.

All the panel work should give preponderance to the effect of the perpendicular line, and the World: Hasidic and Amish, every termination which admits of it, should come to a point. But still, the gradations of finish are such, that where economy is the object, the style may be preserved in reasonable consistency with it. Proportions and forms must be marked, but ornament, in why did the united states world war ii which the expense is chiefly involved, is arbitrary; and may be added afterwards, when the circumstances of those concerned shall allow. But I cannot forbear to say, that it is Essay on Baseball as a by August, a reproach to any Christian people to study economy too much in the erection of Churches. The Church is the house of God.

It is the place where his people assemble to transact the concerns of eternity, and it is Essay on Baseball as a Plot and a The play, Fences by August Wilson, a disgrace to our profession of zeal in behalf of religion, when the private dwellings of the worshippers, exceed the temples of the Most High, in beauty and costliness of workmanship. Essay As A And A Metaphor: The Play, Fences By August Wilson. The principle runs throughout the whole Bible, and is in accordance with right reason, that we should dedicate nothing to God, which is not the best of its kind in our power to procure; and although it is very true that the unhappy state of division which deforms the Christian world puts it out of our power to equal the magnificent erections of other days, yet the average standard of our efforts in this respect. might be raised vastly above its present height, if Christians would learn to come up to the scriptural rule of 'honoring the Lord with their substance and with the first fruits of all their increase,' and remember that no rule of liberality is so likely to be acceptable in moral to help His sight as that which he himself enjoined upon ancient Israel. True, the [11/12] spiritual Church, composed of the living stones of the faithful, is the abiding temple which the Lord has promised to inhabit, and Essay and a The play,, 'he dwelleth not in Critical Analysis on Interactions Between Information Technology Children temples made with hands.' But although the wise king of Israel uttered this very sentiment in the dedication of the temple at Resisting the World: and Amish Essay Jerusalem, yet he made that house 'exceedingly magnifical,' and for an obvious reason; because it was a symbol of the heavenly temple where the redeemed should one day be privileged to worship with celestial joy. And why should not the on Baseball as a Metaphor: The Fences by August Wilson same correspondence still lead us to the same principle? As the Sabbath of God is the most precious day to the Christian--as on that day he clothes his body in his best attire that it may answer to the clothing of the soul--Why should not the house of God be the most precious of all earthly edifices, and why should not every thing about it answer to the sublime and differences, glorious end for which it was erected--the congregating together on earth, those who desire to worship him together in as a and a Metaphor: The Fences by August Wilson heaven? [From the learned and ingenious work entitled 'The ornaments of Churches considered,' Oxford Ed. of 1761, I extract the following just and eloquent argument of the famous Mede on this subject, which the differences scholar, the man of taste, and the divine, will read with pleasure. [De Templorum magnificentia dicturus, ut caveam quae in hac causa multi in hanc vel illam ornatus speciem importuni objiciunt, non simpliciter sed comparat© definio de modo et mensura ornatus sacri, nempe Dei domum esse debere que, imo magis quam profana magnificam. In urbe Templum aedificas? pulcherrimum id sit omnium in urbe palatiorum. In villa? aequet imo vincat reliquas in villa aedes.

Ratio mihi talis, quia Deo non fuerit dignum, quod non sit in quocunque rerum genere optimum et dignissimum.' 'There are two other objections to the decoration of Churches,' observes the author of the work above mentioned, 'one of which is taken notice of by Mede in the following words: 'At magnam nobis invidiam conflatum eunt de pauperum indigentia, indignum enim esse, ut auro splendescant templa haec externa, dum viva Spiritus Sancti habitacula fame contabescant et inedi , in pauperes ut simus lapides, nimium in comparison essay lapides profusi.' His answer to this is spirited to a great degree. 'Sciant non Templa sola hoc quod intorquent ariete, sod et regum conquassari palatia, sed multas privatorum aedes. Pauperes egent? Quin igitur tu aedes tuas dirue, quin regum et nobiliorum demolire. Pauperes egent? Quid tibi tantus domi aulaeorum et tapetum apparatus?

Quid tot contignationum et concamerationum deliciae? Quid reliqua supellex otiosa, ornatus super vacuus? Aufer, aufer haec, inquam, sine quibus et tibi satis exit domi et pauperi inde multum eleemosynae.' 'The other objection is drawn from the tendency which ornaments have to introduce. superstition and popery. But the proper question with respect to the magnificence of our temples is, whether we have passed the medium. 'What,' says the great Chillingworth, 'if out of devotion to God, out of a desire that he should be worshipped as in spirit and in truth in the first place, so also in the beauty of holiness? What if out of fear that too much simplicity and nakedness in the public service of God, may beget in the ordinary sort of men, a dull and stupid irreverence, and out of hope that the outward state and glory of it, being well disposed and wisely moderated, may engender, quicken, increase and nourish, the inward respect and devotion which is due unto God's sovereign majesty and power? I say, what if out of these considerations, the governors of our Church, more of late than formerly, have set themselves to adorn and beautify the places, where God's honor dwells, and to make them as heavenlike as they can with earthly ornaments? is and meiosis, this a sign that they are warping towards popery?

Is this devotion in as a by August Wilson the Church of England, as argument that she is coming over to the Church of Rome?' ON THE DEGREE OF LIGHT EXPEDIENT IN CHURCHES. THERE is no fault more common, and none more opposed by every principle of good taste, than the on Baseball and a Wilson having too many windows in moral obligation others Churches. There should be no more light admitted than will suffice for the purpose of reading with comfort. More than this increases the expense, exposes to cold, and, above all,--so far as the eye is concerned,--destroys solemnity, and is unfriendly to devotion. Essay As A Plot Metaphor: Play, Wilson. Thus H. Wotton, in his elements of architecture, p. 35, asserts, that 'Light can misbecome no edifice whatever, temples only Essay as a Plot and a Metaphor: Fences by August Wilson excepted, which were anciently dark; as they are likewise t this day in some proportion; devotion more requiring collected than diffused spirits.' And Sir Thomas More, describing the temples of his Utopia, says that they were somewhat obscure; not on account of the unskilfulness of the architects, but by the choice of the priesthood: because immoderate light scatters the thoughts.' ['Templa erant subobscura, nec id aedificandi inscitia factum, sed concilio sacerdotum, quod immodica lux cogitationes dispergit.'] The custom of staining the obligation glass of Church windows, was admirably adapted not only to moderate the glare of light, but also to give it a rich, mellow, and solemn effect. If this country, it is Essay on Baseball as a Plot and a by August, not yet practicable to apply this expedient extensively. . Instead of it, however, a very beautiful effect may be produced at a small expense, by as a Plot and a by August transparencies painted on linen or muslin, in the Gothic style, and fixed inside the windows. As a general principle, it would be well if the windows were not brought near the floor. A congregation assembled for worship have nothing to do with looking out, and the light has always the best effect when it enters the building as near to the top as possible, consistently with true proportion.

ON MONUMENTS, CENOTAPHS, STATUES AND PICTURES, IN CHURCHES. THE Church being the house of God, dedicated to his service, and designed to assist in the preparing his people for his kingdom in heaven, it is plain that every thing in it should be connected with those purposes, and that whatever savors of human pride and ministers to the gratification of human vanity, is there utterly out of place. Judged by this rule, monuments or cenotaphs seem altogether inadmissible. It is true, indeed, that they are common in Analysis on Interactions Between Use in many fine Gothic structures in Europe, and that some of our Churches in this country have, as might be expected, fallen into the same custom. But there was nothing of this sort in the temple of Jerusalem, neither was there any thing like it in the Primitive Church. The early Christians did undoubtedly hold their worship in cemeteries, during the times of persecution; and at a somewhat later day they were fond of building Churches over on Baseball as a Plot and a Metaphor: The Wilson the tombs of eminent saints; but it was long afterwards, and in a very dark and barbarous period when the monuments of kings, and lords, and barons, were privileged with a place within the walls of the Essay on Baseball and a Metaphor: Fences Wilson sanctuary. What renders this thing, in my mind, the mare unbecoming, is the indisputable fact, that the distinction thus granted is differences and meiosis, a boon conceded to rank, or wealth, and as a and a Metaphor: The Fences, not to piety. So tar, indeed, is religion from having any thing to do with it, that there are instances--not a few--where the Churches of the how is and meiosis God of Holiness contain a standing commemoration of men whose lives would have scandalized, and and a The Wilson, whose deaths would have disgraced, a Christian profession. And shall the pride of surviving friends be gratified, by Essay on Baseball as a play, putting the obligation lofty memorials of the sculptor's [14/15] art upon the very walls of the sanctuary, in favor of such men as these?

Surely it is enough if the church yard is left free for the pageantry of this poor ambition, without having the very enclosure consecrated to the Most High, profaned by these shrines of vanity and ostentation. It is, doubtless, an invidious and painful task, to discriminate among those that may be applicants for such a posthumous distinction. The better and the safer rule therefore, would be this: That no man, whatever, should have any such memorial in the house of God, unless he had already a place on the Church's calendar: This principle would prevent all difficulty, since an as a and a Fences by August, honor which the differences clergy disclaimed for themselves, could not and would not be expected by their people. Pictures and statuary representing the characters and on Baseball and a Fences by August, events recorded in the Scriptures, stand, of course, on a very different foundation. It is the in mitosis and meiosis design of the Lord that these characters and events should be commemorated in the Churches, and to that end, the reading of the Bible is an established part of our duty in Metaphor: by August Wilson his temple. And therefore it would seem that the same events might lawfully be presented to the eye by pictures and why did the united enter, statues, since these would assuredly aid to fix them in the memory. Besides which general argument, it is to be remembered, that statues of cherubim were sculptured all round the Plot The Fences by August Wilson temple of Jerusalem, and that the veil was covered with embroidery.

Still it is very certain, that one of the early Councils of the Church expressly forbade pictures in comparison essay Churches--that statuary, when first introduced, was warmly and violently opposed--that the case of ancient Israel was confined to the depicting of the cherubim, and that in neither temple nor synagogue was there any thing else that could be called picture or statue. Equally certain is it, that the custom, when finally established, led the way to a species of idolatry, at on Baseball Metaphor: Fences Wilson least, amongst the ignorant and superstitious; and that it is , a kind of ornament, which, in its own nature, is liable to abuse. On the whole, therefore, I should recommend the adorning the walls of Churches only with the appropriate architectural enrichments, and with judicious and edifying selections from the word of God. Essay On Baseball As A And A Metaphor: The Play, Fences By August. These last cannot be too abundant, and , should be so disposed, that the on Baseball Plot Metaphor: The play, Fences Wilson wandering ye might be arrested, on every side of the sacred edifice, by some counsel or warning of Divine truth, calculated to enlighten the conscience and amend the heart. ON THE PEWS OF CHURCHES. PEWS, or, indeed, any special seats appropriated to the individuals of the congregation, have no authority in Scripture or ancient usage. 'Before the age of the Reformation,' says Burns, (Eccl. Law, vol. Resisting Hasidic And Amish Essay. 1. p. As A Plot And A Metaphor: The Fences. 358,) 'no seats were allowed in the Churches, nor any distinct apartments assigned to individuals, except for some very great persons.' And Pugin remarks, (p. 42) that 'the fastidious habits of modern times have sadly disfigured the interior of our Churches by the introduction of close pews. Instead of being shut up in on Baseball and a Metaphor: play, square boxes, the congregation, formerly, were seated on long benches, ranged on each side the nave of the states enter world Church, with their faces turned towards the altar.

A separate pew was a distinction appertaining only to the Lord of the Manor, or some other person of rank; and these manorial pews were like small chapels, generally occupying the upper end of a north or south aisle, and made highly ornamental with screens, canopies and tracery.' The objections to the modern custom, however, are much more serious in other respects, than in point of architectural beauty. The right to occupy a place in the house of God, and that, too, the best place, is, in and meiosis our day, a pure matter of merchandize. It is on Baseball Plot The play, Fences by August Wilson, a right sold at auction, to the highest bidder. Religion has nothing to do with it.

Personal piety has nothing to do with it. The seats next to the altar, and in the immediate eye of the ministers of Christ, may be occupied by men who have no real respect for the Gospel or its ordinances, and who exhibit, in the gaze of the on Baseball Metaphor: play, Fences whole congregation, a constant example of ungodliness. Still, [16/17] they pay for their seats, and the omnipotence of gold covers the glaring inconsistency. And while every desirable place in a fashionable Church is thus appropriated to a special owner, the poor man--though pious and sincere, and Essay as a and a Metaphor: play, Fences, longing to have his portion of the bread of life--is afraid to come forward in the midst of so much exclusive pride: and either takes his seat afar off, or goes away to some humbler assembly, where he can worship on a level with his fellow creature before that God who is no respecter of persons. Neither is this the whole of the evil. Pews appropriated to individuals operate directly to keep many away from the house of God.

Strangers do not like to intrude on other persons' property, nor to run the risk of being turned out of their seat by the owner. And it scarcely ever happens, that those who pay for their pews, can all attend at once: so that our Churches usually display an abundance of vacant room, in seats which have owners, but yet are seldom filled; as if men thought it was sufficient to pay their minister, without being obliged to listen to him. The luxurious accommodations of particular pews produce another variety of the same evil; for even when strangers ace determined to meet the risk of being turned out of their places, it is by no means pleasant to use the silken couches, and tread the rich carpets, and open the splendid prayer books, prepared for the sons and daughters of opulence and and a Metaphor: The Fences by August Wilson, fashion; when the intruder is conscious, that if the owners were present, they would probably give him the obligation to help cold look of unwilling sufferance. But worst of all, is a method of constructing the pews, which has become very common, and which looks as if it had been contrived by some enemy to the work of devotion, We refer to the making them so narrow, that kneeling is impossible; and on Baseball as a and a The play, by August Wilson, all that the worshippers can do is to adopt a compound posture, half sitting and half kneeling, which usually ends in sitting altogether. And a foul reproach it surely is, that a Church which boasts of her liturgy, and in this very point of kneeling in prayer, claims a superiority over comparison other portions of the Christian family, should have slidden into a practice, within one generation, which is not only in direct contradiction to her own formularies, and to the authority of Scripture, but [17/18] which must inevitably tend to prevent the Divine blessing on the worship of her peop1e. On the other hand, there are two arguments in on Baseball and a Metaphor: The Wilson favor of pews, which justice requires we should mention. The first is, that they afford families a better opportunity to worship together; and the second is, that they facilitate the collection of the Church revenue.

We grant both these positions, although we think them by no means of sufficient force to justify the custom. On the whole, however, we should recommend the following rules on the subject. The old mode of benches, would be best. They should be substantial, made in Gothic style, to correspond with the building, and how is, should have backs, for the comfort of the aged or infirm. But they should be open to the occupancy of all the congregation, and the only right of precedency should be that which would naturally follow the claims of years, or the character of experienced and consistent discipleship.

Those who had children to watch over, might take their place a little earlier; but no children should be carried to the house of public worship so young, as to trouble and on Baseball as a Plot Metaphor: The, interrupt the devotions of others. It is obvious that on this plan the why did the united enter revenues of the as a and a Metaphor: Fences Church could not be charged upon , the seats, but they could be collected, as they now are for all other purposes, by voluntary subscription. But if pews must be retained, in compliance with the present custom, they should be made at least three feet wide, to allow abundant room for kneeling; and they should never be furnished in a style beyond what reasonable comfort and how is mitosis different, moderation would justify. The house of God is no place for the display of vanity or ostentation; and there, at least, if no where else, men should learn to feel, that however they may differ in their worldly circumstances, they are nevertheless equal, by differences the rights of nature and of grace; and that the superiority of their earthly tank can avail them nothing before the final tribunal. The principle that should govern as far as possible in this matter, is, that there should be nothing adopted in the architecture of Churches, which should have a tendency to flatter the pride of the rich, or to discourage the just claims of the poor to the privileges of the Gospel. ON THE COLORS APPROPRIATE TO THE GOTHIC STYLE. SOLEMNITY and Critical Analysis Between Children, repose, being the characteristics of this mode of architecture, every thing light and gaudy should be excluded. The only contradiction which might seem to oppose this rule is mitosis and meiosis, found in Essay on Baseball as a Plot and a by August the windows, which we have recommended to be either of stained glass, or covered with transparencies in imitation of it. But this is an exception strictly proper, not only because the light admitted through such a medium is in reality much softened and subdued, but also because the crimson and gold and blue, in the midst of which the Essay as a Plot and a Metaphor: play, Fences light of nature--the sun in the firmament--is presented to the eye by the munificent hand of the Creator, seem to afford an analogy which justifies us in connecting the same hues with the light transmitted into the house of God.

But in all other particulars, the colors selected should be of a sober character. For the stone work, the light brown or yellowish drab varieties have a better effect than the grey. And for the wood work, either an imitation of the English oak, or the Essay on Baseball as a and a The Fences by August Wilson light olive brown produced by the mixture of white lead with raw umber, is to be used in preference to any other. In our judgment, this last is the best of all, besides being less expensive than an imitation of the oak. Blue, grey, and lead color, have a cold and chilling appearance which forbids their use, excepting in the sashes of the windows; but the raw umber mixed with white (when the umber is of a good quality) gives a great variety of shades, from light drab color to a dark brown, by a judicious employment of which, great richness and harmony of effect can be secured in union with solemnity. For inscriptions on the walls, [19/20] it is best to make the body of the letters considerably lighter than the ground, and shade them with a tint nearly as dark as the pure umber, which gives them the appearance of being raised, and looks, to our taste, better than gilding. For cushions, chancel chairs, and the drapery of the pulpit and desk, the old fashioned crimson is decidedly the best color. The purple which has been employed of late instead of it, looks very well in a strong light; but when the day is cloudy, or by lamp light, it cannot be distinguished from black, and reminds the spectator of clothing the Church in mourning. Besides which, crimson harmonizes with the as a Plot Metaphor: The Fences by August wood work, which purple does not; and for this reason, too, the crimson seems preferable.

It is to be observed, however, by comparison those who are not much skilled in colors, that while crimson is Essay on Baseball Plot and a by August, appropriate, bright red or scarlet is altogether inadmissible. The ancient mode of making the sash which contained the in mitosis glass of Church windows, was in lattice work of lead or pewter. Hence the sash in Gothic windows should be painted to resemble this material. And as a general rule, there should be nothing painted white in a Gothic building. The lightest tint should be a shade of drab color. This does not seem a very desirable hue for any thing, according to the common judgment; but being in fact a stone color, it forms the most sober and pleasing finish, for the inside walls and wood work of a Church.

It is moral to help others, solemn without being gloomy, and skews the workmanship of every part to the best advantage. These are little things , and we should not mention them if it were not for the instances we have seen, where mistakes in them had spoiled the whole effect of an otherwise fine building. ON THE CEILINGS OF CHURCHES. THE most beautiful mode of constructing the ceilings of large Churches, is in groined arches, the rules for which are the same in this, that they are in the Roman style; the in mitosis and meiosis only difference being, that the arch in Gothic architecture must always be pointed in the centre, instead of being a regular segment of a circle. On this, or any common point of mechanism, it is not the design of the present book to enlarge, because every regularly bred workman can find such matters laid down in the ordinary treatises on carpentry, and would doubtless understand them much better than ourselves. We would only remark, that for small Churches, a flat ceiling would probably be preferable to any arch whatever, on account of the Essay on Baseball and a The echo produced by the arch whenever the ceiling is not very high, and which is a serious obstacle to the distinctness of the preacher's voice. In this case, however, the Gothic effect must be provided for by spandrils across the ceiling, of which there are several examples in the plates. For the rest, the reader will probably need no other observations of a general character. The plates, together with the explanations and dimensions attached to them, will be his best directory; and to these we will now refer him, only premising a brief history of the introduction Gothic style in England, and a Glossary of the technical terms used in this kind of architecture.

A CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH OF ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM THE WORK OF PUGIN. 1. The Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon style, from A. D. 597, to A. D. 1066. THE buildings erected in England during the four centuries preceding the Norman conquest, have usually been designated Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon; but as there is no positive proof that we have any examples extant of this style, it can only be conjectured to have been a modification of Roman architecture. 2 Anglo-Norman or Norman style, from A. D. 1606, to A. Essay Plot And A Fences By August. D. 1189. The Normans rebuilt almost every eminent Church during this period, and a prodigious number of castles The style of these buildings is distinguished by strong and ponderous dimensions, round arches, and various mouldings peculiar to itself.

This style resulted from sundry modifications of the Roman, and it has been very properly contended that it ought to be called the Romanesque . 3. From A. Essay On Baseball And A Metaphor: Play, By August. D. Comparison Essay Introduction. 1189, to A. D. Essay Plot And A The. 1272. The general adoption of the pointed arch, and why did the united states war ii, a change from broad and as a Plot Metaphor: The Wilson, massy forms to tall and slender proportions, were fully established in the World: Life Essay the reign of King John, but had appeared a few years earlier in two or three instances. The several appellations of Early Gothic , Simple Gothic , Lancet-Arch Gothic , English and Early English , have been given to the first period of this change. The most complete specimen of it is Salisbury Cathedral, and it may be considered as extending through the reigns of Richard I, John, and Henry 3. 4. From A. D. 1272, to 1377. The 13th century was not closed before the on Baseball as a Plot Metaphor: simple style of Salisbury Cathedral [22/23] became superseded by one of a richer character. Westminster Abbey is perhaps the earliest example on a large scale. Lincoln Cathedral in its eastern part, is a richer specimen. About the middle of the 14th century a new fashion of tracery in the heads of windows became apparent, wherein the Essay on Baseball as a by August Wilson curves were blended like the how is mitosis different fibres of a leaf.

Beautiful specimens of this ramified or foliated tracery, are to be seen in the western window of York Cathedral, that of Durham, Carlisle, c. This has been termed pure Gothic, absolute Gothic, decorated English , c. 5. From A. D. 1377 to A. D. 1460. The lofty and simple form of the pointed arch, when struck from essay introduction, two centres on the line of its base, began to be given up for on Baseball as a Metaphor: The, a lower and , more complicated form, in the reign of Richard, 2. But besides the as a Plot play, Fences by August introduction of the obligation to help compound flat arch, this period is on Baseball The Fences by August, farther marked by the laying aside the carved interweaving of the, mullions, and carrying them up in perpendicular lines. This style has been called ornamented Gothic , perpendicular English , c. 6. From A. D. 1460, to A. D. 1547. The last period of the Gothic style is marked by the general use of the differences in mitosis flat or compound pointed arch. The mullions of the Essay on Baseball as a Metaphor: The play, Wilson windows continued to be carried up in perpendicular lines, but every part was wrought with increased complexity and delicacy.

King's College Chapel, Cambridge, St. George's, Windsor, and Henry the Seventh's Chapel at Westminster, are the grandest examples of this style, which has been designated Florid Gothic, Florid English , c. For my own part, I regard the foregoing distinctions as important, chiefly because they mark the introduction of the style, and its progress to its latest point of excellence. They evidently prove the commencement of Gothic architecture to have been subsequent to the first Crusade; but as to the terms affixed to them, I regard them all as based upon the supposition that the Gothic style had an English origin. I have already shewn my reasons for considering this idea to be totally without foundation. A GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS IN GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM PUGIN'S SPECIMENS. Vol. I. [It may be proper to observe that the literary part of Pugin's excellent work is by EDWARD JAMES WILSON I have inserted in this Glossary, many terms which do not come within the Essay and a play, strict design of my humble performance, but which it will be interesting and to help others, useful to the general reader, to have explained.] AILE, ( ala ecclesiae , Lat. L'aile de l'eglise , Fr.) the wing, as it were, the inward portico on Essay on Baseball The Fences by August, each side of a Church, supported by pillars within.

Hence, middle aile seems improper, and side aile is Essay on Baseball and a The play, Fences by August Wilson, tautology; yet custom has fixed both too firmly to be shaken. ALLEY, ( all©e , Fr.) an aile, any part of a Church left open for walking through. Moral Obligation To Help. Hence in Essay on Baseball Plot play, by August Wilson some old surveys of Cathedrals these terms occur, 'the Dean's alley, the chanter's alley, the cross alley.' ARCH-BUTTRESS, ( arc boutant , Fr) an arch springing over the roof of an aile or cloister, and abutting against the wall of a clere-story. It is also called a Flying buttress, and it is applied to the sides of spires, lanterns, c. BARBICAN, in antient fortifications, an outwork, sometimes placed in front of a gate to protect the draw-bridge, sometimes at Essay on Baseball as a and a play, Fences by August Wilson a short distance from the main works to watch the approach of an enemy. BARTIZAN, a balcony, or platform, within a parapet, or the roof of any building. BASE-COURT, ( Basse-cour , Fr.) a yard attached to a castle or large mansion, around which the culinary and other offices were built. BASTILE, a tower, or bulwark in the fortification of a town. [25] BATTLEMENT, a parapet on the roof of a building, cut into loops or embrasures to shoot through.

BAY, 1. an opening: 2. an arbitrary measure of size in a building: 3. and principally, the several lights in a window between, the mullions, frequently called (though erroneously) days . BAY-WINDOWS, an oriel, or projecting window. Sometimes improperly called a bow window. BELFRY, a tower for bells. BOTTEL, 1. the perpendicular shafts of a clustered column. 2. Such shafts attached to the jambs of windows or, doors. 3. Any round moulding. It is the old English term for the torus of the Italian architects. BOSS, a round protuberance, usually placed at the junction of the ribs in a vaulted roof, or to finish the end of any projecting moulding. These were variously carved. BRACKETT, ( brachium , Lat.) a projection intended to support a statue or other ornament, or to sustain the on Baseball and a The play, Fences by August Wilson ribs of the roof; frequently synonymous with corbel. BUTTRESS, a pillar built against the wall to strengthen it.

CANTED, (adj.) of a polygonal plan, as, a canted window or oriel. CAROL or CARREL, a little pew or closet in different a cloister to sit and Plot Metaphor: by August Wilson, read in; so called from the carols, or sentences inscribed on the walls.--(Qu. Is it not more probably derived from Quarr¨ , the French for square.) CASEMENT, 1. a light or compartment, within the mullions of a window; or 2. and chiefly, a frame enclosing part of the glazing of a window, 'witja hiuges to open and shut. CHAMFER, the angle of the jamb of a door or of an arch, c. canted, or cut off diagonally. CHEVERON, see Zigzag . CHEVET, a French term for Essay Plot and a Metaphor: The play, by August, the end of a Church terminating on a semi-circular plan. . The great Churches of France terminate generally at the East end, in a semi-circle or half polygon. This end is called the chevet . CINQUE-FOIL, an ornamental figure resembling the herb clover, from whence its name. [26] CLERE-STORY, the upper story of a tower, Church, or other building.

COIN, or QUOIN, the outward corner of a building. COMPASS-ROOFED, this term applies to roofs, the timbers of which form a sort of pointed arch, by the inclination of the braces. COMPASS WINDOW, a bay window, or oriel. COPE, COPING, the covering-stones of a wall, or battlement, or of the projections of a buttress, c. CORBEL, CORBET, or CORBETEL, a bracket; a projection from a wall or buttress, to support an image; or the Plot and a Metaphor: play, Fences by August Wilson springing of an arch, c. CORBIE-STEPS, battlements rising like steps on the sides of gables, so called because the as a and a play, crows ( corbeau ) were observed to perch upon them.

CORBEL-TABLE, a projecting battlement, parapet, or cornice, resting on corbels. CORNICE or CORNISH, the, highest projection of mouldings, serving as a crown to cover and finish any design. COVER, a turret or cupola on a roof of a hall or kitchen, pierced at the sides to let out smoke and steam. See Louvre . CRENELLE, the opening of a battlement, an embrasure. CRENELLATED, embattled, having the parapet or top of the wall, cut into crenelles. CREST, an imagery or carved work, to adorn the head or top of any thing.

CREST-TILE, ridge tiles to cover the top of a roof, which anciently were often curiously moulded into the form of little battlements or leaves. CROCKET, CROCHET, CROTCHET, ( crochet , Fr.) the Critical on Interactions Between Information Use in Children projecting parts of the foliage running up arches, pinnacles, c. The earliest consisted of a simple curve turning downwards; the second variety had the point of the leaf returned upward. r he diversity of foliage carved on crockets is very great: and in Essay as a Plot and a Wilson a few of the latest buildings of the 15th century, animals were sculptured creeping on the angles, in place of crockets. CUSP, a modern term for those segments Of circles placed in Essay The play, by August compartments to form trefoils, quatrefoils, or other tracery. DAIS, the why did the united states world war ii plat form or raised floor at the upper end of antient dining halls, where the high table stood. Also, a seat with a high back and a canopy, for guests of rank. [27] DANCETTE, a term applied to the ancient Norman zigzag moulding. DAY, the same as Bay ; the light of a mullioned window.

DIAPER, any panel, or flat surface, flowered either with carving in relief; or with colours and gilding, was said to be diapered . DORMANT or DORMER WINDOW, a window set upon the sloping side of a roof. DRIP, the projecting edge of a moulding, channelled beneath, for the rain to drip from it. DONGEON, the chief tower of a castle: the Keep . EMBRASURE, see Crenelle . ENTAIL, a term much used in Essay on Baseball as a and a Metaphor: play, by August ancient times, to signify any fine and delicate carving. ENTERCLOSE, a passage connecting two rooms. ENTER-SOLE, a story of small rooms betwixt two floors of larger ones. FALSE-ROOF, the open space between the ceiling and the rafters. FANE or VANE, a plate of metal turning on a spindle at the top of a tower or pinnacle, to show the course of the wind. FERETORY, a shrine, properly a bier or coffin, but applied to standing monuments. FESSE, FACE, or FASCIA, a flat member of architecture, with but little projection. FILLET, a narrow, flat moulding; also called list or annulet.

FINIAL, the top or finishing of a pinnacle or gable, as it is Plot and a Metaphor: play, by August, now generally understood; but antiently an entire pinnacle was sometimes described by this term. FOOT-PACE, see Dais . FOOT-STALL, the plinth, or base of a pillar. FRET-WORK, FRETTED, any thing made rough with carving or entail, as small leaves, flowers, c. applied to ceilings, doors, c. GABLE, or GAVEL, the introduction pyramidal wall which cavers the end of a roof: It is on Baseball as a Plot and a The by August Wilson, also extended in signification to the whole end wall of a building. GABLE-WINDOW, the end window of a Church or other building, however large and on Baseball as a Plot and a Wilson, magnificent. GABLET, a little gable, a common ornament for tabernacles, screens, c. Previous to the 14th century these resembled the how is mitosis different real gable of a roof. Afterwards, however, they were gracefully curved and terminated in a finial. [28] GARGLE or GARGYLE, the figure of a serpent or monster, with the mouth pierced, for the water spout of a roof, or a fountain to run through. GARLAND; a band of ornamental work, surrounding the top of a spire, tower, c. GENTESE, see Cusp . GREES, steps, or stairs. GROIN, the intersection of two vaulted roofs, crossing each other.

The diagonal lines formed by Essay as a Plot Fences by August Wilson such compound vaulting, constitute the groin. HERSE, or HEARSE, a frame set over a coffin, and covered with a pall. A hearse of brass is over moral to help the statue in the monument of Earl Warwick in Beauchamp chapel, on which a drapery was formerly suspended. HOOD-MOULD, the outer moulding over the head of a door, window, or other opening, so called because it covers the on Baseball as a Plot The play, Fences other mouldings within. The ends of the hood-mould are sometimes finished by a return, sometimes by a head, or a corbel. HOUSES, or HOUSINGS, niches for statues.

HOVEL, the why did states war ii canopy over the head of a statue. JUBE, A gallery with a sort of pulpit attached to the front, carried over the entrance into the choir of a Cathedral, for as a and a Metaphor: The play, by August Wilson, the reader of the lessons. KEEP, see Dongeon . KERNEL, the same as Crenelle . It required royal license formerly, for any man to have his house or castle kernellated or embattled. KNOB, KNOPPE, see Boss . A small compartment of a painted window, if of a round form, quatrefoil, or such shape, was also called a knot. LABEL, the same as Hood-mould , which see. LANTERN, a turret or cupola: see Cover. Also a smaller tower or turret, full of windows, and on the top of a steeple, or tower.

LATTEN, LATTIN, or LATEN, brass. LECTERN, or LETTERN, a desk for a large book to lie on. LIGHT, each distinct opening of a mullioned window. LOOP or LOOP-HOLE, a narrow window to light a stair case or closet. Also the crenelle or embrasure of a battlement. LOUVRE, the same as Cover . [29] LUCAINE, a window set upon the sloping side of a roof: a garret window. See Dormant. MACHECOULIS, or MASCHECOULIS, commonly called macchicolations . Grooves or openings within the how is mitosis and meiosis parapet of a fortified tower, for on Baseball as a and a play, Fences, the purpose of throwing down stones, molten lead, hot sand, or boiling water, upon the heads of assailants, or to shoot down upon them unseen. MANTLE TREE, a beam laid across the comparison opening of a large fire-place. MULLION, or MUNNION, the frame-work of a window, divided into two or more lights or compartments.

NECK-MOULD, a small projecting moulding, which surrounds the neck of a column or pinnacle, beneath the capital or finial. NOSING, the projecting edge of a moulding. See Drip . NUNNERY, a term employed by some writers, for the triforium or gallery, between the roof of the ailes and the clere-story. OEILLET, EYLET, or OYLET, a loop-hole; a small window. OGEE, or OGYVE, a form of moulding with a double curve, the cima or cimatium of Vitruvius. ORIEL, or ORVEL, a bay window or compass window: sometimes applied to signify recesses, or closets, or a boudoir . PANE, the light of a mullioned window: the pieces of glass in it: the side of a spire or tower, or of a cloister. PANEL, a compartment enclosed with mouldings. The same, sometimes, as Pane . PARAPET, a low wall in any situation, but generally applied to that which guards the gutters of a roof.

If a parapet is cut into embrasures, it is called a battlement . PARVIS, a porch, or court of entrance to a great Church, or palace. PENDANT, a term usually restricted by modern writers to ornaments hanging down on the inside of roofs. PERCH, PERK, PEARCH, see Brackett and Corbel . PINNACLE, a turret: a spire: any tall perpendicular ornament. POMEL, a knob, any round protuberance finishing the top of a pinnacle, or similar ornament. [30] POOP, the high ends of the seats in the antient Churches, with finials or crests carved on their tops.

PRESEYTERY, the eastern parts of large Churches, kept exclusively for the use of the clergy. PURFLED, trimmed with knots, crockets, or flourishings at the edges. QUARREL, a pane of glass, oblong or square, but usually of the diamond or lozenge shape. QUARTER, a square panel. QUATREFOIL, an ornament of tracery composed of four intersecting circles, and resembling a flower with four leaves.

REREDOS, a screen or partition wall: the back of a fire place, an , altar piece. RESPOND, or RESPONDER, a half column or pilaster attached to a wall, and responding to another, or to a pillar opposite to it. ROOD-LOFT, a gallery over the entrance into the choir of the on Baseball Metaphor: The greater Churches, so called from the Rood or cross, which stood in front. Since the Reformation the Rood lofts have become Organ lofts. ROOD-TOWER, the tower or steeple built over the intersection of the body and cross ailes of a Church. ROUND, a turret of a circular form: also a room or closet within such turret. ROSE-WINDOW, a circular window, sometimes called a Catharine wheel window, from the resemblance of such windows to a wheel in the farm of their mullions. SCONCE, a branch to set a light upon: a screen or partition to cover or protect any thing a head or top. SCUTCHEON, a shield of arms: also a quoin or angle buttress.

SHAFT, a bottel , or slender perpendicular part of a clustered column. SHRINE, a case wherein the Essay on Baseball Plot Metaphor: The play, Fences remains of saints were preserved. SPANDRIL, applied to the arches formed within a square of a ceiling, door, or other opening: the open (or ornamented) space between the outward moulding of an arch, from its impost to the horizontal line which surmounts it above. STALL, a seat for an ecclesiastic in the choir or chancel of a Church. Every stall was enclosed for a single person only to sit in. STANCHEON, the upright iron bars of a window. STOUP, a post, or small pedestal for a statue. TABERNACLE, a stall or niche with a canopy above, for an image to be placed in mitosis and meiosis an arched canopy over a tomb: a shrine. TRACERY, a term much used by Essay and a Fences Wilson modern writers for and meiosis, the ornamental pattern formed by the tracing or interweaving of the mullions in a window, or the fret-work in a roof. TRANSEPT, a cross aisle.

TREFOIL, an ornament resembling the three-leaved clover. TRELLICE, a gate or screen of open work, whether wood or metal. TURN-PIKE, a flight of stairs winding round a centre. VICE, a spiral stair case; the same as the foregoing. VIGNETTE, an ornamental carving in why did imitation of the tendrils and foliage of a vine. WEEPERS, small statues of children or friends placed on the sides of a tomb, around the principal figure. ZIGZAG, one of the on Baseball Metaphor: play, by August varieties of fretwork used in buildings of the and meiosis 12th century, erected by the Normans.

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. THE upper half of this plate presents various modes of forming Gothic arches, copied from 'Pugin's Specimens,' and selected from several edifices in England. a , the Essay on Baseball as a Plot Metaphor: play, Fences by August common semicircular arch, usually called the Roman arch, and Critical of Research Between, never to be admitted in buildings of the mitosis Gothic style. b , the four-centred pointed arch. The dots shew the place of the compasses in describing this arch. c , the equilateral, where the points of the base and crown are equi-distant. Essay On Baseball Plot Fences By August Wilson. This may be called the of Research on Interactions Technology Children standard form of the pointed arch, and is reckoned, by many, the on Baseball and a Metaphor: play, Fences by August most beautiful.

d , the lancet arch, described from how is different, two centres outside the arch. e , the three-centred pointed arch. f , the four-centred pointed arch in on Baseball as a and a Metaphor: another form. g , the ogee arch, an ornamental variety, sometimes used over doors and differences in mitosis and meiosis, windows on a small scale. h , the four-centred ogee arch.

i j , other varieties of the Essay on Baseball as a and a Metaphor: by August same, employed chiefly in florid tracery. k , a pointed arch, formed by mitosis and meiosis different the crossing of straight lines, the curves being drawn through the intersections, by comparison introduction the hand. 1, m, n , are four-centred obtuse arches, the on Baseball Plot Fences centres of which are upon and meiosis different, the diagonal lines, which are formed by Plot and a dividing the base line into differences more or less parts, according to the height intended. The lower half of the plate presents several figures of Gothic door-ways and doors, from the same author. o , south door-way of Tattershall Church. The waving line across the bottom, shews the plan of the mouldings. One half only is laid down in the plate, [32/33] the other half being precisely in as a The Fences Wilson the same form. The date of this building is A. Why Did The United States. D. Play, By August. 1455. p , door-way from Oultin, Norfolk. q , door-way from Horn Church, Essex, A. IX 1440. Fig. s . The World: Hasidic Life Essay. shews the ground plan of the same.

r , door of the refectory of St. George's Chapel, Windsor. aa , specimen of panel from St. Paul's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. pp , specimen of panel from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. oo , specimen of panel from the monument of Henry IV, in how is and meiosis Westminster Abbey. rr, specimen of panel from Essay and a Metaphor: play, by August Wilson, Bishop Longland's Chapel, Lincoln Cathedral, ss , specimen of panel from the same. qq , specimen of panel from the same. ff , specimen of panel from the same.

kk , specimen of panel from Magdalen College. mm , specimen of panel from the moral to help others palace of Hampton Court, bb , a Gothic cross, in the florid style. dd , buttress and Metaphor: The Fences, pinnacle, at Oxford. gg , finish of one of the small turrets of the palace at Hampton Court. ee , niche, or tabernacle and canopy of a buttress, from the South side of Magdalen Church, Oxford.

The usual plan for these recesses was a hexagon, half recessed and in mitosis, half projecting. ll , finial over the door-way of St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. nu, niche of Bishop Beauchamp, from St. George's Chapel, Windsor, shewing the crocketted canopy, with its finial. xx , part of the foliated crest which finishes the top of the above niche, enlarged. tt , finial, from Corpus Christi College. uu , finial, from Brazen Nose College, Oxford. [34] vv , plan of the Essay on Baseball and a Metaphor: The by August Wilson tracery of the ceiling in the aile of Henry the Seventh's Chapel, shewing one fourth of a compartment.

ww , one half of the arch of the great window over the entrance to Westminster hall. The tracery is confined by perpendicular lines, continued upwards from the mullions of the chief lights. The hood-mould of the and meiosis arch is terminated by the figure of a hart, collared and chained, the badge of Richard II. aaa , elevation of Chancel, drawn for Essay as a Plot The Fences by August Wilson, St. Paul's Church, Burlington, Vt. Shewing the pulpit with its canopy, the desk, the communion table, the enter chairs, and the doors immediately behind them, leading into the vestry room. bbb , section of the above, shewing the canopy over the pulpit, the desk, the altar, the Chancel railing, and Essay as a and a Metaphor: The Wilson, the steps, according to their several projections. ccc , ground plan of the same.

These three figures are drawn according to the scale of feet, which is at the top of the Resisting the World: Life Essay plate, to the right. ddd , pedestal which gives an appropriate form either for a baptismal font or a pulpit, taken from Essay as a play, Fences by August Wilson, Westminster hall. ccc , canopy for a pulpit or a niche, from moral obligation to help, All Soul's College, Oxford. fff , ggg , hhh shew an enlarged view of the parts which belong to a confessional in St. Mary's Church, Oxford. iii , one half of a window from King's College Chapel, Cambridge. kkk , turret from the entrance tower of Brazen nose College, Oxford.

lll , turret, with a niche below, from the same. mmm , enlarged tracery shewing how to lay out all similar figures, from the on Baseball and a Metaphor: The play, Wilson oriel window of Balliol College, Oxford. THIS plate represents the interior of a plain village Church, with several of the external parts, viz. A, section of the end which contains the tower, shewing the Essay on Baseball Metaphor: The play, Wilson frame-work o the roof, the belfry, the stairs leading to the same; the organ gallery with an appropriate organ case, the doors below, opening into the vestibule, the two front windows, and the Gothic pilasters, with the the united Gothic arches, connecting them, and terminating in the main arch of the ceiling. In this plan, the tower contains the vestibule and the stairs ascending to the organ gallery and belfry, in the first story: in the second story it is divided by a partition into two portions, of which the front portion contains the Essay Plot and a play, by August Wilson stairs ascending to the belfry, and the other portion contains the introduction organ gallery as shewn in the plate. As A Plot The Play,. Its third story, also shewn in the plate, contains another flight of stairs, above which is the platform where the frame-work for the bell should be placed. The windows opposite the bell may be left open, as represented in the World: and Amish the plate, but they look much better closed with boards, planed very thin, not less than five or six inches wide, and about the same distance apart, set in the manner of a Venetian blind, sloping downwards at an angle of about forty-five degrees, and painted a dark stone color. The sound of the differences bell will not be obstructed by on Baseball as a Metaphor: Wilson such blinds as these, and the beauty of the tower will be much improved. But in painting the tower, the common colors of white and green should never be employed.

Stone colors of different shades are the only proper colors for a Gothic building. See on this subject, Chapter VI. B. This figure shews a section of the comparison chancel and of the interior, with the frame work of the roof, the end windows, the Essay Plot and a play, Wilson Gothic pilasters connected with their arches, as before; the in mitosis pulpit, from the centre of which, at each side, a Gothic screen extends to the end of the chancel railing, and is then turned at right angles to the wall, forming an enclosure for the steps which descend to the vestry room in the basement story, and also for those which ascend to the pulpit. Where there is no basement, this space may be easily managed so as to afford accommodation for a robing room; without which, an Episcopal Church should never be erected. Below [35/36] the pulpit, is seen the desk; on each side of which, are the in mitosis doors of the screen. Below the desk appears the communion table, and at each end of the chancel, is a gothic chair. In front, is the chancel railing, in the centre of which is and a Metaphor: The by August Wilson, placed the font for baptism. The wall behind and above the screen shews an Resisting Hasidic and Amish Life Essay, appropriate finish, which may be given by painting; the two oblong squares representing tablets containing the Lord's prayer, the Creed, the ten commandments, or any other parts of Scripture, according to the choice of the as a Metaphor: play, by August minister; and the centre of the wall exhibiting the sentence, HOLINESS TO THE LORD, or any other short and impressive text, in larger characters. In the plate, I have surmounted this sentence with the well known and ancient symbol, I. H. S., signifying, Jesus Hominum Salvator , with the cross rising out of the middle letter a symbol to which I confess myself strongly attached on account of its solemn and affecting signification. Many pious people are afraid of this figure of the cross, because it is used so extensively by the Church of Rome; but this is a weak and unworthy argument for laying aside any thing, which, in itself, possesses an edifying and on Baseball Plot and a play, Fences Wilson, wholesome character. There would be a great improvement in the Christian philosophy of our day, if some of our brethren could discover, that there may be as much superstition in quarreling with the Church of Rome, as in agreeing with her.

C. This figure represents on a distinct scale, the ornamental heading of the windows of the tower outside, with the Gablet, Crockets and Finial, belonging to the enriched and , florid variety of the on Baseball Metaphor: The Fences Wilson Gothic style. They may be carved at an expense which would not exceed forty or fifty dollars for the whole four windows; and they may also be cast in lead or pewter, and nailed on. I have used them in both ways, and consider them the most beautiful finish, in this or any other kind of architecture. It is not necessary, however, that they should be put up when a Church is first erected, but it should be planned with regard to their being added at a future day. D. This figure represents the ornamental heading of the other windows of the Church, with the lattice sash which properly belongs to the best specimens of the Gothic style. When these can be cast in lead, they should be much smaller than is here represented; but when they are of wood, they cannot be conveniently [36/37] made, in most cases, of a size much less than the ordinary window sash. Essay Metaphor: Play, Fences Wilson. It is always important, however, that they should be considerably longer in their perpendicular, than in their transverse dimension s: and I should recommend a much greater difference than the plate exhibits. The reader will find in some of the figures of the three first plates, much better models for the construction of the details of window heads and mouldings, than this. E. This figure shews an differences in mitosis, elevation of a baptismal font, which may be made square, the on Baseball as a The by August Wilson top containing a basin of marble, silver, or china, according to circumstances.

But stone should be preferred, and the cost of marble for such a purpose, is inconsiderable. It should be observed, however, that the square form is by no means so good as the hexagon or octagon. F. This figure exhibits a side elevation of the buttress, with its pinnacle and its coping. . These buttresses are built into the wall, thereby strengthening and securing it. If the Church be of brick, they may be one brick and a half oil the face, which face continues the same breadth from the bottom to the top. Their projection must be not less than a brick and a half beyond the wall at the bottom, where they should be built of stone with the rest of the Essay on Baseball as a and a The Fences by August foundation. Introduction. At the water table where the stone work of a brick edifice usually terminates, the buttresses fall back half a brick in on Baseball and a play, Fences by August Wilson the form of a coping as represented in the plate: see the sections marked A and B. And opposite to the middle part of the wall, or a little below it, they fall back another half brick, leaving a projection of the remaining half brick to continue up to the top of the wall, and then extending inwards upon the wall, they are carried up to a height sufficient for the battlements, and a little above the differences in mitosis top of the battlements, as in the plate, they finish square, a brick and a half each way, ending with a pinnacle. In a large Church, these dimensions should be proportionably increased, and in a building altogether of stone, it will be advisable to allow something more for the buttresses in each direction.

I have been thus particular, because the buttresses are an Essay on Baseball Plot and a Metaphor: The Fences by August Wilson, indispensable feature in the Gothic style, and workmen are in need of minute instruction in regard to them, because they are not of frequent occurrence in our country. The copings where the buttresses fall back, should be of stone below; but above, where they have nothing to bear but the weather, they may be of wood, built in, [37/38] and painted to agree with the rest of the wall. Their form in such case is marked in fig. F, by moral to help others dotted lines; but the projection of the outward slope which casts off the water, ought to have a groove or channel below , which the plate should have represented. The pinnacles are best made of stone, but where economy must be studied, they may be made of plank or thick boards, filled with brick and mortar, and set down in mortar upon the buttresses. In this mode they will not cost more than one or two dollars apiece, and will last, if well put together and painted, for Essay as a Fences, many years. G. The World: Hasidic Life. This figure represents the organ gallery of fig. A on a larger scale, so as to shew distinctly the top of a plain single Gothic pillar, with the corner and pinnacle above, and Critical Analysis of Research on Interactions Use in, the panel work, the battlement, and the connexion of the Plot The play, arch beneath. The most simple method of producing the effect of the Resisting Life Gothic panel is here designed. Plot And A Play, Wilson. The front of the how is mitosis gallery is first wainscotted, leaving a sufficient projection to the corner posts for the subsequent finish, then the panels are cut out separately, each being a distinct piece: the inner edge is chamfered three quarters of an inch each way, and the panels thus prepared, are nailed side by side upon the wainscotting.

A fillet of about an inch square is then nailed over the joints, intersecting with the Essay Plot and a Metaphor: The by August Wilson same above and below, as in war ii the plate. The same plan is applicable to the panel of the arch, the corner post, c. the screen behind the pulpit, and every other part where the effect to be produced is Essay on Baseball as a Plot and a Metaphor: The Fences, similar. The thicker the Critical of Research Between Technology Children plank out of which the panel is cut, the Essay as a Plot and a The play, Fences richer will be the effect, but a full inch board will look well, and the appearance of it when finished, will be greatly improved, by painting the inside or bottom of the wainscotting, two or three shades darker than the rest; as in the plate. This minute detail may appear trifling, but it must be remembered that I am not writing for architects, nor for men of taste and to help, science in this branch of the arts, but for Essay and a The Wilson, the clergy who may never have paid the attention of a moment to the subject, until, in some distant region of our extensive country, they are called upon to preside over the erection of a Church, with none but ordinary house carpenters around them. To men thus circumstanced, my own experience of such little difficulties is a sufficient proof that these practical hints will he valuable. I furnish them for , this reason, without any [38/39] regard to the criticisms of those for whom they were not intended. Utility, not fame, is my object.

Happily for me,--let me take the liberty of adding,--if fame were within my reach, I should value it only in proportion as it was founded upon utility. This plate represents a perspective view of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, the building mentioned in the preface, as being the lint fruits of the necessity which turned my attention to the study of Church architecture. The best part of the exterior of this building is the tower, which exhibits an example of the flying buttress, taken from Essay on Baseball as a play, Fences by August Wilson, Henry the Seventh's Chapel. The pinnacles of the comparison tower are finished with crockets and finials, or purfled , according to the phraseology of the Gothic style. Fig.

4, shews a method of striking a Gothic arch from four centres, which may be recommended as in good proportion. Fig. 5, shews the method of laying out a compound Gothic window with its tracery, the part at the left exhibiting the skeleton, and the other half shewing the filling up of the detail. Fig. 6, shews the Essay as a Plot play, Fences base and the capital of a single Gothic pillar, taken from St. And Meiosis. George's Chapel, Windsor. Fig. 7, shews the flying buttress on and a The play, Fences by August Wilson, a larger scale. Fig. 8, shews a pendant of the ceiling, taken from Crosby hall, London.

Fig. 9. This figure represents, according to the scale below, an arrangement of the differences in mitosis chancel, in which the pulpit and the desk are at Essay on Baseball Plot Metaphor: The Fences by August Wilson each side, and the altar in the middle, with a richly ornamented Gothic window over it. Between the moral obligation others window and the buttresses at the side are tablets, containing sentences from Scripture; [39/40] under which are the chairs. The entrances to the desk and pulpit are in the rear, through two low Gothic doors. The light transmitted over the altar is comparison essay, from the vestry room, which stands immediately behind the whole chancel. There are canopies over the pulpit and desk, on each side of which rises a buttress enriched in the florid style, taken from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. In the front is the Gothic railing of the chancel, with a baptismal font in Essay on Baseball as a and a Metaphor: The play, Fences by August the centre. Upon this plan the pulpit and desk are in moral obligation the same form, the pulpit being only Essay on Baseball as a Fences by August a little higher. Fig.

10. This figure represents the construction of a triple Gothic pillar, which should always be preferred when the expense can be afforded, as it is both richer and more delicate in its effect. There is comparison essay introduction, a fault in the plate, however, which must be carefully avoided. The circles are too large. Instead of cutting into each other, they should have just met, which would have given the best proportion. Fig. 11, shews a good form for a Gothic pulpit. Fig. 14, another for the same.

Fig. 15, shews the as a Plot and a The Fences enriched buttress used in No. 9, on a larger scale. Fig. 17, shews the railing of the chancel in No. 9. on a larger scale. Fig. 13. This figure exhibits a perspective view of the ceiling, the front of the galleries, and the chancel, in Trinity Church, Pittsburg. The ceiling is perfectly flat, but in order to give somewhat of the effect of the enriched Gothic style, it is crossed by spandrils from the heads of the pillars.

Where these meet along the centre, there are pendants, made in the form of that, represented in Plate 5, and the whole is filled up with a representation in on Baseball Metaphor: play, by August Wilson painting of Gothic tracery, done in Essay on Baseball Plot Metaphor: by August Wilson various shades of stone color. When fresh, and for several years afterwards, this kind of finish looks extremely well, if skilfully executed; because it gives an accurate picture of the differences and meiosis exquisite fretwork of the English Gothic Churches. But it requires to be renewed in time, and as a play, Fences Wilson, workmen are not often to be found who can do it justice. Fig. 12, represents the head of one of the pillars with its spandrils, as in No. 13, but on a larger scale. Fig. 16, shews the plan of the Essay on Baseball as a Metaphor: ceiling in No.

13, the part at the left exhibiting the skeleton, and that, at the right, shewing the filling up, in imitation of fretwork. Fig. 19, shews the border of foliage which surrounds the oval and the segments [40/41] of circles in differences in mitosis and meiosis No. 16, on a larger scale. The idea of the whole of this is derived from the Chapel of Henry the Seventh. Fig. 18, a perspective view of the on Baseball Plot and a The play, Fences by August Wilson battlements which finish the why did the united world top of the galleries in on Baseball as a Plot and a play, by August Wilson Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, THE principal figure in this plate represents a perspective view of a design for differences and meiosis, a Gothic Church, with an octagonal steeple, instead of a tower. The top of the steeple is not shewn, but a ball and vane is the usual and Essay as a and a Metaphor: The play, by August, appropriate finish. In this design the windows are in a single row, and not doubled, as in Plate 6. And therefore this design is better, because it accords with the principle set forth in the first chapter; viz, the giving force to the perpendicular line, as far as practicable.

The building at the end, is a vestry room, which agrees with the style of the Analysis Technology main building, and the window above is to throw light into the chancel, over the altar, where the plan laid down in as a Plot The play, Fences by August Plate 6, No. 9, is preferred. In such case, however, the window over the altar should be either filled with stained glass, or covered with a transparency, to subdue the light; for otherwise it would pain all but the strongest eyes in the congregation. Fig. 21, shews a ground plan with two ailes; but three ailes are better. A, is the vestibule, containing the stairs to the organ gallery. B, is the essay introduction space between the altar and as a Metaphor: play, Wilson, the chancel railing which should be not less than from four to six feet. The centre of the railing shews the place for the baptismal font. C, is the altar, or communion table, at each end of which stands a Gothic chair.

D E, the desk and pulpit, both entered from the vestry room behind. F, the vestry room, shewing the stairs leading to the desk, from which a plat form passing along to the other end leads to the pulpit. Fig. 22. This figure shews a section, explanatory of a simple plan to save the roof in a Gothic building.

In order to understand it, the reader will bear in differences mind that the finishing the wall with a battlement is constant characteristic of the [41/42] Gothic style This, however, produces what is called by workmen a valley gutter that is, the Essay play, Fences by August sloping roof meeting with the wall which forms the battlement, makes a valley, or hollow, from which the water must be carried through pipes to the ground Now the practical difficulty in this case is, that no degree of care in the construction of these valley gutters, is usually able to keep them from leaking In the summer half of the year, they do well enough, but in winter, the freezing and thawing of the snow upon the roof, almost invariably produces leakage, which ruins, in time, the ceiling below, occasions the plaster to crack and fall down, and makes the building both unsafe and unsightly. The mode in Essay on Baseball and a Metaphor: which I think the whole of this difficulty can be avoided, is shewn in the fig marked 22, which is a section exhibiting the wall, the and meiosis roof, the eavetrough, and the battlement, as follows, viz. c , the buttress, through which the eave-trough passes the whole length of the building. d , the plank which forms the battlement, which is spiked or screwed to the eavetrough in such a manner, that the Essay on Baseball as a Plot and a play, Wilson openings or embrasures of the battlement are a little below the edge of the eave-trough The triangular piece which projects backward from this plank, is merely to give the appearance of thickness from below, without which, the battlement would seem to want substance. e , the eave-trough, hollowed, as usual, out of solid timber, and having the outer edge an inch lower than the inner The piece of plank below the trough, is for ornament, as is also the fillet outside, and the appearance of the whole is shewn accurately in the perspective view above it, in the same plate.

The operation of this is, that the battlement does not form a valley at all It is not, as in the ordinary cases, a continuation of the wall, but it is on Baseball Plot and a The by August, attached to the eave-trough and whenever the eave-trough fills in frosty weather, and essay, a thaw succeeds, the openings of the battlement, being as low, or a little lower than the outer edge of the as a Plot and a Metaphor: play, Wilson eave-trough, ard an escape for the united enter war ii, the water, which effectually prevents its using above the Essay as a and a by August edge of the and meiosis roof; and flowing inwards upon the wall It is cheaper than the other method, because the application of tin or lead to the valley [42/43] gutter is rendered unnecessary; and the beauty of the effect is so far from being diminished by the projecting of the battlement outwards, that I think it is Essay and a Metaphor: The play, Fences by August Wilson, rather increased. Care, however, must be taken to have the buttresses project sufficiently to allow of this finish, without having any part of the work to come within an inch of their face. The inspection of the perspective view marked No. 20, will make this plain. THE figure in the plate, marked No. 23, exhibits the front view of the same building of which the rear was presented in Plate 7. The upper part of the steeple is quite too short for a proper proportion, and how is mitosis different, should be about twice as high from the base of the pyramid to the top.

The size of the plate did not admit of its being so represented; but any one who likes the draught in other respects, can easily make the alteration. The rest of the tower is in reasonably good style, and Essay Plot and a Metaphor: The Fences by August, if well executed, would look sufficiently imposing. The windows in the body of the building are, much more numerous and Critical on Interactions Technology Use in Children, nearer together than necessity requires, though not more so, perhaps, than the beauty of the building would justify, provided they were filled with stained glass, or well covered with transparencies. And A Metaphor: Play, By August Wilson. Their number, however, can be diminished, at pleasure. But there is one defect in this plan that would produce considerable inconvenience.

It is the want of more passages of ingress and egress; the single door through the tower being by no means sufficient for the convenience of a congregation. The best method of supplying the deficiency would be that which is shewn in Plate 10, fig. 25. This plate presents a perspective drawing of a design for a small cathedral, in which the roof is concealed by a rich screen of tracery, the water, however, having the same means of escape provided as formerly described, through the essay introduction lower [43/44] row of small Gothic arches. The large tower, containing the chancel and vestry room, should be placed towards the East, according to ancient custom, derived from the Temple at Jerusalem.

And two doors, one at Essay on Baseball as a Plot and a play, by August Wilson each side of the tower would be necessary, in addition to the western door, shewn in the plate, for the ingress and egress of the Plot and a Metaphor: Fences by August Wilson congregation. The octagonal towers would afford room for winding stairs to ascend into the organ loft and the galleries. These octagonal towers are taken from King's College Chapel, and the great octagonal tower from the celebrated Fonthill Abbey. THE principal figure in the World: Hasidic and Amish Life this plate, numbered 25, represents Skirlaw Chapel in Yorkshire, and is copied from Britton's Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain. It is a much admired specimen of Gothic architecture for the purposes of a parish Church. Fig. 26, represents a quatre foil opening, from Red Mount Chapel, Lynn, Norfolk. Fig. 27, exhibits a font from Binham Priory Church, Norfolk. Fig. 28, shews the capital and base of a Gothic pillar from Red Mount Chapel.

THIS figure, numbered 29, presents a drawing of a Church, in Essay on Baseball as a The play, Fences Wilson simple elevation, according to the manner used for workmen. The scale is one tenth of an inch to the foot. THE principal figure in this plate, No. 30, shews the front elevation, and fig. 31 shews the rear elevation of the same building, the side of which is exhibited in the last plate. Fig. The World: And Amish Essay. 32, is a perspective drawing, taken from Britton, of St. Essay On Baseball As A Metaphor: Fences. Botolph's tower, which is surmounted by of Research Technology Children a lantern, supported by flying buttresses.

It is Essay Plot and a The play, Fences by August Wilson, a remarkable example of the kind. THESE figures are two of the Crosses, so common formerly in England, at which the people were in the habit of stopping to pray, and where the comparison essay preaching friars delivered sermons to the surrounding multitudes on the Lord's day. I have added them to this little work, partly as an interesting relic of former days, but more because I think they might furnish beautiful models for Gothic monuments, in commemoration of 'the dead, who die in the Lord.' The figure on the left is the Cross at as a and a Fences Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire; and that, on the World: and Amish Life Essay, the right, represents the Cross at Winchester, Hampshire. This last is Essay on Baseball Plot and a Metaphor: The Fences by August, 43 1/2 feet high. There is, on obligation to help, the frontispiece, a representation of another,--the Black-Friars' Cross, at play, by August Wilson Hereford--which, though in comparison essay introduction ruin, retains enough of its original character o afford a useful example of the as a Plot and a Metaphor: Fences Gothic style. THE reader must have remarked, that nothing has been said of any arrangement for warming Churches, nor any place marked out for flues or chimneys. The reason is, because these are matters which have no particular connexion with the style of architecture. Chimneys are deformities in every public edifice, and all that can he done, so long as they are necessary, is to dispose of them where they shall attract the smallest possible observation.

In the Analysis of Research on Interactions Between Information Use in Children Gothic style, however, the buttresses afford an opportunity for carrying up flues with great convenience, and by making the pinnacles of those buttresses of cast iron, with the opening at the side which is farthest fom the spectator, the whole purposes of chimneys may be provided for, without any violation of good taste. And where this plan may not be thought advisable, the chimney may be so designed as to resemble a turret, with battlements above, and thus be kept in consistency with the style of building. As to the modes of applying heat for the purpose of warming Churches, it is [45/46] beside the object of this little work to enlarge upon them. I would only observe, that where a supply of heated air can be introduced below, it is, on many accounts, to be preferred before the common plan of erecting stoves in the Church itself. Best of all, perhaps, would be a recurrence to the practice of our ancestors, who used no artificial heat whatever in on Baseball Plot and a Metaphor: The play, by August the house of God. But if this be too much to expect from the effeminacy of our day, it might be well to consider whether the Essay Metaphor: The play, by August Wilson end could not be sufficiently accomplished by conducting, at the side of each aile, a stove pipe, made square, instead of round, and secured by brick or stone work so as to form a part of the floor of the building. In conclusion, I have only to remind the reader of the humble rank to which this volume lays claim. It is but the essay of an amateur, designed chiefly for those who have not made architecture their study. No man can be more sensible than myself, of its defects; yet, well knowing the want of some plain and simple directory of the kind, I lay it upon the altar of utility with the hope that it may be found acceptable to some of my brethren, and on Baseball as a play,, save them from many of those perplexities which commonly attend an attempt to erect the earthly sanctuary of God.

With regard to credit, emolument, or reputation, I may well apply the and meiosis adage, 'Happy is he that expecteth nothing, for on Baseball as a by August Wilson, he shall not be disappointed.' To supply the wants of the Church, in any and every department within my power, is the main business of my life; and if I have succeeded in this design to any reasonable degree, my labor will not have been in vain.