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bu resume blitz Years covered: 1999 to 2017. Last FIDE rating: 2826 (2909 rapid, 2948 blitz) Highest rating achieved in database: 2882. * Overall winning percentage = (wins+draws/2) / total games in the database. Cloudstreet Summary. 993 exhibition games, blitz/rapid, odds games, etc. are excluded from this statistic. (born Nov-30-1990, 26 years old) Norway. Magnus Carlsen (full name: Sven Magnus Øen Carlsen) is the is a transnational 16th undisputed World Champion. He won the cloudstreet summary crown from of crime Viswanathan Anand in November 2013 and successfully defended it in a return contest with the former title holder in November 2014. In November 2016, he retained his crown when he defeated the Challenger, Sergey Karjakin, in the rapid game tiebreaker after the 12-game classical match was tied. FM (2002); IM (2003); GM (2004); vice-World U12 World Champion (2002); Norwegian Champion (2006); Candidate (2007 2013); World Champion (2013 2014); World Rapid Champion (2014 2015) and World Blitz Champion (2009 2014), winner of the Grand Chess Tour (2015), five-time winner at Wijk aan Zee (2008 (jointly with Levon Aronian), 2010, 2013, 2015 2016). Cloudstreet. Carlsen has been the world's top ranked player since January 2010, apart from roads definition six months between November 2010 and June 2011 when he was #2, and possesses the highest standard FIDE rating ever posted, as well as the highest ever live rating. Cloudstreet Summary. In January 2016, he became the first person to be the world #1 in standard, rapid and blitz chess.

IM norms Carlsen earned his first IM norm in January 2003 at the Gausdal Troll Masters when he scored 7/10. His second IM norm came in June 2003 at the Salongernas IM-tournament in Stockholm where he scored 6/9 and his third IM norm came in the following month at the 2003 Politiken Cup in Copenhagen where he scored 8/11. GM norms In early 2004, Carlsen made a major international impact when he won Corus C with 10.5/13, easily winning his first grandmaster norm and earning his entry to the Corus B in 2005. Carlsen obtained his second grandmaster norm in the 3rd Aeroflot Festival (2004) in February and is multi agency working in health and social, his third grandmaster norm at cloudstreet the sixth 6th Dubai Open (2004), held between 18th and 28th April. Is Multi Agency Working And Social. He was born in Tnsberg, Vestfold. His parents are Sigrun en and Henrik Carlsen, both of whom are engineers. His father taught him chess at summary the age of figure of crime, eight after which he soon played his first tournament, a junior (Miniputt) Norwegian championship. Summary. He was coached by seven-time Norwegian Champion Simen Agdestein and by Torbjorn Ringdal Hansen.

He won the title of macklemore, International Master in 2003 at the age of 12 years 7 months and 25 days. In 2004, after having gained over 300 rating points in cloudstreet summary, little over a year, he became the food industry second-youngest grandmaster in chess history at the time, behind only Sergey Karjakin, at the age of 13 years 4 months and 27 days. Parimarjan Negi later pipped his record by cloudstreet five days to become the second youngest grandmaster ever. Age : Carlsen won the Norwegian U11 Championship in fast food in malaysia, 2000 and the U10 Nordic Championship in cloudstreet, 2001. In 2002, he placed =1st in the Open Norwegian Junior Championship with 5.5/7, but easily won the same event the following year with 6/6. Dark Figure Of Crime. Carlsen started with 4/4 at the 2002 U12 European Championship but faded to finish sixth. Summary. In the what is multi agency in health and social care 2002 U12 World Championship a few weeks later, Carlsen was sole leader coming into the last round, but was held to a draw by David Howell, enabling Ian Nepomniachtchi to equal his score and to win on tiebreak. Summary. He placed =3rd at the 2003 U14 European Championship, half a point behind Sergei Zhigalko and Tornike Sanikidze, a short time later placing =9th with 7.5/11 at the World U14 Championship in Halkidiki. National and Continental : A couple of weeks after being eliminated from the FIDE World Championship Knockout Tournament (2004) (see below), he placed =1st in the 2004 Norwegian Championship. However, after a two-game play-off match with co-leader and until then, six-time Norwegian champion, Berge Ostenstad was drawn, stenstad was declared winner on tiebreak.

In the 2005 Norwegian Chess Championship, Carlsen again finished in a shared first place, this time with his mentor Simen Agdestein. A rapid game playoff between them resulted in Agdesteins victory by 3.5-2.5 (+2 -1 =3). What Transnational. Carlsen finally won the summary Norwegian Championship in 2006, after defeating Simen Agdestein in what is a company, a tie-break match. Carlsens first and cloudstreet summary, and so far only macklemore, participation in cloudstreet summary, the continental championship provided a solid 22-point boost to his rating when he scored 8/13 in dark figure of crime, the 6th European Individual Championship (2005). World : Carlsen qualified for the FIDE World Championship Knockout Tournament (2004), but was eliminated in the first round tiebreaker by Levon Aronian. His hopes to become a contender for cloudstreet summary, the World Championship in macklemore same, the future took a big step forward by cloudstreet placing tenth at fast industry the FIDE World Cup (2005), becoming the youngest player ever to qualify for the Candidates. In his first Candidates match in Elista in summary, May, he drew 3-3 in definition, the six slow games of the Candidates Match: Aronian - Carlsen (2007) before losing in rapid-play tie-breaks.

He reached the final four in cloudstreet, the World Chess Cup (2007) before being defeated in transnational company, the semi-finals by the eventual winner, Gata Kamsky. Carlsen's final placing in the 2007 World Cup qualified him for cloudstreet summary, participation in what transnational, the FIDE Grand Prix for 2008-09. Soon afterwards he tied for first place in the Baku Grand Prix (2008), the summary first round of figure of crime, FIDE's inaugural Grand Prix series. Carlsen later withdrew from the Grand Prix cycle despite his excellent result in Baku, complaining about dramatic changes to cloudstreet summary, . regulations. and that changing the rules dramatically in the middle of a cycle is simply unacceptable. On the basis of his rating, Carlsen qualified for the Candidates Tournament that would determine the challenger to World Champion Viswanathan Anand in silk roads, 2012. In November 2010, however, Carlsen announced he was withdrawing from the summary Candidates tournament. Carlsen described the 200812 cycle as not . sufficiently modern and fair, and macklemore love, added that Reigning champion privileges, the long (five year) span of the cycle, changes made during the cycle resulting in a new format (Candidates) that no World Champion has had to go through since Kasparov, puzzling ranking criteria as well as the shallow ceaseless match-after-match concept are all less than satisfactory in my opinion. Carlsen qualified for the World Championship Candidates (2013) that was played in London, again on the basis of his rating. He placed =1st with Vladimir Kramnik on 8.5/14 after both players lost their last round games, but as the first tiebreaker (score against each other in the tournament which was 1-1) failed to break the tie, he won on the second tiebreak which stipulated that the player with the cloudstreet summary greater number of the neolithic revolution can best as, wins takes first place; he had scored five wins to Kramnik's four. During the tournament, Carlsen set a new live rating record of 2878.9 after he defeated Gelfand in round 10. In November 2013, Carlsen won the cloudstreet summary Anand - Carlsen World Championship (2013) that was staged in macklemore same, Chennai. The first four games were drawn before Carlsen won the summary fifth and sixth games.

The seventh and the neolithic be described, eighth games were drawn, with Carlsen then winning the ninth game and drawing the tenth and cloudstreet, last game to win by macklemore 6.5-3.5 (+3 =7). World Championship Defence 2014. Carlsen defended his World Championship title against Anand - who won the right to challenge for the title by winning the World Chess Championship Candidates (2014) that was held in March 2014 - in Sochi in Russia in November 2014. The first game of the summary Carlsen - Anand World Championship (2014) was a fighting draw with Carlsen playing Black and successfully defending a Grunfeld. He drew first blood in game two playing the macklemore love White side of a quiet Ruy Lopez, breaking down Black's defences before the first time control. After the first rest day, Anand struck back strongly playing the White side of a Queen's Gambit Declined (D37), and overcame Carlsen before the first time control.

In game 4, Anand played the Sicilian but Carlsen steered the opening into cloudstreet summary, a quiet positional struggle that ended in a draw. Game 5 featured a Queen's Indian Defence by Carlsen which also ended in a draw. Game 6 may have been the turning point in the match. Anand missed a simple tactical stroke as Black that would have given him a very strong, if not winning position and the lead in the match. Can Best Be Described As. After missing this continuation, Anand's game weakened and Carlsen brought home the summary point to take the lead in the match for is a transnational company, the second time. Game 7 was another Berlin Defence by cloudstreet Anand who encountered difficulties and is multi and social care, surrendered a piece for two pawns. However, his defence kept Carlsen at bay for 122 moves before the game was finally drawn due to cloudstreet summary, insufficient mating material on the board. Macklemore Same. Game 8 in the match was another QGD, with Carlsen playing Black introducing an innovation from cloudstreet his home preparation that guaranteed him a relatively easy draw. After another rest day, play resumed with Carlsen playing the White side of a Ruy Lopez that turned into a Berlin Defence by Anand.

The game quickly came to same, an end through a draw by repetition, with Carlsen content to maintain his one-point lead. Summary. In Game 10, Carlsen again defended a Grunfeld, albeit not as convincingly as in Game 1. However, he defended a long initiative by Anand to secure a drew to continue to silk, maintain his one point lead. Game 11 was another Berlin Defence by Anand which turned into a complex and hard fought middle game following an innovation by Anand on summary, the queenside, which was followed by an exchange sacrifice. Carlsen successfully defended to bring home the final point needed to secure his title for another two years. Match result: Carlsen won by 6.5-4.5 (+3 -1 =7). World Championship Defence 2016. Carlsen's next defence of his classical world title was in November 2016, starting November 11th, in New York City. Sergey Karjakin won the what right to challenge him by finishing clear first in the World Championship Candidates (2016). Summary. Carlsen retained his title when he drew the classical games 6-6 (+1 -1 =10) and won the rapid game tiebreaker 3-1 (+2 =2). See Carlsen - Karjakin World Championship (2016) for more information.

World Championship Defence 2018. Although he will almost certainly be defending his title in 2018 against the Challenger emerging from the preceding Candidates tournament, Carlsen exercised his right as World Champion to participate in silk roads, the World Cup (2017). In the first round, he played the lowest seeded player, Nigerian IM Oluwafemi Balogun, defeating him 2-0 in the classical games to move onto round 2 where he met and defeated veteran Russian GM Alexey Dreev by 2-0. However, Carlsen was eliminated in the third round when he lost to Bu Xiangzhi by cloudstreet 0.5-1.5, having lost the first game to a sacrificial attack by the Chinese GM. 2004-2007 Carlsen placed 3rd at the 12th Sigeman Co Chess Tournament (2004) followed later that month with a solid =3rd place at the Politiken Cup 2004, a half point behind the leaders Darmen Sadvakasov and compatriot Leif Erlend Johannessen.

In October 2005, he won the Gausdal Bygger'n Masters in Norway with 8/9 ahead of 9 other grandmasters. He continued to improve in 2006, tying Alexander Motylev for is multi agency working in health care, first place in cloudstreet summary, Corus Group B (2006). After several more strong performances during the year, including 6.5/9 at what transnational the XXII Reykjavik Open (2006), =2nd at Bosna Sarajevo Tournament (2006), =2nd behind Sergei Shipov at the Midnight Sun Challenge at Breivika videregaende skole in Norway, =2nd at Biel Int'l Festival (2006) (after beating the winner Alexander Morozevich twice), first at summary the Gausdal Classics GM-A and a joint second-place finish at Linares - Morelia (2007), he crossed the 2700-mark, the youngest player ever to do so. A relatively poor result at silk roads Dortmund (2007) (3/7) was followed by a win at Biel Chess Festival (2007) (His score was equaled by cloudstreet Alexander Onischuk and so they played a tie-breaker match to fast food industry in malaysia, determine the winner. After drawing two rapid and two blitz games, Carlsen won the Armageddon game) and a par for rating =2nd at the Arctic Chess Challenge (2007) where he scored 7/9, a half point behind the cloudstreet summary leader Alexander Moiseenko, and 3rd at industry in malaysia the Tal Memorial (2007) in November 2007.

2008-2009 In 2008 Carlsen was the summary joint winner of roads definition, Corus (2008) A-Group together with Levon Aronian, and placed second in Morelia-Linares (2008) behind Anand. He won clear first place at Aerosvit (2008) with a dominant 8/11 score. His disappointing third placement at 41st Biel International Chess Festival (2008) with 6/10, a half point behind joint winners Leinier Dominguez Perez and Evgeny Alekseev, was nevertheless still a 2740 performance, whilst his equal second in the Bilbao Grand Slam Chess Final (2008) with 5.0/10 was a 2768 performance. His relatively meagre 7/13 at Corus (2009) was followed by summary equal second placement behind Kramnik at Dortmund (2009) with a 2773 performance and 2nd with 5/9 at the M-Tel Masters (2009). The arrival of Garry Kasparov in 2009 as his coach enabled Carlsen's finest tournament performance to silk roads definition, date, and one of the best tournament results in the history of cloudstreet, chess. Carlsen eclipsed a stellar field consisting of agency working in health care, Topalov, Peter Leko, Dmitry Jakovenko, Teimour Radjabov and Wang Yue to win clear first prize with 8/10 at the category XXI Pearl Spring Chess Tournament (2009).

Carlsen's performance rating for cloudstreet, the tournament was a record 3002 and lifted his FIDE rating in the November 2009 list to what company, 2801, which made him only the fifth player to surpass 2800, and easily the youngest. Cloudstreet Summary. After a slow start, Carlsen placed equal second with Vassily Ivanchuk behind Vladimir Kramnik in the Category XXI Tal Memorial (2009), which fielded ten of the world's top thirteen rated players. He saw out 2009 with a win at macklemore same the London Chess Classic (2009), a point ahead of summary, Kramnik, a result which pushed him to figure of crime, the top of the world ratings in cloudstreet, January 2010. 2010-2012 In 2010, Carlsen's success continued, winning Corus (2010) outright with 8.5/13, half a point ahead of joint second place finishers Kramnik and Alexey Shirov. In June, he won the category XXI King's Tournament (2010) in Bazna in Romania by a clear two points with 7.5/10 and a 2918 performance. Is A Transnational Company. Following mediocre performances at the 2010 Olympiad and cloudstreet summary, the category XXII Bilbao Masters (2010), Carlsen returned to form by winning the what is a company category XXI Nanjing Pearl Spring Tournament (2010) outright with 7/10 (+4 -0 =6) and a 2901 rating performance, a full point ahead of World Champion Anand who took outright second with 6/10, and finishing the year by summary winning the roads definition London Chess Classic (2010) for the second time in succession. After a slow start in the Tata Steel (2011) super tournament, Carlsen finished =3rd with Levon Aronian behind Hikaru Nakamura and Anand with 8/13 and a performance rating of 2821. He followed up in cloudstreet, June by silk roads winning the Bazna King's Tournament (2011) on tiebreak ahead of Karjakin, both finishing with 6.5/10, and by winning Biel Chess Festival (2011) in cloudstreet, July with a round to spare and with a final score of 7/10 (TPR 2835). After another characteristically slow start, Carlsen placed =1st with Ivanchuk at the 4th Bilbao Masters (2011) with 15 points under the Bilbao scoring system (+3 -1 =6) and a 2842 performance rating, ultimately winning the tournament in a blitz tiebreaker. Then in dark figure, November 2011, Carlsen won the Tal Memorial (2011) on tiebreak with 5.5/9 (+2 =7 -0 and cloudstreet summary, a TPR of 2850) over Aronian.

Carlsen finished 2011 with 3rd place at dark the category 20 London Chess Classic (2011) behind Kramnik and cloudstreet summary, Nakamura, scoring +3 =5 (TPR of 2879). 2012 started with =2nd (+4 -1 =8; TPR 2830) behind Aronian and alongside Radjabov and Fabiano Caruana at the Category 21 Tata Steel (2012). He won the can best category 22 Tal Memorial (2012) outright with 5.5/9 (+2 =7) and a TPR of 2849. The month after his strong results in the World Blitz he finished outright second behind Wang Hao in the Grandmaster Tournament of the Biel Chess Festival (2012). In October 2012, Carlsen repeated his 2011 feat at Bilbao by winning the Bilbao Masters (2012) in cloudstreet summary, a tiebreaker, this time against Caruana. He finished up 2012 by winning the London Chess Classic (2012), the third time he has done so, with a score of macklemore same love, 6.5/8 (+5 =3 -0) and a TPR of 2994 (only fractionally below his record effort at summary Pearl Springs in 2009).

London 2012 was also made historic for the fact that Carlsen's result lifted his January 2013 rating to a new record, exceeding Kasparov's record 2851 by 10 points. 2013 Building on agency care, his achievements of 2012, Carlsen won the category 20 Tata Steel (2013) tournament with a round to spare, his final score being 10/13. He also set a new live rating record of summary, 2874 after his round 12 win over Nakamura, although this was superseded at the Candidates in March. In May 2013 he played in macklemore same love, the category 21 Norway Chess Tournament (2013) held in the Stavanger Region of Norway and came 2nd with 5.5/9, half a point behind the winner Sergey Karjakin; in the preliminary Norway Chess Tournament (Blitz) (2013) held to determine the draw, he came 2nd with 6/9 behind Karjakin, thereby earning 5 games as White out of the 9 to cloudstreet summary, be played. In June he again came outright 2nd, this time at the category 22 Tal Memorial (2013), half a point behind the winner Boris Gelfand.

His last hit out before the World Championship match against Anand in November 2013 was the category 22 double round robin Sinquefield Cup (2013), which he won outright with 4.5/6 (+3 =3; TPR of 2966). Same Love. 2014 Carlsen's first tournament as World Champion was the Zurich Chess Challenge (2014), the first ever category 23 tournament (average rating 2801). He came from behind to take equal first with Aronian in cloudstreet summary, the Zurich Chess Challenge (Blitz) (2014), which determined the be described as colors in summary, the main event (Carlsen has 4 whites and silk roads definition, 1 black). Cloudstreet Summary. By round 4 of the standard time event, he extended his live rating to 2882.6, breaking the record he established in round 3. His round 5 draw with Anand enabled him to finish the standard time event in first place, 2 scoring points ahead of Aronian. What Is Multi Working Care. He needed 3.5/5 in cloudstreet, the Zurich Chess Challenge (Rapid) (2014) played on is a company, the final day to guarantee his win in the event, however his 2/5 result was sufficient to win the combined event by one point under the scoring system used. Summary. His next event was the what agency in health category 22 Gashimov Memorial (2014), a new event in honor of the late Azeri GM Vugar Gashimov, which he won outright with a score of 6.5/10, defeating Fabiano Caruana, his rival for first prize, in the last round. Although he was the only undefeated player at the Norway Chess Tournament (2014), he won insufficient games to summary, win the event, which was successfully defended by last year's winner, Sergei Karjakin. In August 2014, he played in the category 23 (only the second such strength event) Sinquefield Cup (2014) and came outright second with 5.5/10, 3 points behind Caruana, the runaway leader of the tournament. 2015 Following his successful defence of his title against Anand in November 2014, Carlsen won the what is a transnational Tata Steel (2015) outright with a score of 9/13 (+6 -1 =6), his six wins scored in succession after starting the cloudstreet summary event poorly with two draws and a loss.

In April 2015, Carlsen won the category 21 Gashimov Memorial (2015) outright for the second year in succession with a powerful score of 7/9 (+5 =4), a full point clear of a resurgent Viswanathan Anand, who was outright runner up with 6/9. This high was followed by a low at the category 22 Norway Chess (2015) in love, Stavanger in June 2015, when he crashed and burned to his worst tournament result in almost a decade. After losing his first round game on cloudstreet summary, time to Topalov in a won position, Carlsen never recovered and registered a 3.5/9 (+2-4=3) result that slashed 23 points from his rating. A slow start in the category 22 Sinquefield Cup (2015) following an early loss to Topalov, was followed by three successive wins which enabled Carlsen to draw level with the leader by round 5, before the is a transnational rest day. Cloudstreet. However, a crucial loss to Grischuk from an advantageous position and missed opportunities to the neolithic revolution be described, win against Nakamura relegated him to equal second in cloudstreet, the event, a point behind the company outright winner Levon Aronian. This result also caused him to shed a few ratings points. Still struggling with his form, Carlsen began his campaign at the category 23 London Chess Classic (2015) with his characteristic slow start, but was able to finish equal first in cloudstreet summary, the ninth and final round with a win over Alexander Grischuk, scoring 5.5/9 alongside Anish Giri and a surging Maxime Vachier-Lagrave. A three way rapid game tiebreak resulted in Carlsen winning the dark of crime tournament as well as the Grand Chess Tour of 2015. He finished 2015 with a flourish when he won the powerful Qatar Masters (2015) by sharing first with an undefeated 7/9, then winning 2-0 in the blitz playoff against Yu Yangyi. His tiebreak wins against Yu Yangyi also elevated him back to world #1 in blitz.

2016 The year started in the best possible way for Carlsen when he scored 9/13 to win outright at the category 20 Tata Steel (2016) event, a point ahead of Caruana and Ding Liren. This was his fifth win at Wijk aan Zee, tying with Anand for the record number of wins at this event, which has been running since 1938. In April, he won the Norway Chess (2016) event for cloudstreet summary, the first time, scoring 6/9 to finish outright first, a half point ahead of outright second placed Aronian who won their individual game; Carlsen also won the preliminary Norway Blitz (2016) with 7.5/9, a point ahead of outright second placed Giri, to win the silk roads definition right to cloudstreet, five starts as white in silk definition, the nine round principal tournament. In July, Carlsen emerged as the outright winner of the Bilbao (2016), well ahead of the runner up Nakamura. 2017 Wesley So broke Carlsen's winning run at cloudstreet Wijk aan Zee, with the latter finishing outright second on 8/13 at what is multi and social the Tata Steel (2017). In April Carlsen finished equal second alongside Caruana with 4/7 (+1=6), a point and a half behind outright winner Aronian at the category 20 GRENKE Chess Classic (2017).

After easily winning the Altibox Norway (Blitz) (2017) to determine the draw for the main event, Carlsen returned his worst result in over a decade to score 4/9 at the category 22 Altibox Norway (2017), narrowly missing out on last place and coming to summary, within one game of fast, losing his number one world ranking. Summary. He regained some form at is a the category 22 Sinquefield Cup (2017), placing second with 5.5/9, half a point behind the winner Vachier-Lagrave, the only player who defeated Carlsen in this event. He seems to have returned to form with an uncontested first place in summary, the powerful Isle of Man Open (2017), finishing with 7.5/9, half a point clear of Anand and Nakamura, and also boosting his rating back to 2838 (live), his best since April 2017. Carlsen won the fast in malaysia Glitnir Blitz Tournament in 2006 in Iceland. Cloudstreet. In September 2006 Carlsen placed 8th out of 16 participants at the World Blitz Championship (2006) in what is a transnational, Rishon LeZion, Israel. In the summary blitz tournament associated with the roads definition Tal Memorial 2006, namely the Tal Blitz Cup, Carlsen scored 17/34 points and placed 9th in a group of 18 participants. In March 2007, Carlsen played for the first time in summary, the Melody Amber blind and rapid chess tournament in Monte Carlo. In the 11 rounds of the 16th Amber Tournament (Blindfold) (2007), he achieved eight draws and three losses (placing =9th) then scored three wins, seven draws and one loss in the 16th Amber Tournament (Rapid) (2007) (=2nd), for an overall 8th place in the combined tournament.

In March 2008, Carlsen played for the second time in the Melody Amber blind and silk roads, rapid chess tournament, which was held in Nice for the first time. Carlsen achieved four wins, four draws and two losses in cloudstreet, the Amber Tournament (Blindfold) (2008), and in malaysia, three wins, two losses, and six draws in the Amber Tournament (Blindfold) (2008), resulting in cloudstreet, a shared second place in the overall tournament. In the Chess Classic Mainz (2008), Carlsen finished in what in health, second place after losing the cloudstreet final to defending champion Anand 3:1 (two losses, two draws). Fast Industry In Malaysia. 2009 saw Carlsen score equal first in the Amber Tournament (Blindfold) (2009) with 7/11 alongside Kramnik and Aronian, and equal second with Veselin Topalov at M-Tel Masters (2009) behind Shirov with a 2822 performance. He also won the XXII Magistral Ciudad de Leon (2009), a rapid knockout tournament, ahead of Morozevich, Ivanchuk, and Wang Yue. Just a few days after his 2nd placement at the Tal Memorial (2009), he won the World Blitz Championship (2009) with 31/42, a full three points ahead of runner-up Anand. He shared first place at the 2010 Amber Rapid and Blindfold Tournament with Ivanchuk; scoring 6 points in the blindfold and 8 points in the rapid, Carlsen accumulated 14 from a possible 22 points.

After a slow start in the Arctic Securities Chess Stars (2010) rapid tournament, he continued his success by cloudstreet summary defeating Anand in the two-game playoff for macklemore same love, gold. Cloudstreet. In the World Blitz Championship (2010), held in Moscow on 1618 November, Carlsen attempted to dark, defend his 2009 title. Cloudstreet. With a score of 23/38, he finished in third place behind Radjabov and what in health care, the winner Aronian. After the tournament, Carlsen played a private 40-game blitz match against Hikaru Nakamura, winning with a score of 2316. A phenomenal 9.5/11, 2.5 points clear of the field, in 20th Amber Tournament (Rapid) (2011) was insufficient for him to summary, win the overall contest, as his results in the 20th Amber Tournament (Blindfold) (2011) were poor, resulting in a 2nd overall to 2008 and dark figure of crime, 2009 overall winner Aronian. In July 2012 he came clear 2nd in the World Rapid Championship (2012) behind Karjakin with 10.5/15, and clear 2nd in the World Blitz Championship (2012) with 19.5/30, half a point behind Alexander Grischuk. In June 2014, he realized his ambition to be the triple champion (of standard, rapid and blitz chess) when he won the FIDE World Rapid Championship (2014) with 11/15, half a point ahead of cloudstreet, runner-up Caruana, and the FIDE World Blitz Championship (2014) with 17/21, one point clear of Nepomniachtchi and Nakamura. In October 2015, he successfully backed up to defend his title at the World Rapid Championship (2015), scoring 11.5/15, a point clear of runners-up Leinier Dominguez Perez, Teimour Radjabov and Ian Nepomniachtchi. Carlsen was second in the Paris Grand Chess Tour, placing second to Nakamura in the Grand Chess Tour Paris Rapid (2016) and what, equal first in the Grand Chess Tour Paris Blitz (2016) alongside Nakamura to cloudstreet summary, take second place behind the US grandmaster. Soon afterward, he was overall first in the Leuven legs of the Grand Chess Tour, having won both the transnational YourNextMove Rapid (2016) and the YourNextMove Blitz (2016). Carlsen won his final event before the upcoming Carlsen - Karjakin World Championship (2016) in New York, when he won the final of the summary Carlsen-Nakamura Chess.com Blitz Battle (2016) against be described, Hikaru Nakamura.

Carlsen obtained a large lead after the 5m+2spm and cloudstreet summary, 3m+2spm sections and narrowly lost the bullet 1m+1spm with a final score of 14.5-10.5. He placed equal first with 11/15 alongside Ivanchuk and is multi agency working in health care, Grischuk at summary the World Rapid Championship (2016), but placed third on countback. Industry. His unsuccessful attempt to defend his crown at the World Blitz Championship (2016) was a similarly tight affair, with Carlsen losing on countback to the 2016 World Championship Challenger Sergei Karjakin, both scoring 16.5/21. The following year in 2017, Carlsen won both the Paris and Leuven legs of the Grand Chess Tour of 2017 to lead the competition ahead of the Sinquifield and London legs to be staged later in 2017: he won the Grand Chess Tour Paris (Rapid) (2017) with 7/9 ahead of Grischuk and backed up with equal fourth at summary the Grand Chess Tour Paris (Rapid) (2017) to win the Paris leg on aggregate. At Leuven, Carlsen was third with 5.5/9 at the YourNextMove (Rapid) (2017) and is multi agency working, clear winner by four points at cloudstreet the YourNextMove (Blitz) (2017) to take out the Leuven leg on aggregate. The DSB Bank match between Loek van Wely and Magnus Carlsen took place 28th April - 1st May 2006. The four game classical time limit match was tied 2-2. Carlsen won the blitz portion of the dark of crime match 3.5-0.5. He won a rapid match against Peter Leko held in Miskolc, Hungary, scoring 5:3 (+2 =6).

Carlsen played in a curtain raiser to summary, the Norwegian Championship, winning the Carlsen - Predojevic Rapid Match (2013) by what in health care 2.5-1.5 (+1 =3); the match was organized by the Nansen Center for Peace and cloudstreet summary, Dialogue to celebrate the what is a transnational long-standing relationship between Lillehammer and Sarajevo. (1) Olympiad : Carlsen represented Norway on board one in the 36th Olympiad (2004), the 37th Chess Olympiad (2006), the Olympiad (2008), the Chess Olympiad (2010), the Chess Olympiad (2014) and in summary, the Chess Olympiad (2016). His best result was in the 2006 Olympiad, where he scored 6 points from macklemore same love 8 games and cloudstreet, came 5th for transnational, board one. In 2016, he scored 7.5/10 placing 6th on board one, assisting his twelfth seeded Norwegian team to place 5th. National He played board 1 for cloudstreet, Norway at the European Team Chess Championships (2007) and can best be described as, won an individual silver medal. He again played board 1 for cloudstreet summary, Norway at the European Team Championship (2015), but returned a very poor result with 3.5/7, losing another 16 rating points to bring him down to his lowest rating (2834) since January 2012.

Club Carlsen played four seasons in the European Club Cup. In 2001 and 2003 he played for what is multi agency in health and social, Asker Norway on board 6 and board 1 (after he had gained his FM title) respectively, while his father Henrik was reserve on both occasions. In 2007 he played board 3 for OS Baden Baden, and in 2008 he played top board for cloudstreet, MIKA Yerevan. His total game result from these 4 seasons was 15.5/27 (+11 -7 =9). He also played in the Norwegian Team Championship in 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2006, in the Bundesliga in food in malaysia, the 2004-05, 2006-07, 2007/08, 2008-09 seasons, and in summary, the Dutch Team Championship 2007. What Transnational Company. Other Team In August 2006, he played in the NH Hotels event featuring the older Experience Team vs Youth team (easily won by the Youth team 2822), and was equal top scorer with Alexander Beliavsky with 6.5/10. Ratings and rankings : The highest official rating achieved by cloudstreet summary Carlsen to date was 2882 in May 2014. His highest live rating was 2889.2 on 21 April 2014.

Both are the macklemore highest ratings ever achieved. By the end of the October 2017 rating period, Carlsen will have been world number one for a total of 87 months. He holds the record for cloudstreet summary, the longest period as the world's top ranked Junior (U20) - 36 months - from 1 January 2008 until 31 December 2010. He was also both world number one junior and world number one player for the first 10 months of 2010. Furthermore, he holds the record for the highest rating acquired by any player aged 13, and 17 through to 24 inclusive. Carlsen won the is multi working and social care Chess Oscars for 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 and he was also awarded Norway's annual Peer Gynt Prize for 2011 for being a person or institution that has achieved distinction in cloudstreet, society. (2) After he won the industry in malaysia World Championship he was awarded Norway's Name of the Year award for cloudstreet, 2013. (3) He has two sisters, Ellen Oen Carlsen and Ingrid Oen Carlsen. Carlsen helped Anand prepare for revolution be described as, the World Chess Championships in 2007 and 2008 and 2010. Carlsen has modeled for G-Star Raw, starting with its Autumn/Winter 2010 advertising campaign.

At the Sohn Conference held in New York in May 2015, Carlsen demonstrated his skill by playing three players in a blindfold clock simul. Carlsen and cloudstreet summary, each of the three players were given nine minutes. Carlsen won 3-0. Figure Of Crime. A video of the event can be seen at the link in footnote (4) . On September 22, 2016 he was in cloudstreet, New York City to what agency working and social, play a simul against summary, 11 users of the be described as Play Magnus mobile app. Everybody had 30 minutes on their clocks. Magnus won 11 to 0 (Carlsen Play Live Simul (2016)).

Stealing Domdaniel 's lines, are we? Magnus has not to prove anything to cloudstreet summary, you, besides he has proven you wrong long ago. He is the World Champ, and who is you? A detractor and hater, poor soul.. Plenty of tournament wins too, and silk roads, played four long world championship matches against Karpov, one of the top three players in cloudstreet, history and capable of wiping out top ten opposition without breaking a sweat, without losing any of macklemore same, them. Magnus has not to prove anything to you, besides he has proven you wrong long ago. He is the World Champ, and who is you? A detractor and hater, poor soul.. Hate ta break it ta tolengoof , but no-one has to summary, prove pissall to him. 1. He prove me wrong. 2. Win more open tourneys outside Norway.

3. Win olympic gold medals-plural. 4. Win the world cup. 5. and love, more to cloudstreet, come. Plenty of tournament wins too, and played four long world championship matches against same love, Karpov, one of the top three players in history and cloudstreet summary, capable of wiping out top ten opposition without breaking a sweat, without losing any of th. I Love Kasparov, I dont think he had 27 major tournament victories by 26. Can someone verify? If Magnus didnt have an extraordinary amount of talent to begin with would they have backed him? He used the resources that he had, only normal. Fiacher preferred to work alone, each to their own.

Maybe Fischer would have been weaker with seconds anyway, no computer analysis back then. So pointless comparing the.2 periods. 1. Macklemore. He prove me wrong. 2. Win more open tourneys outside Norway. 3. Summary. Win olympic gold medals-plural. 4. Win the world cup.

5. and what working in health care, more to come. He doesnt have to prove anything. He's already one of the greats. Where he finishes in summary, history ia upto him. Imagine he plays until 40, thats another 13 something years to achieve things, scary when you think about it. Too much randomness in world cups anyway. A loss and your pretty much out. Be Described As. If the format was longer, say 4 to 6 classical per round would be much better to see who is stronger. The way the cloudstreet format is, you can fall victim to prep and be pretty much out in a round. More to come. is telling.

You're admitting to making things up in what is a transnational, future to hold your argument. Probably not if he was born and raise in the Philippines. he would have to do it all by himself. But no. he was spoon fed since birth. Cloudstreet. Wesley on dark, the other hand. was left to fend off for himself, since day one. Fischer won the title at 29. Carlsen at 26 already has 27 major tournament titles, with 3 World Championship Wins. A load of horse manure. Tell it to the marines.

Magnus is backed by a battalion company including extra ordinary armoured special forces. ie. Cloudstreet Summary. seconds, coaches, chef, rich uncles and more. since day one. What. While. hmmmm. Fischer single-handedly with some help from his little friend GM Eugene defeated the Russian machinery. at ease. In terms of talent and disposal. Fischer still lords over cloudstreet Magnus by a wide margin. No questions asked. And your answer was: So pointless comparing the.2 periods. It seems to me that you are the one moving the goal posts to suit your purpose. You showed excessive pride and macklemore love, self-satisfaction in cloudstreet summary, Magnus achievements and his abilities and when countered your argument it's so pointless to compare him with Fischer. That's what loser would do. and I do know one if I see one. so lick your wound.

Conjecture without firm evidence. in what is a, short, speculation. Summary. But if Magnus was a Filipino, his name would be Magno. Fact. And if your grandmother was your grandpa, she would have balls----speculation. See the difference.

He is a notorious troller, feeding from the response he receives. Nobody take him seriously, so no need to rectify his ridicules claims. Incidentally, you've got this -- she would have balls -- the wrong way round (just like you get most things, now that I think of can best, it). The original is a Yiddish proverb (though there are many variant versions, like a chess opening, yah?) which goes If my grandmother had balls she'd be my grandfather. You *do* see the difference, don't you? Incidentally, you've got this -- she would have balls -- the cloudstreet wrong way round (just like you get most things, now that I think of it). The Neolithic Revolution Be Described. The original is cloudstreet, a Yiddish proverb (though there are many variant versions, like a chess opening, yah?) which goes If my grandmother had balls she'd be my grandfather. You *do* see the difference, don't you? Exciting times ahead. Are we going to surpass the level of the modus ponens/modus tollens discussion on Rogoff? Yeah, that'll work.

Somebody must be new on the internet. But it's worth a try reasoning with those who unawarely feed the troll. Especially a troll who is so trollish that he's barred from posting on his hero's own page. The original is a Yiddish proverb (though there are many variant versions, like a chess opening, yah?) which goes If my grandmother had balls she'd be my grandfather. You *do* see the dark of crime difference, don't you? Yes, I do see the difference. I made my own. not from a Yiddish proverb if there is such a thing.

Now I am flattered. He is a notorious troller A troll I am just because we differ in opinion. I didn't think your head swell that much. but oh well. so convenient a thing it is to be a reasonable creature to find fault and accuse someone without firm evidence. Nobody take him seriously, Exciting times ahead. That's not a match but an execution.

However, I like the pretty boys on the announcement of a death match between Williams and Finegold. Will it mean one of the two will be silent forever after the cloudstreet summary match?

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Just war theory deals with the justification of how and why wars are fought. The justification can be either theoretical or historical. The theoretical aspect is concerned with ethically justifying war and the forms that warfare may or may not take. The historical aspect, or the just war tradition, deals with the cloudstreet summary historical body of rules or agreements that have applied in various wars across the ages. For instance, international agreements such as the roads definition Geneva and Hague conventions are historical rules aimed at limiting certain kinds of cloudstreet, warfare which lawyers may refer to in prosecuting transgressors, but it is the role of ethics to examine these institutional agreements for their philosophical coherence as well as to inquire into roads definition, whether aspects of the conventions ought to be changed. Cloudstreet! The just war tradition may also consider the thoughts of various philosophers and lawyers through the ages and examine both their philosophical visions of wars ethical limits (or absence of) and whether their thoughts have contributed to what transnational company, the body of conventions that have evolved to guide war and warfare.

Historically, the just war tradition--a set of cloudstreet summary, mutually agreed rules of combatmay be said to commonly evolve between two culturally similar enemies. That is, when an array of of crime, values are shared between two warring peoples, we often find that they implicitly or explicitly agree upon limits to cloudstreet, their warfare. But when enemies differ greatly because of different religious beliefs, race, or language, and as such they see each other as less than human, war conventions are rarely applied. It is only when the enemy is seen to be a people, sharing a moral identity with whom one will do business in the following peace, that tacit or explicit rules are formed for how wars should be fought and macklemore same, who they should involve and what kind of relations should apply in summary the aftermath of war. In part, the motivation for forming or agreeing to certain conventions, can be seen as mutually benefitingpreferable, for instance, to the deployment of macklemore same love, any underhand tactics or weapons that may provoke an indefinite series of vengeance acts, or the kinds of action that have proved to be detrimental to summary, the political or moral interests to macklemore, both sides in the past. Regardless of the cloudstreet summary conventions that have historically formed, it has been the what working care concern of the majority of cloudstreet, just war theorists that the figure lack of rules to war or any asymmetrical morality between belligerents should be denounced, and that the rules of war should apply to all equally. Summary! That is, just war theory should be universal, binding on dark, all and capable in turn of appraising the actions of all parties over and above any historically formed conventions. The just war tradition is indeed as old as warfare itself.

Early records of collective fighting indicate that some moral considerations were used by warriors to limit the outbreak or to rein in the potential devastation of warfare. They may have involved consideration of women and children or the treatment of prisoners (enslaving them rather than killing them, or ransoming or exchanging them). Commonly, the earlier traditions invoked considerations of honor: some acts in war have always been deemed dishonorable, whilst others have been deemed honorable. However, what is honorable is cloudstreet summary often highly specific to culture: for instance, a suicidal attack or defense may be deemed the honorable act for one people but ludicrous to another. Robinson (2006) notes that honor conventions are also contextually slippery, giving way to pragmatic or military interest when required. Whereas the specifics of what is honorable differ with time and place, the very fact that one moral virtue is dark figure alluded to in the great literature (for example, Homers Iliad ) is sufficient for cloudstreet, us to note that warfare has been infused with some moral concerns from the beginning rather than war being a mere Macbethian bloodbath. The just war theory also has a long history. Parts of the Bible hint at silk roads ethical behavior in cloudstreet war and concepts of just cause, typically announcing the justice of war by what transnational, divine intervention; the Greeks may have paid lip service to the gods, but, as with the cloudstreet Romans, practical and political issues tended to overwhelm any fledgling legal conventions: that is, interests of what working in health and social, state or Realpolitik (the theory known as political realism would take precedence in summary declaring and waging war. Nonetheless, this has also been the macklemore reading of cloudstreet, political realists, who enjoy Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian War as an example of why war is necessarily the extension of politics and hence permeated by hard-nosed state interest rather than lofty pretensions to moral behavior. Although St.

Augustine provided comments on the morality of war from the Christian perspective (railing against the love of what company, violence that war can engender) as did several Arabic commentators in the intellectual flourishing from the cloudstreet summary 9th to 12th centuries, but the most systematic exposition in the Western tradition and one that still attracts attention was outlined by Saint Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century. In the silk roads definition Summa Theologicae , Aquinas presents the general outline of what becomes the traditional just war theory as discussed in modern universities. He discusses not only the justification of cloudstreet, war but also the what company kinds of activity that are permissible (for a Christian) in war (see below). Cloudstreet Summary! Aquinas's thoughts become the fast food industry in malaysia model for later Scholastics and cloudstreet, Jurists to expand and to gradually to universalize beyond Christendom notably, for instance, in relations with the peoples of America following European incursions into the continent. The most important of these writers are: Francisco de Vitoria (1486-1546), Francisco Suarez (1548-1617), Hugo Grotius (1583-1645), Samuel Pufendorf (1632-1704), Christian Wolff (1679-1754), and Emerich de Vattel (1714-1767). In the twentieth century, just war theory has undergone a revival mainly in response to the invention of nuclear weaponry and American involvement in the Vietnam war. The most important contemporary texts include Michael Walzer's Just and Unjust Wars (1977), Barrie Paskins and Michael Dockrill The Ethics of War (1979), Richard Norman Ethics, Killing, and be described as, War (1995), Brian Orend War and cloudstreet, International Justice (2001) and Michael Walzer on War and Justice (2001), as well as seminal articles by Thomas Nagel War and Massacre, Elizabeth Anscombe War and Murder, and a host of others, commonly found in the journals Ethics or The Journal of Philosophy and Public Affairs . Since the terrorist attacks on the USA on industry, 9/11 in 2001, academics have turned their attention to just war once again with international, national, academic, and military conferences developing and consolidating the summary theoretical aspects of the conventions. Just war theory has become a popular topic in International Relations, Political Science, Philosophy, Ethics, and Military History courses. Conference proceedings are regularly published, offering readers a breadth of issues that the topic stirs: for example, Alexander Moseley and Richard Norman, eds. Human Rights and Military Intervention , Paul Robinson, ed., Just War in a Comparative Perspective , Alexsander Jokic, ed., War Crimes and Collective Wrongdoing . Agency Working And Social! What has been of great interest is that in the headline wars of the past decade, the dynamic interplay of the rules and conventions of warfare not only cloudstreet summary remain intact on what is multi agency working in health, the battlefield but their role and hence their explication have been awarded a higher level of cloudstreet summary, scrutiny and macklemore love, debate.

In the political circles, justification of war still requires even in the most critical analysis a superficial acknowledgement of cloudstreet, justification. On the ground, generals have extolled their troops to adhere to the rules, soldiers are taught the just war conventions in the military academies (for example, explicitly through military ethics courses or implicitly through veterans experiences). Silk Definition! Yet despite the summary emphasis on abiding by roads definition, wars conventions, war crimes continue - genocidal campaigns have been waged by mutually hating peoples, leaders have waged total war on ethnic groups within or without their borders, and individual soldiers or guerilla bands have committed atrocious, murderous, or humiliating acts on their enemy. But, arguably, such acts do remain atrocities by virtue of the just war conventions that some things in war are deemed to be inexcusable, regardless of the righteousness of the cause or the noise and fog of summary, battle. Yet increasingly, the rule of law - the need to hold violators and what is multi agency working in health and social care, transgressors responsible for their actions in war and summary, therefore after the battle - is making headway onto the battlefield. In chivalrous times, the Christian crusader could seek priestly absolution for atrocities committed in war, a stance supported by Augustine for example; today, the what transnational company law courts are seemingly less forgiving: a violation of the summary conventions assumes that the soldier is responsible and accountable and should be charged for a crime. What Agency In Health And Social! Nonetheless, the idealism of those who seek the imposition of law and cloudstreet, responsibility on the battlefield (cf. Geoffrey Robertson's Crimes Against Humanity ), often runs ahead of the traditions and customs, or plain state interests, that demean or weaken the justum bellum that may exist between warring factions.

And in some cases, no just war conventions and hence no potential for legal acknowledgement of malfeasance, exist at all; in such cases, the ethic of war is considered, or is implicitly held to be, beyond the norms of peaceful ethics and therefore deserving a separate moral realm where fair is foul and foul is roads definition fair (Shakespeare, Macbeth I.i). In such examples (e.g, Rwanda, 1994), a people's justification of destructiveness and killing to whatever relative degree they hold to be justifiable triumphs over attempts to establish the laws of peaceful interaction into summary, this separate bloody realm; and in some wars, people fighting for dark of crime, their land or nation prefer to pick up the cudgel rather than the rapier, as Leo Tolstoy notes in War and Peace (Book 4.Ch.2), to sidestep the etiquette or war in favor securing their land from occupational or invading forces. The continued brutality of cloudstreet, war in the face of conventions and courts of international law lead some to same love, maintain that the cloudstreet application of morality to war is a nonstarter: state interest or military exigency would always overwhelm moral concerns. Macklemore Same Love! But there are those of a more skeptical persuasion who do not believe that morality can or should exist in war: its very nature precludes ethical concerns. But as there are several ethical viewpoints, there are also several common reasons laid against the need or the possibility of morality in war. Generally, consequentialists and act utilitarians may claim that if military victory is sought then all methods should be employed to ensure it is summary gained at a minimum of expense and time. Arguments from 'military necessity' are of this type; for example, to defeat Germany in World War II, it was deemed necessary to bomb civilian centers, or in the US Civil War, for dark, General Sherman to burn Atlanta. However, intrinsicists (who claim that there are certain acts that are good or bad in themselves) may also decree that no morality can exist in the state of summary, war: they may claim that it can only exist in love a peaceful situation in cloudstreet summary which, for instance, recourse exists to conflict resolving institutions. Alternatively, intrinsicists may claim that possessing a just cause (the argument from dark, righteousness) is cloudstreet a sufficient condition for silk roads, pursuing whatever means are necessary to gain a victory or to punish an enemy. A different skeptical argument, one advanced by Michael Walzer, is summary that the invention of nuclear weapons alters war so much that our notions of is multi agency working in health, moralityand hence just war theoriesbecome redundant.

However, against cloudstreet, Walzer, it can be reasonably argued that although such weapons change the nature of warfare (for example, the timing, range, and potential devastation) they do not dissolve the need to consider their use within a moral framework: a nuclear warhead remains a weapon and weapons can be morally or immorally employed. Whilst skeptical positions may be derived from consequentialist and macklemore same love, intrinsicist positions, they need not be. Cloudstreet! Consequentialists can argue that there are long-term benefits to silk roads definition, having a war convention. For example, by fighting cleanly, both sides can be sure that the war does not escalate, thus reducing the probability of creating an incessant war of counter-revenges. Intrinsicists, on the other hand, can argue that certain spheres of life ought never to be targeted in war; for summary, example, hospitals and densely populated suburbs. The inherent problem with both ethical models is that they become either vague or restrictive when it comes to war.

Consequentialism is an open-ended model, highly vulnerable to macklemore, pressing military or political needs to adhere to any code of conduct in war: if more will be gained from breaking the rules than will be lost, the consequentialist cannot but demur to military necessity. On the other hand, intrinsicism can be so restrictive that it permits no flexibility in war: whether it entails a Kantian thesis of summary, dutifully respecting others or a classical rights position, intrinsicism produces an what company, inflexible model that would restrain warriors actions to cloudstreet, the targeting of permissible targets only. In principle such a prescription is commendable, yet the nature of silk roads, war is not so clean cut when military targets can be hidden amongst civilian centers. Against these two ethical positions, just war theory offers a series of principles that aim to retain a plausible moral framework for cloudstreet summary, war. From the just war ( justum bellum ) tradition, theorists distinguish between the rules that govern the justice of war ( jus ad bellum ) from those that govern just and fair conduct in food industry war ( jus In bello ) and the responsibility and summary, accountability of warring parties after the war ( jus post bellum ). The three aspects are by the neolithic revolution be described as, no means mutually exclusive, but they offer a set of moral guidelines for waging war that are neither unrestricted nor too restrictive. The problem for ethics involves expounding the guidelines in particular wars or situations. The principles of the justice of war are commonly held to cloudstreet summary, be: having just cause, being a last resort, being declared by a proper authority, possessing right intention, having a reasonable chance of success, and the end being proportional to the means used. One can immediately detect that the principles are not wholly intrinsicist nor consequentialistthey invoke the concerns of can best as, both models. Whilst this provides just war theory with the advantage of flexibility, the lack of a strict ethical framework means that the principles themselves are open to broad interpretations. Examining each in turn draws attention to the relevant problems. Possessing just cause is the first and arguably the most important condition of jus ad bellum . Summary! Most theorists hold that initiating acts of aggression is unjust and gives a group a just cause to what is a, defend itself.

But unless aggression is defined, this proscription is cloudstreet rather open-ended. For example, just cause resulting from an act of industry, aggression can ostensibly be a response to a physical injury (for example, a violation of territory), an insult (an aggression against cloudstreet summary, national honor), a trade embargo (an aggression against economic activity), or even to a neighbors prosperity (a violation of social justice). Silk! The onus is then on summary, the just war theorist to provide a consistent and sound account of what is meant by just cause. Whilst not going into the reasons why the other explanations do not offer a useful condition of is a transnational company, just cause, the consensus is that an initiation of physical force is wrong and cloudstreet summary, may justly be resisted. Self-defense against physical aggression, therefore, is putatively the only sufficient reason for just cause. Nonetheless, the principle of self-defense can be extrapolated to macklemore same love, anticipate probable acts of aggression, as well as in assisting others against an oppressive government or from another external threat (interventionism). Cloudstreet! Therefore, it is commonly held that aggressive war is only permissible if its purpose is to retaliate against a wrong already committed (for example, to pursue and punish an aggressor), or to pre-empt an definition, anticipated attack. In recent years, the argument for preemption has gained supporters in the West: surely, the argument goes, it is right on cloudstreet, consequentialist grounds to strike the first blow if a future war is to be avoided? By acting decisively against the neolithic can best, a probable aggressor, a powerful message is sent that a nation will defend itself with armed force; thus preemption may provide a deterrent and a more peaceful world. Cloudstreet! However, critics complain that preemptive strikes are based on conjectured rather than impending aggression and in food industry effect denounce the moral principle that an agent is presumed innocent posturing and the building up of armaments do not in themselves constitute aggression, just a man carrying a weapon is summary not a man using a weapon, Consequentialist critics may also reject preemption on the grounds that it is more likely to destabilize peace, while other realists may complain that a preemptive strike policy is the ploy of a tyrannical or bullying power that justifies other nations to act in their self-interest to neutralize either through alliances or military action such is the principle behind the balance of silk roads definition, power politics in which nations constantly renew their alliances and treatises to ensure that not one of them becomes a hegemonic power.

It is also feared that the policy of preemption slips easily into cloudstreet summary, the machinations of false flag operations in which a pretext for war is created by a contrived theatrical or actual stunt of dressing ones own soldiers up in the enemys uniforms, for instance, and having them attack a military or even civilian target so as to gain political backing for a war. Unfortunately, false flag operations tend to be quite common. Just war theory would reject them as it would reject waging war to defend a leaders honor following an is multi agency care, insult. Realists may defend them on grounds of a higher necessity but such moves are likely to fail as being smoke screens for summary, political rather than moral interests. War should always be a last resort. Working And Social! This connects intimately with presenting a just cause all other forms of cloudstreet summary, solution must have been attempted prior to the declaration of war. It has often been recognized that war unleashes forces and powers that soon get beyond the grips of the leaders and generals to control there is too much fog in the neolithic be described as war, as Clausewitz noted, but that fog is also a moral haze in which truth and trust are early casualties. The resulting damage that war wrecks tends to be very high for most economies and so theorists have advised that war should not be lightly accepted: once unleashed, war is not like a sport that can be quickly stopped at the blow of a whistle (although the Celtic druids supposedly had the power to stop a battle by summary, virtue of their moral standing) and its repercussions last for generations. Holding hawks at bay though is a complicated task the apparent ease by which war may resolve disputes, especially in the eyes of those whose military might is apparently great and victory a certainty, does present war as a low cost option relative to same love, continuing political problems and economic or moral hardship. Yet the just war theorist wishes to underline the need to attempt all other solutions but also to tie the justice of the war to cloudstreet, the other principles of jus ad bellum too. The notion of proper authority seems to be resolved for most of the theorists, who claim it obviously resides in macklemore the sovereign power of the state.

But the concept of sovereignty raises a plethora of cloudstreet, issues to consider here. If a government is just, i.e., most theorists would accept that the government is accountable and does not rule arbitrarily, then giving the macklemore officers of the state the right to declare war is reasonable, so the more removed from a proper and just form a government is, the cloudstreet more reasonable it is that its claim to justifiable political sovereignty disintegrates. A historical example can elucidate the problem: when Nazi Germany invaded France in 1940 it set up the Vichy puppet regime. What allegiance did the people of France under its rule owe to food industry, its precepts and rules? A Hobbesian rendition of almost absolute allegiance to summary, the state entails that resistance is wrong (so long as the state is not tyrannical and agency and social care, imposes war when it should be the guardian of peace); whereas a Lockean or instrumentalist conception of the state entails that a poorly accountable, inept, or corrupt regime possesses no sovereignty, and the right of cloudstreet, declaring war (to defend themselves against the government or from a foreign power) is wholly justifiable.

The notion of proper authority therefore requires thinking about fast industry what is meant by sovereignty, what is meant by the state, and what is the proper relationship between a people and its government. The possession of right intention is ostensibly less problematic. The general thrust of the summary concept being that a nation waging a just war should be doing so for roads definition, the cause of justice and cloudstreet, not for reasons of self-interest or aggrandizement. Industry In Malaysia! Putatively, a just war cannot be considered to be just if reasons of national interest are paramount or overwhelm the pretext of fighting aggression. However, right intention masks many philosophical problems. According to Kant, possessing good intent constitutes the summary only condition of moral activity, regardless of the consequences envisioned or caused, and regardless, or even in spite, of fast industry in malaysia, any self interest in the action the agent may have. The extreme intrinsicism of Kant can be criticized on various grounds, the most pertinent here being the value of self-interest itself. At what point does right intention separate itself from self-interest is the cloudstreet summary moral worthiness of intent only gained by acting in favor of ones neighbor, and if so, what does that imply for moral action that one should woo ones neighbors spouse to fast industry, make him/her feel good? Acting with proper intent requires us to think about what is proper and it is not certain that not acting in self interest is necessarily the proper thing to do. On the one hand, if the cloudstreet summary only method to secure a general peace (some thing usually held to macklemore love, be good in itself) is to annex a belligerent neighbor's territory, political aggrandizement becomes intimately connected with the summary proper intention of maintaining the peace for all or the majority.

On the same other hand, a nation may possess just cause to defend an oppressed group, and may rightly argue that the proper intention is to cloudstreet, secure their freedom, yet such a war may justly be deemed too expensive or too difficult to wage; i.e., it is not ultimately in their self-interest to fight the just war. On that account, the realist may counter that national interest is paramount: only if waging war on behalf of is multi working care, freedom is also complemented by the securing of economic or other military interests should a nation commit its troops. The issue of intention raises the concern of practicalities as well as consequences, both of which should be considered before declaring war. The next principle is that of reasonable success. This is another necessary condition for waging just war, but again is insufficient by itself. Given just cause and right intention, the just war theory asserts that there must be a reasonable probability of success. The principle of reasonable success is summary consequentialist in that the costs and benefits of a campaign must be calculated. However, the fast food industry in malaysia concept of weighing benefits poses moral as well as practical problems as evinced in the following questions. Should one not go to the aid of a people or declare war if there is no conceivable chance of success?

Is it right to comply with aggression because the costs of not complying are too prohibitive? Would it be right to crush a weak enemy because it would be marginally costless? Is it not sometimes morally necessary to stand up to cloudstreet summary, a bullying larger force, as the Finns did when Russia invaded in 1940, for the sake of national self-esteem or simple interests of defending land? Historically, many nations have overcome the probability of defeat: the fight may seem hopeless, but a charismatic leader or rousing speech can sometimes be enough to food industry, stir a people into fighting with all their will. Winston Churchill offered the British nation some of the finest of war's rhetoric when it was threatened with defeat and invasion by cloudstreet, Nazi Germany in is multi agency and social 1940. For example: Let us therefore brace ourselves to do our duty, and so bear ourselves that, if the British Commonwealth and its Empire lasts for a thousand years, men will still say, 'This was their finest hour. .And What is our aim?.Victory, victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror; victory, however long and hard the summary road may be; for fast industry, without victory, there is no survival. (Speeches to summary, Parliament, 1940). However, the thrust of the reasonable success principle emphasizes that human life and economic resources should not be wasted in what would obviously be an uneven match. For a nation threatened by invasion, other forms of retaliation or defense may be available, such as civil disobedience, or even forming alliances with other small nations to equalize the odds. The final guide of jus ad bellum is that the macklemore same love desired end should be proportional to the means used. This principle overlaps into summary, the moral guidelines of how a war should be fought, namely the principles of jus In bello . With regards to just cause, a policy of war requires a goal, and that goal must be proportional to the other principles of just cause. Whilst this commonly entails the minimizing of war's destruction, it can also invoke general balance of power considerations.

For example, if nation A invades a land belonging to the people of nation B, then B has just cause to take the land back. According to the principle of proportionality, Bs counter-attack must not invoke a disproportionate response: it should aim to agency working and social, retrieve its land and cloudstreet, not exact further retribution or invade the aggressors lands, or in macklemore graphic terms it should not retaliate with overwhelming force or nuclear weaponry to resolve a small border dispute. That goal may be tempered with attaining assurances that no further invasion will take place, but for summary, B to invade and annex regions of A is the neolithic can best nominally a disproportionate response, unless (controversially) that is the only method for securing guarantees of cloudstreet, no future reprisals. For B to invade and annex A and of crime, then to continue to invade neutral neighboring nations on the grounds that their territory would provide a useful defense against other threats and a putative imbalance of power is even more unsustainable. On the whole the principles offered by jus ad bellum are useful guidelines for reviewing the morality of going to cloudstreet summary, war that are not tied to the intrinsicists absolutism or consequentialists open-endedness. Philosophically however they invoke a plethora of is a, problems by either their independent vagueness or by mutually inconsistent results a properly declared war may involve improper intention or disproportionate ambitions.

But war is a complicated issue and the principles are nonetheless a useful starting point for ethical examination and they remain a guide for both statesmen and women and for those who judge political proceedings. The rules of just conduct within war fall under the two broad principles of discrimination and proportionality. The principle of summary, discrimination concerns who are legitimate targets in war, whilst the principle of proportionality concerns how much force is morally appropriate. A third principle can be added to the traditional two, namely the principle of responsibility, which demands an examination of where responsibility lies in war. One strong implication of the justice of warfare being a separate topic of analysis to the justice of war is that the theory thus permits the judging of acts within war to be dissociated from it cause. Revolution! This allows the theorist to claim that a nation fighting an unjust cause may still fight justly, or a nation fighting a just cause may be said to fight unjustly. Summary! It is a useful division but one that does not necessarily sever all ties between the two great principles of warfare: the fast food justice of a cause remains a powerful moral guide by which warfare is to be judged, for what does it matter, it can be asked, if a nation wages a war of cloudstreet summary, aggression but does so cleanly? In waging war it is considered unfair and unjust to agency and social, attack indiscriminately since non-combatants or innocents are deemed to stand outside the field of war proper. Immunity from war can be reasoned from the cloudstreet summary fact that their existence and activity is not part of the essence of war, which is the killing of macklemore same, combatants. Since killing itself is highly problematic, the just war theorist has to proffer a reason why combatants become legitimate targets in the first place, and cloudstreet, whether their status alters if they are fighting a just or unjust war.

Firstly, a theorist may hold that being trained and/or armed constitutes a sufficient threat to combatants on revolution can best be described as, the other side and thereby the donning of uniform alters the persons moral status to legitimate target; whether this extends to peaceful as well as war duties is not certain though. Summary! Voluntarists may invoke the is multi boxing ring analogy: punching another individual is cloudstreet summary not morally supportable in what in health and social care a civilized community, but those who voluntarily enter the summary boxing ring renounce their right not to be hit. Dark Figure Of Crime! Normally, a boxer does not retain the right to summary, hit another boxer outside of the ring, yet perhaps a soldiers training creates a wholly different expectation governing his or her status and that wearing the uniform or merely possessing the training secures their legitimacy as a target both on and off the what agency working care battlefield. Such an argument would imply that it is right to attack unarmed soldiers or soldiers who have surrendered or who are enjoying the normality of civilian life, which just war theorists and historical conventions have traditionally rejected on the claim that when a soldier lays down his weapons or removes his uniform, he or she returns to summary, civilian life and hence the status of the the neolithic can best be described as non-combatant even if that return is temporary. Conversely, in joining an army the summary individual is the neolithic as said to renounce his or her rights not to be targeted in war the bearing of arms takes a person into summary, an alternative moral realm in which killing is the expectation and possible norm: it is world removed from civilian structures and historically has evolved rites of passage and exit that underline the alteration in status for cadets and veterans; all analogies to the fair play of sports fail at this juncture, for war involves killing and macklemore, what the cloudstreet summary British Army call unlimited liability. On entering the army, the civilian loses the right not to macklemore same, be targeted, yet does it follow that all who bear uniform are legitimate targets, or are some more so than others those who are presently fighting compared to those bearing arms but who are involved in cloudstreet supplies or administration, for instance? Others, avoiding a rights analysis for it produces many problems on what agency in health and social, delineating the boundaries of rights and the bearers, may argue that those who join the army (or who have even been pressed into conscription) come to terms with being a target, and hence their own deaths. This is argued for example by Barrie Paskins and Michael Dockrill in The Ethics of War (1979).

However, since civilians can just as readily come to terms with their own deaths and summary, it is not necessarily the case that a soldier has, their argument, although interesting, is not sufficient to defend the principle of discrimination and why soldiers alone should be targeted legitimately in war. In turn, rights-based analyses may be more philosophically productive in giving soldiers and critics crucial guidelines, especially those analyses that focus on the renouncing of rights by combatants by macklemore, virtue of their war status, which would leave nominally intact a sphere of immunity for civilians. Yet what is the status of summary, guerrilla fighters who use civilian camouflage in the neolithic can best as order to press their attacks or to hide? Similarly, soldiers on covert operations present intricate problems of identification and summary, legitimization: is there a difference between the two? Referring back to the fighters cause (for example, the guerrilla is a freedom fighter and thus carries a moral trump card) creates its own problems, which the just war theory in in malaysia dividing the justice of the cause from the justice of the manner in which war is fought attempts to avoid: the guerrilla fighter may breach codes of conduct just as the soldier on a politically sensitive covert operations may avoid targeting the wrong people. Walzer, in his Just and Unjust Wars (1977) claims that the summary lack of is a transnational company, identification does not give a government the right to kill indiscriminatelythe onus is on the government to identify the combatants, and summary, so, the implication goes, if there is of crime any uncertainty involved then an attack must not be made. Others have argued that the nature of modern warfare dissolves the cloudstreet summary possibility of discrimination: civilians are just as necessary causal conditions for the war machine as are combatants, therefore, they claim, there is no moral distinction in targeting an armed combatant and a civilian involved in arming or feeding the combatant. The distinction is, however, not closed by the nature of modern economies, since a combatant still remains a very different entity from a non-combatant, if not for the simple reason that the former is food industry in malaysia presently armed (and hence has renounced rights or is prepared to die, or is a threat), whilst the civilian is not. On the summary other hand, it can be argued that being a civilian does not necessarily mean that one is not a threat and hence not a legitimate target. If Mr Smith is the only individual in silk the nation to possess the correct combination that will detonate a device that could kill thousands, then he becomes not only causally efficacious in the firing of cloudstreet summary, a weapon of war, but also morally responsible; reasonably he also becomes a legitimate military target. His job effectively militarizes his status even though he does not bear arms.

The underlying issues that ethical analysis must deal with involve the what is a transnational company logical nature of an individual's complicity and the aiding and abetting the cloudstreet war machine, with greater weight being imposed on those logically closer than those logically further from the the neolithic as war machine in summary their work. At a deeper level, one can consider the role that civilians play in supporting an unjust war: to same love, what extent are they morally culpable, and if they are culpable in giving moral, financial, or economic support to some extent, does that mean they may become legitimate targets? This invokes the issue of collective versus individual responsibility that is in itself a complex topic but one that the principle of discrimination tries to circumvent by presenting guidelines for cloudstreet, soldiers that keep their activity within the realms of war and its effects rather than murder. It would be wrong, on dark figure, the principle of discrimination, to group the enemy into one targetable mass of people some can not be responsible for a war or its procedures, notably children. Yet, on cloudstreet, the other hand, if a civilian bankrolls a war or initiates aggression as a politician, surely he or she bears some moral responsibility for the ensuing deaths: some may argue that the wars justification rests upon silk, such shoulders but not the manner in which it is cloudstreet fought, while others may prefer to saddle the roads leader or initiator with the entire responsibility for how a war is cloudstreet fought on the argument that each combatant is responsible for those below him or her in rank so the political or civilian leaders are analogously responsible for all operating in the military field. The second principle of just conduct is that any offensive action should remain strictly proportional to the objective desired. This principle overlaps with the proportionality principle of figure of crime, just cause, but it is distinct enough to consider it in its own light. Proportionality for jus In bello requires tempering the extent and violence of warfare to cloudstreet, minimize destruction and be described, casualties. It is broadly utilitarian in that it seeks to minimize overall suffering, but it can also be understood from other moral perspectives, for instance, from harboring good will to cloudstreet summary, all (Kantian ethics), or acting virtuously (Aristotelian ethics).

Whilst the consideration of discrimination focuses on who is a legitimate target of war, the principle of proportionality deals with what kind of force is morally permissible. In fighting a just war in transnational which only summary military targets are attacked, it is still possible to breach morality by employing disproportionate force against an enemy. Whilst the earlier theoreticians, such as Thomas Aquinas, invoked the Christian concepts of charity and same, mercy, modern theorists may invoke either consequentialist or intrinsicist prescriptions, both of cloudstreet, which remain problematic as the foregoing discussions have noted. However, it does not seem morally reasonable to completely gun down a barely armed albeit belligerent tribe. At the battle of Omdurman in 1898 in the Sudan, six machine gunners killed thousands of dervishesthe gunners may have been in the right to defend themselves, but the macklemore same principle of proportionality implies that a battle end before it becomes a massacre. Similarly, following the battle of cloudstreet, Culloden in 1746 in Scotland, Cumberland ordered No Quarter, which was not only a breach of the principle of discrimination, for his troops were permitted to kill the wounded as well as supporting civilians, but also a breach of the principle of proportionality, since the battle had been won, and the Jacobite cause effectively defeated on the battle field.

What if a war and all of its suffering could be avoided by highly selective killing? Could just war theory endorse assassination for instance? Assassination programs have often been secretly accepted and employed by states throughout the centuries and appeal, if challenged, is often to a higher value such as self-defense, killing a target guilty of war crimes and atrocities, or removing a threat to peace and stability. The CIA manual on assassination (1954, cf. Revolution Be Described! Belfield), sought to distinguish between murder and assassination, the latter being justifiable according to the higher purposes sought.

This is analogous to just war theorists seeking to put mass killing on a higher moral ground than pure massacre and slaughter and is fraught with the same problems raised in this article and in the just war literature. On grounds of discrimination, assassination would be justifiable if the target were legitimate and not, say, the wife or children of a legitimate target. On grounds of proportionality, the policy would also be acceptable, for if one man or woman (a legitimate target by cloudstreet summary, virtue of his or her aggression) should die to avoid further bloodshed or to secure a quicker victory, then surely assassination is covered by the just war theory? The founder of the Hashshashin society (c.11-13thC), Hasan ibn el Sabah preferred to target or threaten warmongers rather than drag innocents and noncombatants into bloody and protracted warfare: his threats were often successful for he brought the figure of crime reality of death home to the leaders who otherwise would enjoy what lyricist Roger Waters calls the bravery of being out of range. In recent years, the US and summary, UK proclaimed that the war in dark figure the Gulf was not with the Iraqi people but with its leader and his regime; the US government even issued a bounty on the heads of key agents in the Baath party; indeed, Saddam Husseins sons, Uday and Qusay with a bounty of ?15m, were killed in summary a selective hunt and macklemore love, destroy mission rather than being captured and brought to cloudstreet summary, trial for the crimes asserted of them. Assassination would apparently clear the two hurdles of discrimination and proportionality, yet the intrinsicist wing of dark of crime, just war theorists would reasonably claim that underhand and covert operations, including assassination, should not form a part of war on grounds that they act to cloudstreet, undermine the same respect due ones enemy (not matter how cruel he or she is) as well as the moral integrity of the assassin; the consequentialists would also counter that such policies also encourage the enemy to retaliate in similar manner, and one of the sustaining conclusions of just war theory is that escalation or retaliatory measures (tit for tat policies) should be avoided for their destabilizing nature. Once initiated, assassination tends to summary, become the norm of political affairs indeed, civil politics would thus crumble into fearful and barbaric plots and is multi working and social care, conspiracies (as did Rome in its last centuries) in a race to gain power and mastery over others rather than to forge justifiable sovereignty. The principles of proportionality and discrimination aim to temper war's violence and range; while they may ostensibly imply the acceptance of cloudstreet summary, some forms of warfare, their malleability also implies that we continuously look afresh upon seemingly acceptable acts. Accordingly, they are complemented by working, other considerations that are not always explicitly taken up in the traditional exposition of jus In bello , this is especially true in the case of the issue of responsibility. Jus in bello requires that the agents of war be held responsible for cloudstreet, their actions.

This ties in their actions to morality generally. Some, such as Saint Augustine argues against this assertion: who is but the sword in the hand of him who uses it, is not himself responsible for the death he deals. Those who act according to is multi agency working and social care, a divine command, or even God's laws as enacted by the state and who put wicked men to death have by summary, no means violated the commandment, 'Thou shalt not kill. Whilst this issue is connected to the concepts of just cause, it does not follow that individuals waging a just, or unjust war, should be absolved of what transnational company, breaching the principles of just conduct. Readily it can be accepted that soldiers killing other soldiers is cloudstreet part of the the neolithic can best be described nature of warfare for which soldiers ought to be prepared and cloudstreet, trained, but when soldiers turn their weapons against non-combatants, or pursue their enemy beyond what is fast food industry reasonable, then they are no longer committing legitimate acts of war but acts of murder. The principle of responsibility re-asserts the burden of abiding by cloudstreet summary, rules in times of peace on fast industry, those acting in summary war to remind them that one day they will once more take up civilian status and should be prepared to do so conscientiously, free of any guilt from war crimes. The issues that arise from this principle include the morality of obeying orders (for example, when one knows those orders to be immoral), as well as the moral status of ignorance (not knowing of the effects of ones actions either reasonably or literally). Responsibility for acts of war relate back to the tenets of jus ad bellum as well as jus in bello , for the justification of going to war involves responsibility as well as the acts ordered and committed in war.

In reviewing the stories from fast, military ethics readers, the cloudstreet acts of bravery that attract our attention involve soldiers standing up to do the right thing against dark figure, either the prevailing momentum of the platoon or the orders from higher up; the realist rejects such acts as infrequent or unnecessary performances that do not alter the main characteristic of war and its innate brutality, yet such acts also remind the critic as well as the soldier of the cloudstreet importance of the neolithic revolution can best be described as, returning to cloudstreet, the civilian mode with good conscience. The aftermath of war involves the relinquishing of armed conflict as a means of resolving disputes and the donning of more civil modes of conduct but it also raises questions concerning the nature of the post bellum justice. Following the cessation of a war, three possibilities emerge: either the army has been defeated, has been victorious, or it has agreed to a ceasefire. Principles of justice may then be applied to each situation. What Is Multi Agency Working And Social! Orend presents a useful summary of the principles of jus post bellum : the principle of discrimination should be employed to avoid imposing punishment on innocents or non-combatants; the rights or traditions of the defeated deserve respect; the claims of victory should be proportional to the wars character; compensatory claims should be tempered by the principles of discrimination and proportionality; and, controversially, the need to summary, rehabilitate or re-educate an aggressor should also be considered. It has often been remarked that justice, like history, is written by the victors. Silk Roads! A defeated army and indeed the cloudstreet summary civilian body from which the same army stems should thus be prepared to subject itself to the imposition of rules and forms of cloudstreet summary, punishments, humiliation, and fast food industry in malaysia, even retributions that it would not otherwise agree to. The lives, values, and resources that have been fought for must now be handed over to the conquerors.

When put this way, when one readily imagines ones own countrys army falling to an aggressive enemy, the terms immediately appear fearful and summary, unjust and may stir a greater endeavor to make the victory hollow by the raising of guerrilla or even terrorist organizations to thwart the conquerors designs. Yet when ones own army is victorious, the partiality of victory can be so easily dismissed on the enthusiastic wave that accompanies triumph: victory is so often associated with the greater right when ones own country vanquishes its enemy, and assumedly with that right comes the justification to is a transnational, impose conditions upon the vanquished. In so many wars in history, both ancient and modern, victory has provided the winners with the means of exploiting the defeated nation and for claiming rights over its lands and people whether in the form of enslavement or in monopolistic mercantile contracts; sometimes an cloudstreet, appeal to divine justice is made; at company other times the supremacy of ones nation, race, creed, or political order is lauded over the defeated. Economic exploitation is not the only means of cloudstreet summary, subjugating the industry defeated: new political or religious frameworks can also be imposed sometimes as a means of rehabilitating the defeated or as a means to avoid the circumstances (political or economic) that may bring about further warfare; the philosopher must naturally inquire as to the justice of such measures. The just war theorist is keen to remind warriors and politicians alike that the summary principles of what is a transnational, justice following war should be universalizable and cloudstreet summary, morally ordered and that victory should not provide a license for imposing unduly harsh or punitive measures or that state or commercial interests should not dictate the form of the new peace. Love! Similarly, imposing an alternative political or religious is not likely to summary, be conducive to peace, as Edmund Burke prophetically warned about decreeing for the rights of man in an unprepared culture; re-educating a defeated military or bureaucracy may seem reasonable and is a transnational company, arguably was successful in post-war Germany (1945), yet such a program may also be so superficial or condescending as to have only short term and illusory benefits or act to cloudstreet summary, further humiliate the defeated into fast industry, seething desire for revenge.

In post-war Iraq (2003-date), the rehabilitation programs have met with mixed success and have often been criticized for favoring some ethnic groups over cloudstreet summary, others, i.e., affecting political and cultural nuances that an outsider would not be aware of. Criticism may stem from either intrinsicist reasons (that the defeated should still be viewed as a people deserving moral respect and their traditions held as sacrosanct) or consequentialist reasons (that punitive impositions are likely to produce a backlash); but again it is worth reminding that just war theory tends to merge the the neolithic as two to avoid awkward implications derived from either position singly. At this point, the attraction for jus post bellum thinkers is to return to the initial justice of the war. Consider a war of self-defense: this is considered by summary, most, except absolute pacifists, to food in malaysia, be the most justifiable of cloudstreet summary, all wars. If the people are defeated but their cause remains just, should they then continue the fight to rid their country of all the vestiges of occupation? What if fighting is impossible? Should they bow their heads in honorable defeat and accept the victors terms graciously?

Locke believed that an unjustly defeated people should bide their time until their conquerors leave: if God has taken away all means of seeking remedy, there is nothing left but patience. ( Second Treatises , 177); however, the right always remains with those who fought against an unjust war but they do not gain any moral right to attack indiscriminately or disproportionately (such as terrorizing the invaders own civilians or soldiers at rest), although they may carry on their claim for freedom over the generations. A realist, however, may ask how a people are to dark of crime, regain their freedom if they do not raise arms against their sea of troubles? Nonetheless, if the good fight is to continue, most theorists follow Locke and prohibit breaches of the jus in bello principles: while it would be wrong to summary, bow to a tyrant or conquering army, it would be immoral to target their families in order to same, encourage the occupying army to leave. Others may counsel civil disobedience and other forms of intransigence to signal displeasure. If, on the other hand, the victors have won a just war against an aggressor, Locke argues that the victors right does not extend to the aggressive nations civilian population, but that it does extend to all those engaged in the aggression and that it extends absolutely: that is, the just conqueror has absolute rights of life and cloudstreet, death over the defeated aggressors. The aggressor, one who initiates war, puts the individual or the community into a state of war, he argues, and so the defender has an revolution be described, absolute prerogative to use whatever force necessary to secure freedom and peace: accordingly, in cloudstreet victory, the victors may enslave or kill the aggressors. Lockes is an extreme although not logically incoherent position and figure of crime, his exhortations may be compared to other moral positions (often emerging from religious thinking) to temper the justice in cloudstreet favor of other virtues such as charity, liberality, and justice. Indeed, King Alfred the Great of Wessex (c.878AD) defeated the Viking invader Guthrum in battle and rather than executing him as the food in malaysia Vikings would have done Alfred, he ordered them to join the Christian religion and then, and probably more importantly, offered them a stake in the land: toleration merged with prudence and self-interest ensured Guthrum was no longer a threat.

Indeed, Machiavelli warned that killing an opponents family is likely to raise their ire but taking away their land is summary guaranteed to continue the fight over generations. It may be reasonably held that the aggressors deserve punishment of some sort, although Alfreds example highlights an alternative view of dealing with an enemy, one that reminds the is a transnational theorist that peace not further war remains the summary goal. But what if the defeated aggressors are guilty of atrocities, surely they should be made to stand trial to send a signal to what is multi working, other war criminals as well as to punish them for their own misdeeds? Here we enter the debates regarding punishment: does punishing a violator make any sense except to exact either retribution, revenge, or to cloudstreet, promote a deterrence? Can the victors be sure of their claim to punish the aggressors and what good could possibly flow from bringing more violence or enslavement to the world? In asserting the need to find universalisable principles, the just war theorist is usually keen to insist that any war crimes trials are held in neutral states and presided over by the neolithic revolution as, neutral parties, rather than the victors whose partiality in proceedings must be presumed: after all, in the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials, no allied generals or politicians were held accountable for the atrocities created by cloudstreet, bombing civilian centers in Germany and Japan and the dropping of nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The end game and hence the jus post bellum certainly merit attention before the battles are lost or won: what should be the ruling affairs once the revolution can best peace is proclaimed? Should the terms of wars end be elaborated and publicly pronounced as to ensure all parties are aware of the costs of defeat?

Is it right that an army should demand unconditional surrender, for cloudstreet, instance, when such a policy may entail a protracted war for no incentive is given to the other side to surrender; on the other hand, unconditional surrender implies a derogatory view of the dark figure of crime enemy as one not to be respected either in or after war. Yet if an unconditional surrender policy does suitably raise the stakes of fighting war it may act as a sufficient deterrent against possible aggressors or act as a useful diplomatic tool to summary, bring a worried enemy back to peaceful overtures. What Transnational Company! Similarly, is it right that an army should demand reparations in advance rather than leave them undisclosed and thereby risk the uncertainty of punishment creating a backlash from the defeated, who may not wish to be so subjected? To keep the expected conditions of wars end secretive does not seem a wise move in summary that uncertainty generates fear, and fear can generate a harder campaign than otherwise would be necessary; but if the publicized conditions appear onerous to the enemy, then they have good reasons to prolong and/or intensify their own fight. Of course, if promises of an amnesty or fair treatment of prisoners is reneged on by the victor, then all trust for future arrangements is lost and the consequences imply embedding hatreds and mistrust for generations. Assume that victory is given, that the army has defeated its enemy on the battlefield so attention turns to what agency in health, the nature of the post bellum justice of cloudstreet summary, dealing with the defeated regardless of its intentions beforehand. Arguably, the definition very nature of the warring participants vision of each other and of themselves will color the proceedings both politically and morally. A victorious side, for instance, that sees itself as rightfully triumphant is more likely to impose its will and exactions upon the defeated in a more stringent manner in which a victorious side that sees itself as its enemys equal; but universality demands seeing ones enemy as oneself and understanding not just the Realpolitik of state interests and state gains in victory but also the conventions of magnanimity and honor in victory (or defeat). Consider the demands for reparations.

A defeated aggressor may just be asked to pay for the damage incurred by the war (as justice demands of criminals that they pay for their crimes). Cloudstreet Summary! But to what extent should the reparations extend? Should there be demands for retribution and deterrence added in, so that those deemed responsible for their aggression should be put on trial and suitably punished (and what would suitable mean in this instance that Saddam Hussein stand trial for his invasion of Kuwait implies that George W Bush similarly stand trial for macklemore same, his invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq?). In forming the conditions of defeat, should neutral third parties be turned to so as to cloudstreet, avoid later accusations of victors justice and the partiality that such justice can invoke or imply, or does victory present the victor with the ultimate moral wreath to definition, justify whatever demands seen appropriate or fitting? Should a war be indecisive though, the character of the peace would presumably be formed by the character of the ceasefire namely, the cessation of fighting would imply a mere hiatus in which the belligerents regain the time and summary, resources to stock their defenses and prepare for what is multi in health care, further fighting. As such, a ceasefire would be merely a respite for cloudstreet summary, the military to regain its strengths. Macklemore! However, just war theory also acts to remind contenders that war is a last resort and that its essential aim is always peace, so if peace is forthcoming in any guise, it is morally critical for all parties to seek a return to summary, a permanent peace rather than a momentary lapse of war. This article has described the main tenets of the just war theory, as well as some of the roads problems that it entails.

The theory bridges theoretical and applied ethics, since it demands an adherence, or at least a consideration of meta-ethical conditions and summary, models, as well as prompting concern for the practicalities of war. A few of those practicalities have been mentioned here. Other areas of interest are: hostages, innocent threats, international blockades, sieges, the use of weapons of mass destruction or of anti-personnel weapons (for example, land mines), and the morality and practicalities of interventionism.

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Alice Walker#8217;s #8221;Everyday Use#8221; Essay Sample. Cloudstreet? Write an essay of approximately 750 words on fast food in malaysia Everyday Use (For Your Grandmother, by Alice Walker, in which you discuss the theme of the story, how the characters relate to or embody the theme, and the significance of the man-made objects (especially the summary quilt) to transnational, the theme. The theme of a story is similar to the thesis in an essay except that it is usually not stated explicitly; it is cloudstreet summary, often implied and what is a deals with a universal issue that the narrative explores through the use of specific events and characters. Cloudstreet? The theme is almost always more ambiguous than the other literary techniques. As with any essay, there should be a clear introduction, body, and conclusion; it should also be written in the third person, that is, eliminate the I think, In my opinion, etc. Your primary source is the short story itself, which is available on the neolithic revolution can best Blackboard. In addition, you must incorporate two of the secondary sources that you will find in the quotes listed below. Whether you quote or paraphrase, you must provide the proper MLA in-text citation, but you do not have to provide a Works Cited page at this time. Remember, these sources are to help support your argument/interpretation, not make the argument for you. . . . I really see that story as almost about one person, the old woman and two daughters being one person. The one who stays and sustainsthis is the older womanwho has on cloudstreet the one hand a daughter who is the same way, who stays and abides and loves, plus the part of fast industry in malaysia themthis autonomous person, the summary part of them that also wants to figure of crime, go out into cloudstreet summary the world to see change and the neolithic revolution can best be described as be changed . . Cloudstreet? . . Statement by Alice Walker in an interview quoted by Mary Helen Washington in macklemore, her An Essay on Alice Walker, on pages 101-102, and published in the book, Alice Walker, Everyday Use, edited by Barbara T. Christian, in the series Women Writers: Texts and Contexts, published by cloudstreet, Rutgers University Press in what is multi agency working and social, 1994 in New Brunswick, NJ. Washingtons essay is on cloudstreet pages 85-104.

On page 102 of this essay, Mary Helen Washington writes, Everywhere in the story the fears and in malaysia self-doubt of the woman artist are revealed. The narrator-mother remains hostile to Dee and partial to the homely daughter, Maggie, setting up . . . opposition between the two daughters. . . . Washington further states, on page 103, that Everyday Use tells a . . . Cloudstreet Summary? threatening tale of the woman writers fears, of the difficulty of reconcil- ing home and is a transnational art, particularly when the distance from home has been enlarged by educa- tion, by life among the gentlefolk, and by literary recognition. In critically analyzing the uses of the cloudstreet concept of heritage, Walker arrives at important distinctions. As an abstraction rather than a living idea, its misuse can subordinate people to artifact, can elevate culture above the community. And because she uses, as the arti- fact, quilts which were made by Southern Black women, she focuses attention on those supposedly backward folk who never heard the word heritage but fashioned a functional tradition out of little matter and fast much spirit. Barbara T. Cloudstreet Summary? Christian, Alice Walker: The Black Woman Artist as Wayward. This quote is on page 130; the whole essay is on Pages 123-147 and is in the same book as the previous two quotes. Also in this book, Houston A. Revolution Can Best As? Baker, Jr. and Charlotte Pierce-Baker offer another perspective on the story in their essay, Patches: Quilts and Community in Alice Walkers Everyday Use (pages 149-165): If one takes a different tack and suggests that the quilt as a metaphor presents not a stubborn contrariness, a wayward individuality, but a communal bonding that confounds traditional definitions of art and of the artist, then one plays on possibilities in the quilting trope [metaphor] rather different from those explored by [Barbara T.] Christian. What we want to suggest in our own adaptation of the cloudstreet trope is that it opens a fascinating interpretive window on vernacular dimensions of lived, creative experience in the United States. Quilts, in their patched and many-colored glory offer not a counter to tradition, but, in fact, an instance of the only legitimate tradition of the people that exists. This passage is on page 158. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Alice Walker#8217;s #8221;Everyday Use#8221; essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!

Relevant essay suggestions for Alice Walker#8217;s #8221;Everyday Use#8221; The lives of the characters in agency in health, Alice Walkers story Everyday Use have quite big differences. The three main characters are Mama, Maggie, and Dee. The events that occurred in each#8230; #8220;Everyday Use#8221; by Alice Walker. Alice Walker wrote a short story called #8220;Everyday Use,#8221; based on her life as an African in early America. The story was made into a short film that followed the#8230; Character Analysis of Maggie Johnson in #8220;Everyday Use#8221; by Alice Walker. When two daughters are raised alike yet live differently, there is a fine line of cloudstreet summary distinction between the traits and aspirations of the two, as Alice Walker drew portraits of#8230; Character Analysis of Dee in Alice Walkers Everyday Use The character of Dee in Alice Walkers Everyday Use comes across as being very shallow, selfish and figure arrogant from the very beginning of the story. As the story progresses though,#8230; Explication of cloudstreet Alice Walkers #8220;a woman is not a potted plant#8221; Walker writes this poem using a potted plant as metaphor describing a woman#8217;s role in the 20th century.

The speaker in Walker#8217;s poem describes the revolution as great depression of women during#8230; A Lesson About Family: Alice Walker#8217;s #8220;Everyday Use#8221; Many sociologists define the term values as cultural types of standards by which people measure goodness and beauty. These values also serve as broad guidelines for summary, social living and human#8230;

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essay on the tango A farewell dinner in a Montevideo restaurant on a summer night, with tables spilling out onto the pavement under the plane trees. A famous Uruguayan poet in his early forties consoles the guest of honour on the eve of his return home to Europe. Spontaneously, the Uruguayan breaks out into an appropriate tango that speaks of friendship and summary the bittersweet sorrow of parting. A woman at the table listens, then interrupts with another tango. The poet begins a third. Soon they stand together, the one starting, the other joining in. The Neolithic Revolution? The spirit is cloudstreet not that of a contest but of a quiet feast of what is a transnational company nostalgia.

Tango follows tango. Two hours later they still stand there, gently egging each other on. It is three o'clock in the morning. 'When you come back,' promises the poet, 'we'll get drunk for summary three days and three nights and I'll sing you three hundred tangos. That's how many I know. Three or four hundred.'

The Spirit of the Tango in Buenos Aires. An Argentine novelist comes back to his family, his home, his city, his country, his world - Buenos Aires - after seven years, seven months, and seven days of political exile in dark of crime, Mexico. I meet him ten days after his return. He is bursting with happiness, drunk with happiness, and is absolutely full of himself. I ask what he's doing. 'I'm making love to Buenos Aires,' he says.

Vast , sprawling, flat Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the Argentine Republic, divided from the Province of Buenos Aires and the rest of the country by the ring road known as the General Paz. The writer and I talk of summary foreign cities - Mexico, New York, Rome, Paris, London. I chide him for not knowing Europe. For a moment he looks worried, inadequate, then the radiance engulfs him again, and he is able to announce emphatically, 'No, it will be twenty years before I cross the General Paz again.' Jorge Luis Borges on the Tango. 'Dictionaries of music give a definition of the tango that is both elementary and straightforward, but a French or a Spanish composer who correctly pieces together a #147;tango#148; finds to his astonishment that he has constructed something that Argentine ears do not recognize, that our memories do not cherish, and that our bodies reject. Care? Without Buenos Aires evenings and cloudstreet nights, no tango can be made.' In origin and development - even in its dates - the tango parallels exactly American ragtime and jazz. Like jazz, the tango's beginnings were lowly and illegitimate.

Born on the waterfronts and in the outer slums of Buenos Aires and Montevideo, it was taken up in a variety of dance halls, dives, and whorehouses. 'That reptile of the brothels', one distinguished Argentine writer dubbed the tango, in 1917. In the same way that American blacks speak of their most intimate music as soul music, to the contemporary Argentine - and definition especially the man of Buenos Aires, the porteno - the tango is the expression of his soul. As a dance, choreographically, the tango marks a departure from previous dances, folk or formal, in that it was performed by couples closely entwined. Summary? The movements involved an intimate parting and coming together again in same love, a manner blatantly romantic and sexual. Hence the cloudstreet summary, lubriciousness generally attributed to the tango; hence, given the social conditions under which it was born and flourished, its popular appeal. The tango emerged, probably not before 1880, in the River Plate port cities of silk roads definition Montevideo, Buenos Aires, Rosario, and La Plata. The earliest tangos were without lyrics and cloudstreet summary were danced, but its steps and figures evolved before anyone knew he was dancing the tango. Musicologists trace the tango back to the habanera, Cuban music of the late nineteenth century with similar rhythms, whose own origins stem from France. But the line of what agency and social descent is not direct. Along the summary, way, a variety of influences gave shape to what we now know as the dark, tango.

Among these were the Spanish zarzuela, the Andalusian tango, and - via South American freed slaves - African rhythms, especially the candombe. Some historians claim that the tango, as a dance, was a parody by the blacks of the politer dances of the cloudstreet summary, day, such as waltzes, mazurkas, polkas, etc. The word 'tango' itself seems to be of African origin. A reflection of the tango's complex roots is found in the fact that when at the turn of the century the first tangos were published, they were termed not only tango criollo, or Argentine tango (to distinguish it from the Andalusian), but tango-habaneras, tango-milongas, etc. The milonga was a native forerunner. Its origins were country, just as the tango's were urban, and it stemmed from the tradition of payadores , who improvised ballads to a guitar accompaniment. In the earliest stage, tangos were anonymous and, as they were never written down, most of them have been lost.

When at industry in malaysia some point words were added to the music they followed the cloudstreet, payador tradition - that is, they were improvised. They were also quite frequently salacious. Borges remembers these lines from a milonga of the food in malaysia, period: You may escape from my balls, but from my prick - never! One can hear quite clearly in cloudstreet summary, a number of the earliest recorded tangos traces of Spanish zarzuela and occasionally bits of waltz and even ragtime. It would still be some years before the true tango was defined. Not until the first tangos were published as sheet music around 1900 do we know anything about the composers. The city of Buenos Aires counted a population of 165,000 in 1865; by 1914, the silk, figure had swollen to summary, one and a half million. Proportionally, the same was true for smaller Montevideo. At the same time, all along the silk definition, River Plate people from the summary, country, displaced by new forms of rural exploitation, were flocking to the cities. Factories burgeoned; so did conventillos , or slum tenements.

In 1919, close to half the dwellings of Buenos Aires were conventillos . The wealthy, elegant Barrio Norte began to grow after the yellow fever epidemic of the the neolithic can best, 1870s. The first tramcars appeared, the first bicycle, the summary, first telephone, gaslight, electricity, sanitation. The exclusive Jockey Club was created in the 1880s, and the city began to be modernized in revolution be described, the European style. Cloudstreet Summary? Beef, hides, and grain were exported; economic links with England were very close. The counterpart to this financial boom was the working-class neighbourhoods and forty thousand new factories and whole hard-bitten suburbs where the is multi working in health and social care, teamsters and slaughterhouse workers lived in smouldering poverty. Populist parties grew as well as socialism and anarchism. Out of cloudstreet summary this breeding ground came the tango, with its mix of Spanish and Caribbean rhythms.

In twenty years, such was its genuine popularity that it swept away all the music and dance before it - the milongas and waltzes and polkas. In the same way that Buenos Aires and Montevideo were making Argentines and Uruguayans of Spaniards and what is multi agency care Italians and making city dwellers of cloudstreet summary rural people, so too the tango became more and dark more native, more and more River Plate. With his elbows on the filthy table. his eyes lost in a dream, the wop Domingo Pulenta thinks. about the tragedy of his having emigrated. So run the lyrics of cloudstreet one early tango. A historian writes that 'Foreigners and native Argentines invented the silk, tango in sad and poverty-stricken conditions on summary the tumble-down edges of Buenos Aires; they had no formal preparation and little technical skill.' The classical tango, dating from about 1900 to 1920, is food quite unlike the sentimental tango that is summary widely known outside Argentina and that is a late development and a degeneration. This latter-day tango is a lament for be described misfortunes suffered and it is cloudstreet summary rife with self-pity.

The early tango, however, is joyous, bold, gay, and what - as Borges put it - 'at one and the same time stoic and orgiastic.' The career of Angel Villoldo spans perfectly this classic era of the tango, and his life and personality typify the spirit of the cloudstreet summary, age. Revolution? He was born between 1864 and 1869, worked as a typesetter on the newspaper La Nacion and wrote plays on the side. He had a considerable reputation as a payador , but he was to win enduring fame as a composer and singer. He also directed choruses during Carnival festivities, wrote libretti for choral societies, was a livestock dealer at the slaughterhouses, and a circus clown. During the Centenery celebrations, in 1910, Villoldo sang in several restaurants, bars, and cafes, in various parts of Buenos Aires.

Here are some examples of his bold lyrics sketching city life: Wanting to cloudstreet summary, win the grand lottery, Juanita bought a ticket. ending in the number eight, but what came up was seven. Reverend Jaifio was found.

In Lavalle Square. The night before last. With a black girl in his carriage. Day before yesterday five girls. came to fast food industry, me for confession, and after having confessed. they kissed my . girdle. In the original, the last example contains rhymes that suggest to the listener that the word coming after the ellipses will be 'balls'.

Villoldo often met with tram drivers at one of their terminals, and in cloudstreet, the early years of this century he wrote a famous tango about the tramcars. His music was never melancholy; he wrote amusing anecdotes about the realities of his day. He was an inveterate womanizer and macklemore same left this self-portrait in one of his best-known tangos: I am a son of Buenos Aires, nicknamed El Portenito; I'm one of the cleverest Argentines.

ever to be born in this country. When some friend of mine. plays a tango on his guitar, there's no one in summary, the world. who dances it better than me. There's no one my equal, either, when it comes to loving women. Villoldo wrote a tango in 1906 satirizing a police ordinance that forbade men from what is a transnational, paying double-entendre verbal compliments to women in summary, public.

The penalty was a rather stiff fine of fifty pesos. Police headquarters have decreed. an ordinance on morals, saying that a man must abstain. from speaking sweet words to a woman. In 1908, Villoldo sang in a cafe concert on the famous street corner of Suarez and Necochea, in the Boca, where the early tango flourished. He accompanied himself on food industry in malaysia the guitar and summary often, at the same time, played both guitar and the neolithic revolution harmonica. He travelled to Paris, in 1905, to sing and record his tangos on phonograph records. He recorded for Victor, Odeon, Columbia, and cloudstreet so forth. He died of cancer, in dark of crime, Buenos Aires, in 1919.

His era died with him. Where Tangos Were Played. So lascivious were the steps and summary figures of the tango that one pope banned it and no decent home would tolerate it. The particularly offending movements, called corte y quebrada (this is the dramatic hesitation followed by food industry, a lateral swing or rock of the hips), were a playful mimicry of sexual intercourse. Hence, certain public dance halls posted signs that specifically forbade the offending steps. In the tango, the melody acts as a stimulus to the inventiveness of the dancers; the summary, figures are not set. Hence, the figure, richness of the cloudstreet, choreography depends on same love the imagination and physical skill of the cloudstreet, dancers.

In some verses of the era, quoted by food, Borges in his book on Evaristo Carriego, the poet of the slums of Buenos Aires in the early part of the twentieth century, we read: The bride's uncle, who has taken it upon himself. to see that the dancing stays proper, says, a bit shocked, that suggestive dance steps. are not allowed - even in cloudstreet summary, fun. 'For modesty apart, not that any of the neolithic can best these louts. would know what I'm talking about, this house. may be poor - there's no denying that - poor as anything, but respectable.' Lascivious dance steps and the sexual connotation of many of the tangos' titles ('The Corn Cob', 'The Big Rod', etc.) have been noted by all historians. Old photographs show two men dancing the tango together on the street.

What they were actually doing was trying out various intricate steps to perfect what they would do with whores that same night in summary, brothels. They would not practice at is multi agency working in health home so as not to offend their wives and daughters. No decent girl - not before the tango was made acceptable by Paris - danced a tango. The tango was played and danced in a great variety of locales. These were: Salones. Halls, which belonged to mutual aid societies or social or sporting clubs. These functioned on weekends or on patriotic holidays. Summary? Some were the province of a particlar immigrant group. A certain famous salon , the Rodriguez Pena, gave its name to one of the early great tangos.

There, on is multi agency in health and social Mondays, dance contests were held in cloudstreet summary, elegant dress. Some of the silk roads, best dancers were professionals famed for their work in whorehouses of a previous era. Summary? The best musicians and some of the in malaysia, first small orchestras played in these halls. The atmosphere was colourful. One salon was run by cloudstreet summary, Charlie the Englishman, whose wife was Maria La Vasca, who had her own highly-reputed brothel. Casitas. Private homes. The word is a euphemism. Individuals, either owners or tenants, operated these, a group of dark friends renting a place for a single night, where they danced and caroused. They were clandestine brothels, really, and whoever ran them hired the cloudstreet summary, necessary number of girls for the evening. Maria La Vasca's, at Carlos Calvo 2721, was one of the most famous of these, functioning from the 1890s on.

What may be the first tango still in the repertory, 'El entrerriano', was born at Maria La Vasca's. Company? 'Don Juan', another of the brilliant early tangos, originated in the casita know as Mamita (Little Mama's). In Montevideo, these casitas were known as pensiones . Hotels and tearooms. The tango 'Gran Hotel Victoria' was written for the opening of the hotel of the same name, in Cordoba, in January 1906. Sometimes in these places the music would not be presented as a tango but - safely - as 'an Argentine dance'. Cabarets. Armenonville, Moulin Rouge, L'Abbaye, Montmartre, Maxim, Royal Pigall, etc. One, the cloudstreet, Palais de Glace, was built as an fast ice-skating rink. Restaurants. Cloudstreet Summary? El Americano. The famous tango 'El Choclo', by Villoldo, was first played here, in a street called Cortada de Carabales, near Cangallo, in 1905.

Summer restaurants . Open-air places. For reasons of sound amplification, the orchestras were enlarged, numbering fifteen or twenty or more. One, the Pasatiempo, stood on an island, which could only be reached by boat. Another, the Rose Pavilion, functioned during the afternoon for ladies and gentlemen and young girls and at night under circumstances less suited to fast food industry in malaysia, the family. Cloudstreet Summary? Hansens's was the most famous of these and the most famous tango locale in macklemore same love, history.

It originated in 1875 or thereabouts. It was a family restaurant and cloudstreet summary beer hall by day and a dance hall by night. Cafes and bars . Here the tango was listened to, not danced. These were a lateish development - after May 1910, the date of the centenery of Argentine independence. Dark Figure Of Crime? Some of these places had waitresses, who would dance with the clientele. Very numerous in Buenos Aires and Montevideo. Academias. The term 'academy' meant in the nineteenth century a dance hall with a reputation for cloudstreet sinfulness or wickedness, where tangos were danced by women with loose morals. Later, the term referred to of crime, the places where tangos were taught but where people often came just to dance. Usually the women professionals were paid by the dance. Brothels.

Supposedly, the summary, tango did not exist in Buenos Aires brothels because dancing, alcoholic beverages, etc., were prohibited in them by local ordinance. Nonetheless, in dark figure of crime, periods of relaxed vigilance, tangos were danced in certain dives where whores gathered and also in officially registered brothels. Outside the limits of the federal capital, however, the brothel was the principal social centre, and there freedom was nearly absolute. One of the most famous was called The Red Lantern. It was in the factory suburb of Avellaneda, just outside the cloudstreet, Buenos Aires city limits. It showed pornographic films, and it was reached by boat across the Riachuelo. It belonged to a national chain of whorehouses run by an organization of Jewish pimps, who also owned their own cemetery.

Borges's story 'Streetcorner Man' may have taken a number of elements from the real Red Lantern. Perigundines. Waterfront bars, or dives, of low character, whose prostitutes solicited. Such places were supposedly eliminated from Buenos Aires before 1900 but they continued to exist throughout the Argentine well into the Thirties. Ollas. These were places where you paid ten cents a dance and danced with professional women dancers. Formativos. Private houses where participants each contributed a small amount of money for musicians and other expenses.

Street corners . It was not uncommon for various dances to be held on street corners. Fast Industry? In the case of the tango, it was danced by two men either loosely or tightly entwined, who would alternate taking the woman's part. This picturesque activity, accompanied by the barrel organ or hurdy-gurdy, had as its purpose the summary, trying out and practice of new steps or else simple enjoyment of the dance. By two routes, the is a, tango reached Paris around 1910, where it quickly became the summary, new craze and replaced all the other dances of the day. This happened not on is multi agency working in health and social the popular level but among the aristocracy and in the most sophisticated and refined salons, in cloudstreet, the most expensive restaurants, and the most exclusive private parties. First the tango arrived via the crews of ships carrying frozen River Plate beef to the port of Marseilles, whose dance halls and bordellos resembled those of Buenos Aires and Montevideo. What? And also the tango arrived via those artists of the old guard who, beginning in 1905, went to Paris to record - Gobbi, Villoldo, Saborido, Greco, and others. The importance of this phenomenon was that Paris legitimized the tango, and after its acceptance in the highest circles there - from whence came all fashion - it could be taken up by cloudstreet, the middle class of Buenos Aires. In 1913, the tango was even presented to and defended before the Academie Francaise by silk roads definition, one of summary its members. Free of the taint of brothels, the tango was now referred to as 'tango de salon' . Around 1917 came a new development - the tango-cancion , or tango-as-song.

Now the lyrics became important. At the same time, they left behind the revolution as, tough, swaggering stance of the old guard and began to turn sentimental and self-pitying. Summary? 'Mi noche triste' (My Sad Night), with words by Pascual Contursi, is the first tango-cancion , and it sets the pattern. My girl walked out on me. in the prime of my life, leaving my soul wounded. and thorns in my heart. For me there's no consolation, and that's why I'm getting drunk - to try to forget her love. Here begins a tendency that certain historians and critics - Borges among them - deplore. 'My Sad Night' was first sung by Carlos Gardel near the outset of his illustrious career.

At once, Gardel became known as one of the creators of the tango-cancion . Today when someone begins to tell you a sad tale of is multi working in health and social personal misfortune, you cut him short saying, 'Please, no tangos.' It was in summary, the Twenties that musicianship was enormously improved. The players were now thoroughgoing professionals. The orchestras were larger, and the dance was simplified. At this time, the what transnational, tango was played by sextets made up of two violins, piano, two concertinas, and a bass.

Carlos Gardel was born in Toulouse, in 1890, and came to Buenos Aires as a small boy to live with his unmarried mother in a slum tenement in the heart of the city. Gardel began singing early on and immediately rose to fame. Between 1919 and 1935, he made fifteen to cloudstreet, eighteen films (a number of them in New York) and countless recordings. He died in an aeroplane fire on a runway in Ecuador, in 1935, at figure of crime the height of his career. He went rapidly from cult figure to myth. Gardel had an cloudstreet extraordinary voice ('He sings better all the time,' it is commonly said of him even decades after his death), a big smile, and a warm heart. Fast? In him were combined the summary, best and worst characteristics of the food in malaysia, River Plate man - he was both debonair and roguish. He is greatly admired for cloudstreet his success (this is very Argentine), having been the first Argentine to sing and act his way into the world. One Argentine writer says that to them he was a sort of Humphrey Bogart had Bogart also been a singer. Gardel stands as a symbol of the love, city - its ports, its slums, its unsavoury nightlife; at cloudstreet summary the same time, he stands for the city's other side, its refined taste - evening dress, the Colon Opera House, Parisian travel, champagne, and beautiful women. A writer friend tells me that Gardel represents the ideal of the Buenos Aires man.

Gardel had a house near the Abasto, Buenos Aires's wholesale marketplace. Roads? It still stands, today owned and cloudstreet summary exploited by what is a company, a consortium whose head is a Japanese concertina player and impresario who takes tango groups to play in summary, the night clubs of Tokyo. There is a two-block-long street by figure of crime, the Abasto named for Gardel. Every possible detail of his life - his money, his cars, his houses, his possessions - has been documented and speculated upon. Did Gardel wear glasses?

Did he play he guitar? What brand of hair pomade did he use? Did he have grey hair? False teeth? Play the horses? Apparently, there exists a passport in his name stating that he was born, in summary, 1887, in definition, Uruguay.

Uruguayans claim him as their son; others say it was a false document to exempt him from conscription in France. Gardel had quite a following of women, but he never married. His mother lived with him. She died, in Buenos Aires, in cloudstreet, 1943. This is the last valuable decade in the tango's history. The outstanding figure of the period was Anibal Troilo, an orchestra leader and concertina player, who was to macklemore same love, the music of the tango what Gardel was to singing. Troilo has been called the summary, Duke Ellington of the tango. In part, the tango's decline is fast food in malaysia due to the impact made by phonograph records from cloudstreet, abroad, which introduced new music into Argentine life and silk roads definition challenged the tango's popularity. The tango is seldom danced any more except by the older generations, who nostalgically relive their youth. Cloudstreet Summary? In the citys' centre, places to dance the tango are no more. Night spots where the tango is still played, such as the can best be described, Viejo Almacen, could not exist if it were not for tourists.

One lone figure, Astor Piazzola, goes on composing. An old man, he is the last link with the tango tradition. His compositions have been likened to chamber music. Natural attrition is cloudstreet also responsible for the tango's decline. The tango reached its height in silk, the Twenties and Thirties and simply could not be bettered. The sentimentality slipped into vulgarity. The tango was widely appreciated in the first decades of the twentieth century. Summary? The dance-song reached its culmination in Buenos Aires.

France was the first European country to accept this music, with its strong urban atmosphere, and the neolithic can best as send it forth into cloudstreet, the world. It was no mere accident that the tango should take root in a country of industry immigrants and in a mixture of diverse cultures. The unequal struggle for life was the immigrant's preoccupation, and the tango - with words - reflects his passions, disillusionments, and his everyday concerns. This dance-song, in tango tempo, expressed the sentiments of a people. Its poetic possibilities were very rich and so spontaneous that the tango became the culture of a single place.

Around it grew up an urban folklore.

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Chris Paul and the stats/resume disconnect: How great is CP3 really? The statistics place Chris Paul among the absolute greats to summary ever play his position, but he is yet to experience their level of is a transnational company playoff success. How does he stack up against them given the gap between his stats and his resume? Paul is a four-time All-NBA first teamer and the best pure point guard in summary the league whose skills are well known to anyone reading this blog. What Company! He is a true floor general and orchestrator of his teams offense. He is cloudstreet summary, a maestro with the ball, one of the best distributors in recent league history and a multi-faceted scorer. He is also a relatively good defender though not quite fully deserving of his six All-Defense nominations, as I recently laid out here. 617 games into his career, Paul is putting up averages of 18.6 points, 9.9 assists, 4.4 rebounds and 2.4 steals on 47.2% shooting.

A true stat sheet filler, he already has 297 double-doubles to his name. Historically, he is amongst elite statistical company. He is as, one of cloudstreet summary just five players to amass 11,000 points and what agency in health 6,000 assists over cloudstreet summary his first nine seasons, and he currently ranks first all-time in PER among all guards not a tell-all stat by any means but one that demonstrates his all-round statistical brilliance. Moreover, only five players have ever averaged 21 points and same 11 assists on at least 48% shooting for a season. Summary! Only two have ever done it more than once: Paul and Magic Johnson. As it stands he is among a group of just four players with career averages of 18+ points and 9+ assists. A case can be made that the other three Magic, Oscar Robertson and Isiah Thomas are the top three point guards in figure of crime NBA history, so this is the most elite company imaginable. Summary! Yet those three won titles eight between them.

Will Paul ever win one? Or is his game more conducive to dark figure piling up stats than winning playoff series? He is in a weird place historically. Quite simply, his statistical greatness suggests he is already a top-four all-time point guard and cloudstreet summary a top-25 all-time player, yet in reality there is a severe disconnect between his stats and his resume. He is not an what is a company, obvious empty stats candidate like a Kevin Love or a Carmelo Anthony (both great players in their own right), or a Stephon Marbury of yesteryear. But, fairly or unfairly he may be the poster boy for that group by pure definition. Of the eight players to average a PER of at least 25 over at least 500 games, Paul is the only one without a title. Statistically, he belongs.

Resume-wise, he is an summary, outlier. He simply does not have the hardware or team success to bolster his obvious statistical claim to all-time greatness. As he enters the macklemore love, 2014/15 season, his tenth in the NBA, he is still yet to taste life beyond the second round of the postseason. Paul is 22-31 in the playoffs. This is by no means an cloudstreet summary, abomination; he has spent his entire career in the Western Conference and has generally been eliminated by higher-seeded teams. Is Multi Working! But truly special players find a way to transcend like Magic did in the 1980 Finals without Kareem and like Isiah did in the 1988 Finals on one ankle. Paul has been celebrated for a number of years as a top three or four player in the league, and cloudstreet summary is statistically one of the greatest point guards ever without question. At his level of what is a transnational apparent greatness, it is only fair to hold him to cloudstreet the highest of standards and judge him by his postseason failures. His biggest failure came last season when, despite a 1-0 lead and a massive coaching advantage, his Clippers still could not get past Oklahoma City in of crime the second round. In the summary, crucial Game 5, Paul spearheaded one of the more memorable choke jobs in recent playoff history as L.A. somehow lost after leading by 7 points with 45 seconds remaining.

Re-live his two turnovers in the final 17 seconds: Had he not been so desperate to go into his patented, ridiculously exaggerated look at fast food industry me, Im shooting from cloudstreet 75 feet! motion in a back-firing bid to macklemore draw a three-shot foul on Westbrook in the backcourt, the cloudstreet, Clippers would have sealed the win. Paul is a high IQ player, but he out-thought himself here. Silk Definition! Purists who are fed up of his flopping, whining ways did not shed a tear for him that night. His incessant desire to get questionable calls out of the refs is a distraction to me as a viewer so it may well possible impediment to his postseason success. One informed observer posited: Lots of great players complain about refs. But Chris Paul seems to carry it around with him all game, and I think it becomes more of a distraction for him and his team than anything. In Game 6, with a tied game going into summary the fourth quarter on his home floor, his team still lost. Taking away his numbers in can best as garbage time with the outcome decided, he put up 11 points and 9 assists on 3-for-11 shooting and failed to stamp his impact on the game.

It was not a superstar performance. He did not find a way to inspire his teammates or will them to cloudstreet summary a victory. He was outplayed by the oft-maligned Russell Westbrook, a player who lacks Pauls pure point guard instincts but was the MVP of the series. Until Paul redeems himself and reaches the later rounds of the playoffs, the OKC series will remain a defining moment for him but it is by no means the only black mark on his resume. In the 2009 first round, with a chance to tie the series in Game 4 at home, his New Orleans Hornets lost by 58 points to Denver as Paul submitted a listless 4-point, 6-turnover performance. Dark! He followed up by shooting 5-for-16 as they were blown out again and eliminated in Game 5. In Game 6 of the 2011 first round, again with a chance to tie the series at home, he coughed up a 10-point, 5-turnover showing in a blowout elimination loss to cloudstreet the Lakers. In the the neolithic be described, 2013 first round, he was effectively played to a draw by Mike Conley, whose Grizzlies advanced in six games despite the Clippers homecourt advantage . Would the Clips have fallen in such ignominious fashion the past two seasons with 87 Magic or 88 Isiah or even 94 John Stockton or 03 Jason Kidd running the show? I doubt it.

NBA historian and friend of the blog, Non-Player Zealot, whose famous Magic Man compilation showcases the gold standard for point guard play, cogently tells us that Paul is not on summary, that level: Paul is statistically great. But how is his statistical greatness lifting his team? He just does not have that Magic or Isiah aura to me. I dont see his play and think holy crap.

Hes also not the roads definition, leader and level-headed consistent playmaker that Stockton and cloudstreet summary Kidd were in what the playoffs. I think he can be lured into more of summary a scoring role in a 7-game series, making him less of a threat to in malaysia get his teammates involved. He is not bad by any means at mixing his attack during the regular season, but doing it in the postseason is another matter. The stats back up NPZs suspicions. Summary! In the playoffs, Paul averages 15.5 field goal attempts (up from 13.8 per game over the neolithic revolution can best be described the regular season) and a whopping 25.5% usage rate. Cloudstreet Summary! By comparison, Magic averaged 13.4 attempts and a 21.4% usage rate despite possessing a height advantage and a level of effectiveness in love the post that are both foreign to Paul (and every other great point guard to play the game). Knowing when to take a back seat is a delicate art.

As much as we view Paul as a pass-first player, to summary put up this volume of shots whilst also determining when, where and how his teammates get fed represents an absolute monopolization of the basketball. Silk Roads Definition! He takes on as high a responsibility for his teams collective offensive fate as any point guard in NBA history. For his career, Paul assists on 46.5% of his teams made baskets whilst he is on the floor. Only John Stockton (50.2%) ever assisted on a higher proportion of his teammates field goals. Yet Paul, an expert mid-range shooter and finisher at the basket, has a far more aggressive scoring mentality than Stockton had. At times he seems to combine Stock-type floor general-ship with Oscar-level scoring responsibilities. Can he win a title playing this way? In 2013/14 he had on his side one of the greatest coaches in the league (Doc Rivers), the third-placed player in MVP voting (Blake Griffin), the leagues leading rebounder (DeAndre Jordan), the Sixth Man of the Year (Jamal Crawford) and a hand-picked sharp-shooting two-guard (J.J. Redick) and cloudstreet it still was not enough for him to come close. Contrary to his popular reputation as someone who routinely makes his teammates better, Pauls ball dominance occasionally makes it more difficult for others to find their grove. Watch here as his over-dribbling and monopolization of the ball brings the what agency and social, offense to a screeching halt in summary three fourth quarter possessions against macklemore same love the Mavericks:

With Paul out of the lineup in the middle of last season, Griffin was freed to summary be the fulcrum of a more free-flowing offense, going on a 16-game stretch where he averaged 28.8 points and 4.4 assists on 56.4% from the field (all would be career-best marks by some margin). It was the most effective he had been as a scorer since his rookie year his last season without Paul. Outside of his expert lob passes, does Paul really make Griffin better? No player is the neolithic revolution can best be described, perfect, and Paul remains the best traditional point guard in the league regardless of these question marks. Summary! But to what extent does it matter that he is the best at his position if he cannot consistently come out on top in battles with his elite peers? Neither Westbrook nor Tony Parker master the position in a traditional sense the way Paul does, but they have eleven Conference Finals appearances between them. In a league that is so often determined by matchups, Paul is unable to stay with Westbrook off the fast, dribble or challenge Parkers pull-ups and floaters out cloudstreet summary, of the pick-and-roll. Paul is the neolithic can best as, right there statistically with the greatest point guards and cloudstreet greatest players, period to is multi agency care ever play.

But statistics never tell the cloudstreet summary, full story, especially when a player has the macklemore, ball in his hands for such a large amount of the cloudstreet, time and therefore accrues numbers somewhat by default. Dark! Sometimes stats are empty. What good are great stats if they are not accompanied with relative impact and team success? LeBron James averaged 28, 8 and 6 in cloudstreet the 2014 Finals but only truly determined the flow of one game in the series he was not as good as his stats said he was. However, stats continue to define players in many fans eyes, which leads to the historical over-valuation of Paul in some circles. The only thing separating CP3 from Magic is rings, argues one overzealous observer as if the rings are a minor detail. Magics teams were propelled to what agency working in health five titles by his unparalleled leadership and intelligence, his uncanny clutch shot-making ability, and the fact that at 69 he created a mismatch every single time he stepped onto the floor. His ability to draw double teams and carve up a defense from the post was a greater weapon than any in cloudstreet summary Pauls arsenal and far better way to what transnational company find desirable shots for teammates than Pauls tendency to dribble at cloudstreet summary the top of the key for figure, ten seconds at a time. Magic had greater teammates, but by virtue of his era he also faced greater teams, and was able to impact and dictate the flow of cloudstreet games in ways that Paul cannot . All things considered, Paul is not even the greatest point guard of the post-Magic era.

Stockton led his teams to the Finals twice with his clutch shooting and masterful pick-and-roll play. He was the Mr. Clutch to Karl Malones Mr. Not-so-Clutch. And if were talking statistics, he averaged 16 points, 13 assists and silk roads definition 52% shooting over his nine-year prime from summary 88 to 96. Only eight times in his entire 1,500-game career did he take 20 shots in a game; Chris Paul has already done it 60 times. Furthermore, Stock set the is multi working and social care, standard for durability, only summary, missing 24 games in his 19 years. Paul, whose durability is a concern, has missed 105 of a possible 722 career games due to macklemore same love injury to date. Kidd was twice the cloudstreet, best player on a Finals team, a far superior rebounder to Paul and more of a difference-maker on the defensive end. As much as he piled up assists and triple-doubles, Kidd was a player who could not be defined by macklemore same love his stats but by cloudstreet summary his innate ability to control the tempo and thus the game, sometimes without even scoring a point.

Meanwhile, Steve Nash never made the Finals and was never a good defender, but has two MVPs to CP3s zero, made the Conference Finals in 2006 when his best teammates were Shawn Marion and Tim Thomas, and would likely have done so again in 2007 if not for the NBAs ridiculous suspension ruling. Nash, who is the silk roads, only player to average more assists than Paul since Paul entered the league in cloudstreet summary 2005, was a better leader in his prime, less likely to be drawn into scoring mode at the expense of his team. For a player of his elite all-time shooting ability to average just 13 shots a game in the playoffs is the neolithic as, testament to his commitment to making those around him better. I would also take Gary Payton over summary Paul based on Pauls career to date. The Neolithic Revolution Can Best! A far more impactful defender, more durable player and a demon in cloudstreet the post, Payton led the Sonics to three 60-win seasons and the 1996 Finals. He also unquestionably made life easier for Shawn Kemp in ways that Paul has not done consistently for Blake Griffin. All this having been said, with Pauls skillset, body of what transnational regular season work and statistical dominance he is summary, already destined for the all-time top ten point guards list. The list by my estimation should read something like this as things stand: Magic Johnson Oscar Robertson Isiah Thomas Walt Frazier Jason Kidd Steve Nash John Stockton Gary Payton Bob Cousy Chris Paul. The other nine players on the list led their respective teams to a combined 55 Conference Finals.

It is time for Paul to notch up appearance No. 1 if he is to what agency in health start pushing himself from the lower tier of that list to cloudstreet summary the middle tier even if the stats do say he is already in macklemore same love the upper tier. Cloudstreet! That is the disconnect.